Vol. 2 & Issue 2 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Feb. to Apr.2012

 

QSAR Study of Thiobenzamides using Topological Descriptors

P. P. Singh, U. P. Singh and Dhruv Chandra Shukla

  • Abstract

    MLR analysis of the four sets of thiobenzamides for the prediction of activity of the derivatives of thiobenzamides against MIC with M. Avium, M. Tuberculosis, M. fortuitum and M. kansasii have been done using the topological descriptors viz. shape index (basic kappa, order 1), shape index (basic kappa, order 2), shape index (basic kappa, order 3), connectivity index (order 0, standard), valence connectivity index (order 0, standard), solvent accessibility surface area, molar refractivity and Log p. Maximum number of descriptors used in MLR analysis is 4 and total number of MLR analysis done for each set is 160. Best QSAR models developed for the four sets have the value of regression coefficient greater than 0.7 indicating the reliability of the model

Metal species vis-à-vis seed germination and early seedling growth responses in soybean

N.C. Aery and Sunanda Sarkar

  • Abstract

    The effect of various doses of different zinc and cadmium species was studied on the seed germination behavior and early seedling growth of soybean. 100% germination could not be achieved at higher concentrations of both the metals. Different metal species affected the seed germination and seedling growth differently. The reasons for this differential behavior have been explored

Anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Cnidoscolous aconitifolius leave in laboratory rodent

Akinloye Olanrewaju Oyekunle and Aderayo Opeyemi Idowu

  • Abstract

    The increase in contraindications of most non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs has prompted the search for natural products with anti‐inflammatory potentials, available and affordable. Antiinflammatory potentials of Methanolic Extract of Cnidoscolous Aconitifolius (MECA) following acute and chronic administration in laboratory rodents were investigated In both experimental procedures, the results showed a significant (p<0.05) inhibition of paw edema as well as granuloma development by both doses of the extract and positive control (Aspirin) when compared with the control.

Computation and modeling of the flux of gamma globulin molecules onto titanium surface

P. A. Ekwumemgbo, J. A. Kagbu, A. J. Nok and K. I. Omoniyi

  • Abstract

    Titanium (Ti) is widely employed for various biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility. Studies of γ-globulin adsorption onto Ti are important for the development of biocompatible devices. This work examines the rate of adsorption of γ-globulin onto Ti surface. The plot of γ- globulin adsorption onto Ti versus time shows that the initial γ-globulin adsorption increased linearly with time with the rate constant obtained 0.032min-1 while the correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.9999. The experimental adsorption rate is limited by the availability of γ-globulin molecules at the adsorbing surface, resulting in a situation in which, most γ-globulin molecule that collides with the surface sticks to it. In order to predict the factors that determine the rate of adsorption, the flux of γ-globulin molecules onto Ti surface was computed by developing a model similar to implantation of Ti into the body for the transport-limited of γ-globulin adsorption onto Ti from flowing γ-globulin solution. It was deduced that the rate of this adsorption is determined by the wall shear rate, the diffusivity of γ-globulin and the bulk amount of γ-globulin solution. An adsorption model was developed in order to seek the factors that determine the intrinsic (qualitative) adsorption and desorption rate constants. The experimental adsorption data was likened to a simple γ-globulin adsorption model, which comprises of adsorption and desorption processes. The model incorporated the rate of diffusion through the boundary (unstirred) layer of constant thickness by solving for the Fick's law. It was deduced that the intrinsic adsorption and desorption rate constants of γ- globulin onto Ti surface.

In-vitro Antimalarial Evaluation of Novel Functionalized Chalcones

Kunwarvir Singh, Amit Sahu, Manisha and Lal Singh

  • Abstract

    Novel chalcones have been synthesized by conventional method. They were evaluated for their invitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (NF-54). Of the 14 compounds synthesized, 3 compounds viz, 6f, 6g and 7g were found to be most potent and shown IC50 values in the range 2-9 μg/mL.

Studies on protein profile of some medicinally important species of Apocyanaceae family using SDS-PAGE

A. John De Britto, P. Benjamin Jeya Rathna Kuma and D.Herin Sheeba Gracelin

  • Abstract

    Present study was undertaken to analyze the protein profiles of some medicinally important species of Apocyanaceae family using SDS‐PAGE. Total leaf proteins were extracted and separated on 10% polycrylamide gels using standard protocols. Protein fragments of various molecular weights were separated in all selected species. The molecular weight of the protein bands were calculated using standard curve method. Protein bands were scored for similarity index studies. The dendrogram was constructed based on this similarity index table using NTSYS‐ PC software.

Protective Effect of Curcumin on Cadmium Chloride Induced Epididymal Toxicity in Swiss Mice (Mus musculus)

Preeti Singh, Kanchan Deora, Habiba Bano,Priya Mogra Sudha Javeria and Sushil Barolia

  • Abstract

    The monitoring of infertility and its control has become a worldwide issue of apprehension in order to retain fit population. Cadmium, a viable environmental toxicant hinders reproductive functioning which adversely influence the number of spermatozoa and complete organization of connective tissue in the epididymis, where as curcumin is known to be a strong protective herbal remedy which renders protection against numerous toxicants. Hence, in the present research work an effort has been made to evaluate the protective effect of curcumin (10mg/kg/day , for 15 days) prior treatment against a dose of 50mg/kg/animal/day for a day of cadmium chloride induced perturbations in the epididymis. Our results strongly suggest that cadmium intoxication leads to several histopathological alterations in the epididymis of adult male mice that are alleviated by the administration of curcumin.

Chemical characteristics of raw, processed and stored honey of indigenous giant bee apis dorsata F.and hive bee apis cerana indica

Balasubramanyam, M.V.1, Ramesha Iyyanahalli  and Jayaram, K.M.

  • Abstract

    Multifloral honey of indigenous giant honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected in and around Bangalore rural and urban districts and its chemical characteristics of total reducing sugars (TRS), non-reducing sugars (NRS), ash, acidity and pH in raw, processed and stored honey were determined during February 2011 to March 2012. The TRS of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 73.01% and 72.45% while NRS of processed honey of A. ceranamand A.dorsata was 4.15% and 4.32% respectively. The ash content of A. dorsata and A.cerana storedmhoney was 1.53% and 1.47%, while acidity of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 0.471 and 0.452 respectively. Similarly, pH of A. dorsata and A.cerana processed honey was 4.12 and 3.92 respectively. The TRS, NRS and pH of raw honey was more than that of stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana. The ash and acidity of raw honey was less in stored honey than raw honey of both wild and apiary honeybee species. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of TRS and ash content of raw, processed and stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana was significant at p<0.01% levels while NRS, acidity and pH of raw, processed and stored was not significant at p<0.01%. All the five chemical characteristics tested in three grades of honey samples from wild and apiary honeybee species displayed quantitative fluctuations which are discussed in ensuing paper

Screening, isolation and identification of extracellular lipase producing bacteria from oil mill waste

Kalyana Chakravarthy Bonala, Lakshmi Narasu Mangamoori

  • Abstract

    Lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from soil by employing enrichment culture techniques. Medium containing trybutryin agar was employed for isolation studies. Based on the radius of lypolytic halo, one strain which has shown maximum lipase activity was coded as K7 and was selected for further studies. The morphological, physiological and cultural characteristics of K7 were determined according to Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 16S rRNA analysis of the culture K7 also was carried out for phylogenetic analysis.

Effect of sulphur dioxide exposure on total red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration of albino rat

Sanjeev Kumar Nigam and Kavita Sharma

  • Abstract

    Total red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin concentration of albino rats, Rattusnorvegicus (Berkenhout) were studied after exposure to 30ppm and 60ppm sulphur dioxide gas to 10 and 20 days for 1 hour per day. A significant decrease in total RBC count has been reported, while very highly significant decrease in the haemoglobin concentration was observed in albino rats after exposure to 30ppm and 60ppm sulphur dioxide gas.

Fungal diseases of some Ethnobotanical plants from Gautala Sanctuary Kannad, Maharashtra, India

S.M.Pawar and K.V.Badar

  • Abstract

    An attempt has been made to highlight the rich fungal diversity of Gautala sanctuary of Kannad region, Dist.Aurangabad (M.S.), In present study twenty one ethnobotanical plants were found to be infected by fourteen fungal genera. Out of fourteen fungal genera isolated from infected hosts, eleven belongs to Deuteromycetes, seven to Ascomycetes and only four to Basidiomycets

Relationship of soil chemical composition with the nutritive values of barley grain of Rajasthan and Haryana

R. K. Singh and Rajendra Prasad Sharma

  • Abstract

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is widely known for their nutritional values. The main approach of the research work is to study their agronomical characteristics present in the different barley grains collected from different parts of the Rajasthan and Haryana province. The analysis of macro and micro-nutrients present in the barley grain shows the presence of the high concentration of Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) (942.028 ppm and 5286.667 ppm respectively) with respect to soil Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) (261.50 ppm and 2360.00 ppm respectively) collected separately from Rajasthan and Haryana, whereas concentration of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe) are lesser (624.139 ppm, 1141.421 ppm, and 1287.686 ppm respectively) with respect to soil (2267.00 ppm, 4383.00 ppm and 15678.00 ppm respectively).These results were analyzed at Arbro Pharmaceuticals Limited; Delhi using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Atomic absorption spectrometer-hydride generation (AAS-HG) by Fare lab, Gurgaon, Haryana, India .The results may be useful in the food nutritional chemistry for animal feed, human consumption and for Agro industry

Antdiabetic activity of bambusa arundinaceae stem extracts on alloxan induced diabetic rats

Sravan Prasad Macharla, Venkateshwarlu Goli, D.Santhosha and Ravinder Nath.A

  • Abstract

    Aqueous ethanolic solvent extracts of Bambusa Arundinaceae stem (Bambsaceae) were tested for anti-diabetic activity using alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with standard. The results expressed that aqueous ethanolic extracts had shown significant protection and maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results of this comprehensive study reveal that Bambusa arundinaceaes s tem shown statistically significant Anti-Diabetic activity in comparison to the standard glibenclamide.

Solid-State Fermentation and Characterization of Amylase from a Thermophilic Aspergillus niger Isolated from Municipal Compost Soil

Swati Kumari, Sourav Bhattacharya and Arijit Das

  • Abstract

    Screening of the six compost fungi for their ability to produce amylase using solid-state fermentation (SSF) revealed that Aspergillus niger was the best amylase producer. Among the several agronomic wastes, the highest yield of amylase from A. niger was obtained with rice bran. Soluble starch and peptone (1% w/w) when used as carbon and nitrogen supplements, respectively, enhanced the enzyme production. The optimum pH, temperature and incubation period for amylase production by the isolate were found to be 6.0, 30°C and 120 h, respectively. The apparent molecular weight of the enzyme following sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was found to be 55 kDa. The partially purified enzyme was optimally active at 70°C and pH 5.0 and 9.0. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the A. niger isolated from the compost pile may act as a potent source for the industrial production of amylase. The enzyme being stable at elevated temperatures and under both acidic and alkaline pH can meet the requirements of food, beverage and detergent industries where often extremes of pH and temperatures are involved

Microbial Consortium Treatment to Distillery Spent Wash and Press Mud Cake through Pit and Windrow System of Composting

Shrikumar V. Mahamuni and Ashok S. Patil

  • Abstract

    Experiment on disposal of spent wash (Vinasse) by composting with press mud cake (PMC) through microbial consortium treatment by pit and windrow system was conducted at Dnyaneshwar Sahkari Sakhar Karkhana (S.S.K.), Bhende, district Ahamednagar of Maharashtra, India. The compost prepared by windrow and pit methods from PMC and spent wash using microbial culture within 45 days ranged C: N ratio from 10.19:1 to 13.88:1 and 14.32:1 to 22.34:1, respectively. This indicated the effectiveness of microbial decomposing culture on production of good quality compost in a short period of time. Both the methods gave the higher nutritive manurial values after completion of process of composting. The compost obtained in various treatments by windrow method contained 1.52-3.7 % N, 0.9-3.54 % P2O5, 1.95-3.45 % K2O, and had pH range from 7.02-7.82. Similarly the compost obtainedmin various treatments by pit method contained 1.34-2.85 % N, 0.30-0.72 % P2O5, 2.20-4.72 % K2O, and had pH range from 7.40-8.16. Microbial consortium used in the present investigation included phosphate solubilizing fungi and Burkholderia species isolated from the sugarcane and sugar beet rhizosphere. Due to microbial process and aeration, both BOD and COD values were reduced substantially. Microbial population was higher in compost from windrow system as compared to in compost from pit method. On the basis of result obtained, it was concluded that windrow system of composting was better than pit method. Effluent utilization which poses environmental problem can be safely and effectively solved by this technology through microbial consortium treatment.

Topical Gel: A Novel approach for drug delivery

Sudhir Bharadwaj , G.D.Gupta and V.K.Sharma

  • Abstract

    Topical drug administration is a localized drug delivery system anywhere in the body through ophthalmic, rectal, vaginal and skin as topical routes. Skin is one of the most readily accessible organs on human body for topical administration and is main route of topical drug delivery system. This review is concern with all detail information regarding rational approach to topical formulations, principles of topical permeation and basic components of topical drug delivery systems. Overall, the clinical evidence indicates that topical gel is a safe and effective treatment option for use in the management of skin related diseases

Phosphate Solubilizing Activity of a Mangrove Isolate of Streptomyces badius from Muthupettai Mangrove, Tamil Nadu, India

Shilpi Bhardwaj, Sourav Bhattacharya and Arijit Das

  • Abstract

    Due to the formation of complexes with cations, availability of soluble phosphorus to microbes and plants are limited in the mangrove ecosystems. In order to isolate potent phosphate-solubilizing actinomycetes, sediment samples were collected from three locations of the Muthupettai mangrove, Tamil Nadu, India and checked for the ability of the isolates to solubilize the insoluble tribasic calcium phosphate supplemented in Kuster’s agar medium. Of the total 9 phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes isolated, isolate MTZ-3 demonstrated highest phosphate solubilizing activity in the form of clear zone around the colonies and was selected for further studies. Different pH, temperatures and incubation period were studied to optimize the highest phosphate solubilization by the isolate. After 10 days of incubation at 28°C and pH 8, MTZ-3 significantly reduced the insoluble phosphate supplemented in the Kuster’s broth and also demonstrated the highest phosphatase activity (1.14μg phenol/g/h). MTZ-3misolate was identified as Streptomyces badius ATCC 19729 based on the molecular characterization study. The present study emphasizes on the fact that this native mangrove isolate, can be used confidently in solubilizing the insoluble phosphate in mangrove ecosystems and also in the reclamation of barren lands

Study of Vessel Elements In the stem of Genus Cuphea, Woodfordia, Lawsonia, and Lagerstroemia. [Lythraceae]

Anil A.Kshirsagar and N.P.Vikos

  • Abstract

    The vessel elements in four genera and nine species have been investigated. The vessel elements in the stem of Cuphea, Woodfordia, Lawsonia and Lagerstroemia exhibit variation in their length and breadth in the different species or in the plant of same species. The minimum length of vessel element was recorded in Cuphea ignea (285.6 μm) and the maximum length of vessel element was recorded in Lagerstroemia microcarpa (714 μm) while minimum diameter of vessels was recorded in Cuphea ignea (14.2 μm) and maximum diameter of vessel element was recorded in Lagerstroemia reginae (71.4 μm) The perforation plates are mostly simple, however in certain taxa both simple and scalariform perforation plates are occurs. The position of perforations are terminal sub-terminal, the tails are recorded in many taxa, and the lateral wall are pitted .The vestured pits are characteristic of familymLythraceae

Varicose vein: recent complications in humans

Girish P. Laddha, G.Vidyasagar, Sunil R. Bavaskar, Vikram Mahale, Mahendra Rathod

  • Abstract

    In daily life human being and their survival is more difficult. In normal life continuous circulation of blood to the each and every organ is possible with arteries and veins. These circulations are mean by the internal lumen diameter and their structure throughout the life. Different diet habits in the different peoples and regions and less physical exercise is the main cause of varicose vein problem. Varicose veins, commonly referred to as “varicosities”, represent enlarged collaterals (branches) of socalled saphenous venous system affected by a disease called “superficial venous insufficiency of lower extremities”. Varicosities, therefore, constitute not a disease, but a symptom of superficial venous insufficiency, coincidentally, by far not the most frequent symptom too. Heaviness, tiredness, swelling, pain, muscle cramps, difficulties walking and even standing are some of other symptoms of the above disease.Non-surgical treatments include sclerotherapy, elastic stockings, elevating the legs, and exercise. The traditional surgical treatment has been vein stripping to remove the affected veins. Newer, less invasive treatments which seal the main leaking vein on the thigh are available. Alternative techniques, such as ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser treatment, are available as well. Because most of the blood in the legs is returned by the deep veins, the superficial veins, which return only about 10 per cent of the total blood of the legs, can usually be removed or ablated without serious harm

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