Vol. 1 & Issue 2 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2011

 

A Review on Pharmacological Studies of Bacopa monniera

Srinivasa Rao Bammidi , Sharan Suresh Volluri , Seema Chaitanya Chippada , Sumanjali Avanigadda , Meena Vangalapati 

  • Abstract

    Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell (family: Scrophulariaceae) is a reputed drug of Ayurveda. It is used in traditional medicine to treat various nervous disorders; it is also used as a stomachic, a digestive, rejuvenate, for promoting memory and intellect, for skin disorders, and as an antiepileptic, antipyretic, and analgesic. This medicinal plant is locally known as Brahmi. The name Brahmi is derived from the word ‘Brama’ the mythical “creator” in the Hindu pantheon. Based on the traditional claims on B. monnieri as a memory enhancer, many classical and proprietary preparations are now available on the market. In the last two decades, B. monnieri has been studied extensively for its chemical constituents, its efficacy has been established in several in vivo and in vitro models, and randomized clinical trials have also been carried out. This article reviews the work carried out on the chemical, pharmacological aspects of this plant.

Antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Centella asiatica extracts

Seema Chaitanya Chippada and Meena Vangalapati 

  • Abstract

    Centella asiatica is a valuable medicinal herbaceous aromatic creeper which has been valued for centuries in ayurvedic medicine. Phytochemical analysis of Centella asiatica plant extracts revealed the presence of various biochemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids and saponins etc. Since phenolic compounds, triterpenoids and flavonoids have remarkable anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and antioxidant activites, so our present work aims at evaluating the in vitro anti inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Centella asiatica by three in vitro models such as reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging, DPPH assays. The inhibition of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken as a measure of the anti inflammatory activity. Protein denaturation, membrane stabilisation and protein inhibitory action were taken as a measure of the in vitro anti-arthritic activity. The total phenolic content was found out to be 33.56 ± 1.56 mg/gm GAE. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and Nitric oxide scavenging activities was concentration dependant with IC50 value being 96.15 ± 1.23 μg/ml, 261.43 ± 0.92 μg/ml and 106.32 ± 2.19 μg/ml respectively. The maximum membrane stabilization of C. asiatica extracts was found to be 94.97 % at a dose of 2000 μg/ml. The maximum percentage inhibiton of protein denaturation, membrane stabilisation and proteinaseinhibitory action for C. asiatica extracts ware found to be 89.76 %, 94.97 % and 91.63% respectively at a dose of 2000 μg/ml. The results show that the extracts of Centella asiatica exhibited Antioxidant activity, Anti-arthritic activity and anti-inflammatory activities.

Seasonal Fluctuation of Plankton Population Correlated with Physico-Chemical Factors in Backwards of Jaikwadi Dam (Kaigaon)

Vidya Pradhan  and J.D. Shaikh

  • Abstract

    Limnological survey of Kaigaon was undertaken from May 2006 to December 2008, with a view to investigate the various changes in its hydrogical features during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. Seasons and co-related the same with the plankton biodiversity. The physic-chemical parameters such as water temperature, D.O., Total Alkalinity, Chlorides, pH, Free Carbon-dioxide were studied.

Fluoride contaminated ground water and its implications on human health in Deoli Tehsil (Tonk District) in Rajasthan

K.S. Meena, R.K. Gunsaria  Kanta Meena, N. Kumar , P.L.Meena and R.R. Meena

  • Abstract

    There is a severe fluoride problem is Deoli Tehsil of Tonk district. Populace are suffering from dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. So that physico-chemical study of 130 villages was done. The ground water samples collected in clean polyethylene bottles were analyzed for different parameters such as pH, total alkalinity (TH), fluoride (F-), nitrate (NO3 -) , total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride (Cl-), total hardness(TH), electrical conductivity(EC), Ca-H, Mg- H, CO3-2, HCO3 - Na+, K+ by using standard techniques. Results showed that fluoride was found even up to the alarming limit of 9.60 ppm. Minimum (0.30ppm) and maximum (9.60ppm) concentration of Fluoride was observed from Akodiya and Jalseena villages respectively.

A Validated reverse phase HPLC method for simultaneous determination of telmisartan and ramipril as bulk drug and in tablet dosage form

Santosh V. Gandhi, Padmanabh B. Deshpande, Varun Godbole, Pankaj Jagdale, Sachin Khiste, Sayali Kadukar

  • Abstract

    A simple, accurate and sensitive validated Reverse Phase HPLC method for simultaneous determination of two-component drug mixture of Telmisartan and Ramipril in combined tablet dosage form has been developed and validated. RP-HPLC separation of drugs was carried out on Jasco HPLC system with HiQ-SiL C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.), using Acetonitrile: 0.01 M 1- Heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt (pH 2.8) i(60: 40, v/v) as mobile phase. Method was developed using phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride as internal standard and detection was carried out using UV detector at 216 nm. Telmisartan and Ramipril obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/mL and 2.5-12.5 μg/mL, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical formulation. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies

Preparation and evaluation of Aceclofenac ophthalmic in-situ gels

K. Ravindra Reddy, M. Ravi Shankar Yadav and P.Sabitha Reddy.

  • Abstract

    In‐situ gelling systems are viscous polymer‐based liquids that exhibit sol‐to‐gel phase transition on the ocular surface due to change in a specific physico‐chemical parameter like temperature, ionic strength, or pH. A major problem in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of optimal drug concentration at the site of action, which is compromised mainly due to pre‐corneal loss resulting in only a small fraction of the drug being ocularly absorbed. The effective dose administered can be altered by increasing the retention time of medication into the eye by using in situ gel forming systems, thereby preventing the tear drainage. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an anti‐inflammatory drug aceclofenac, based on the concept of pH triggered in situ gelation. In vitro release studies indicated among the all formulations, F4 shows better drug release when contacted with STF solution at 8 hrs study period. It shows antimicrobial, antibacterial and antifungal efficacy with selected microorganisms. These results demonstrate that the developed system is an alternative to conventional ophthalmic drops, patient compliance, industrially oriented and economical.

In vitro anti-cancer activities of few antihypertensive agents against carcinoma of scalp by MTT assay

G. Swarna Latha, S.Bhavani Charan Prasad, C.S.V. Ramachandra Rao

  • Abstract

    Cancer disease arises from mutations and other aberrations of gene regulation and the expressed genes encode various growth factors, growth factor receptors and nuclear proteins which have a central role in the control of cellular proliferation. Though various drugs are available in the market, a therapeutic search for novel, potent anti‐cancer agents is under process to combat the dreadful disease. In this study we report the anticancer properties of few anti‐hypertensive drugs (Atenolol, Lisinopril, Nefedipine, Aldactone and Propranolol) tested against scalps cancer cells in vitro by MTT assay. A gradual decrease in the viability of scalp cells was observed in a dosedependent manner for all the drugs used in the study. Nefedipine at a tested dose of 256 μg/ML exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of 40.43%.

Design, synthesis, characterization and screening of thiophene derivatives for anti-inflammatory activity

A. Jerad Suresha, K. Anitha and D. Vinod

  • Abstract

    A promising heterocyclic nucleus (Thiophene) which was prominently proved of exhibiting different biological activities had been used to prepare a database which was then docked against CYCLO OXYGENASE-2 for anti- inflammatory activity by using Glide software (Maestro 9.1).Extra precision (XP) scoring function was utilised to rank order the compounds. The different derivatives of thiophene were docked to the specific protein target site. The best compounds with top scores were filtered. The top three compounds were synthesized, recrystallised and purity was conformed by TLC. The characterization was carried out by UV, IR, NMR and MASS Spectroscopy. All synthesized compounds were screened for anti -inflammatory activity by invitro Membrane stabilising method. The recorded values showed significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with standard Diclofenac sodium. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated by acute toxicity study.

Optimization Studies on Biosynthesis of Succinic  acid Production

S.Raja and R.Dhanasekar

  • Abstract

    In this study, two bacteria’s are found to give better results for the production of succinic acid from the isolated colonies. The experiment was carried out at different pH, Temperature and dextrose concentration. The fermentation process was carried out under CO2 atmosphere with N2 gas. The effect of pH, temperature and initial dextrose concentration were studied. The optimum fermentation conditions were found to be dextrose 7.5g/L, initial pH‐7.0 and temperature 37°C. At these optimized fermentation condition, the maximum succinic acid production were found to be 12.6 g/L and 7.6 g/L. From the results, it can be concluded that Strain 1 and Strain 2 may therefore be considered as a cost effective strain to produce Succinic acid.

Role of invertase enzyme in ripening of honey of indigenous hive honeybee apis cerana indica

M.V.Balasubramanyam

  • Abstract

    Enzymes form integral part and play decisive role in biological metabolism and systems. The present study emphasized on biochemical aspects of honey ripening in hive honeybee Apis cerana indica. Five stages of conversion of nectar to honey include floral nectar (fn), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh). The levels of sucrose in the fn and sh cells was 19.01%, and 2.40 % respectively, while invertase content in fn and sh cells was 0.00% and 42.40 ml respectively. Results have clearly exemplify that invertase enzyme secreted by honeybee glands plays an instrumental role in formation of viscous honey from dilute floral nectar. The analysis of variance of invertase activity was not significant at P<0.01% levels and sucrose content was significant at P<0.01% during different stages of honey ripening.

Factors Affecting Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Tomato Plants cultured in Vitro Conditions

Srinivasulu Morla, C. S. V. Ramachandra Rao, R. Chakrapani

  • Abstract

    The effect of two sterilization substances (Mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite) on the germination rate, and Multiwall carbon nanotubes on both seed germination and seedling growth, was studied in tomato plant (lycopersicum esculantum var.Arka Vikas). Surface sterilization of mature seeds using 4% sodium hypochlorite (Naocl) stimulated the germination rate; although0.1% mercuric chloride (HgCl2) completely inhibits the tomato seed germination. Multi walled Carbon nanotubes shows the positive effect on the tomato seed germination andm plant growth when compared to the normal medium, the maximum germination rate and seedling growth was observed at 40 μg/ml concentration of carbon nanotubes.

Synthesis of Novel Functionalized Chalcones and their In-vitro Antimalarial Evaluation

Kunwarvir Singh, Manisha, Mamta Likhawat and Lal Singh

  • Abstract

    Two series of novel chalcones have been synthesized and evaluated for their in-vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (NF-54). Of the 14 compounds synthesized, 5 compounds viz, 4f, 5b, 5e, 5f and 5g were found to be most potentand shown IC50 values in the range 2-9 μg/mL.

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