Vol. 2 & Issue 3 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : May. to Jul.2012


Synthesis and antifungal activity of 4-substituted aryl methyl-2-(4¹- acetylamino-3¹-bromophenyl)- 1, 3, 4-oxadiazolin-5-thiones and substituted- 1, 2, 4-triazolin-5-thiones

Rishi Pratap Singh, Dharm Veer Singh, C.R. Singh and Shailendra Singh

  • Abstract

    Starting material 4-acetylamino-3-bromobenzoyl hydrazine (1) has been synthesized from easily available methyl-4-acetylamino-3-bromobenzoate and hydrazine hydrate in ethanol. Compound (1) react with KOH and CS2 gives 2-(4¹-acetylamino-3¹-bromophenyl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazoline-5-thiones (2). Aminomethylation of (2) with formaldehyde and secondary amines in ethanol furnished Manich base (3a-e). Compound (1) was again treated with aryl¹isothiocynate to get 4-aryl¹thiosemicarbazide (4a-d) which underwent cyclization in the presence of NaOH to give corresponding triazolinthione (5a-d). Compound (5a-d) on aminomethylation with formaldehyde and secondary amine in ethanol to give aryl1-1, 2, 4-triazoline-5-thiones (6a-l). Antfungal activity has been compaired with Dithane M-45, a commercial fungicide, for their fungitoxic action against Phytophthora infestance and Collectotricum falcatum, and the result correlated with their structural features

Production and evaluation of secondary metabolites of Trichoderma harzianum against Alternaria solani

Ravi Singh, Rakshita, Richa Khare, JayaPandey, Monika and Smriti Khare

  • Abstract

    Metabolites are organic compounds that are used in, or created by, the chemical reactions happening in every cell of living organisms.In this we are studying about the production of secondsary metabolites of Trichoderma harzianum against Alternaria solani at 27oC and different time intervals

Histopathological alterations in developing duodenum of Swiss mice, exposed to lead acetate

Ragini Sharma and Isha Barber

  • Abstract

    In the present investigation, Swiss albino mice aged 1, 2, and 3 weeks were studied for the effects of lead acetate on duodenum development. The major objective is focused on the histopathological alterations in duodenum due to lead intoxication. Inbred healthy pregnant females were selected and exposed with lead acetate, 16 mg/animal (533 mg/kg BW) during gestation and lactation through canula. At 1, 7, 14 and 21 day of birth, litters were sacrificed, and their gastrointestinal tracts were fixed. Duodenum was evaluated for the developmental changes and histopathological alterations. Our results suggest that early life exposure may induce changes that will become apparent much later in life. Pups from lead exposed mothers, resulted changes in their developing duodenum and these changes were age related. With the advancing age of pups, the magnitude of damage in developing duodenum was increased. It is concluded that lead is an important toxicant which cause marked changes in duodenal cell proliferation and differentiation during postnatal period.

Study on Flowering and other growth Behavior of Brinjal (Solanum melongena) var.BR 112 in Admiration to Effect of C.M.L. (Country Made Liquor)

Seema Dwivedi, Sanjeev Sharma, Kapil Sharma, Kunwarvir Singh and Arun

  • Abstract

    An Experiment was conducted to study the Flowering and other growth Behavior of Brinjal Solanum melongena var: BR112 with Country made Liquor (CML) under the environmental conditions. Seeds of Solanum melongena L cv BR112, were sown at the depth of 2.5cm, with different treatments i.e. S1 (control-without CML 36%V/V), S2 (Soil + Spray of CML (36%V/V) at the interval of 3 days, S3 (Soil + Spray of CML 36% V/V only at the time of Flowering. 2000 replicates of each treatment were used for the study. Total no. of germinated plants were counted from each set of all treatments at the interval period of 5 days after sowing and reported as emergence count. For flowering study, flowers were counted from all the treatments and other growth Behavior studied. Result revealed that CML treated batch showed maximum Flowering i.e. 29 flowers per plant were observed in S2 (CML treated) treatment which was more than control (S1 treatment that was 16 flowers per plant). And 20 flowers per plant were observed in S3 treatment (CML treated only at the time of Flowering), which was more than control (S1 treatment) after 42 days. After 42 days of growth plantlets also showed maximum plant height (45cm), width of leaves (6.5cm), length of leaves (7.5cm) in S2 treatment, which was more than S1 (control) and S3 treatment. And in S3 treatment after 42 days of growth plantlets also showed, plant height (38cm), width of leaves (6.4cm), length of leaves (6.7cm), which was more than S1 treatment. In S1 treatment (control) plant height (34 cm), width of leaves (5.9 cm), length of leaves (6.5 cm).

Studies on Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract collected from fertilizers affected two medicinal plants

S.P Kiran Kumari, V.Sridevi and M.V.V Chandana Lakshmi

  • Abstract

    Herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavoring and aromatic qualities for centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with hope of safety and security. In this respective work two medicinal plants Ocimum sanctum and Aloe barbadensis were selected and cultivated under the effect of two different kinds of fertilizers and the effect of fertilizers was determined basing upon the phytochemicals present in them when compared to control plant. The medicinal values of these plants were attributed by the presence of one or more of the detected metabolites and simultaneously the distinguishing was made between inorganic and organic fertilizer usage. The aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum and Aloe barbadensis were screened for secondary metabolites. The extracts were revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, protein, anthraquinones, and fatty acids. Whereas some phytochemicals where absent in fertilizer effected plants

Discovery of Aurora Kinase: A inhibitors using virtual screening protocol

A.Jerad Suresh and D.Vinod

  • Abstract

    Over expression of Aurora kinase A (AKA) in a variety of human cells induces chromosomal abnormalities during mitosis that triggers tumor initiation and progression. Thus AKA is an attractive target for cancer prevention. In this study an energy based pharmacophore model was generated based on protein-ligand interaction terms derived from Glide extra precision scoring function. The epharmacophore model along with receptor based excluded volumes was used for virtual screening. The hits were further processed by ADME & Lipinski rule of five to investigate drug likeness which gave final 992 molecules. These molecules were clustered into 50 clusters according to chemical diversity and one of cluster representative (CR36) along with its derivative was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro biological activity

Biochemical and histological responses on the liver of adult wistar rats fed with varied level of cassava

F. B. Oyeyemi, S. A. Babajide, T. K. Elelu, W. A. Oyeyemi and O. A. Iyiola

  • Abstract

    The biochemical and histological responses on liver of rats following feeding on unprocessed cassava was examined in this study. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four. Group A, which served as the control was fed with 30 grams of grower feed per day, while groups B, C and D were given 10 grams of unprocessed cassava and 20 grams of grower feed per day, 20 grams of unprocessed cassava and 10 grams of grower feed per day and 30 grams of unprocessed cassava per day respectively. After feeding for six weeks, the animal weight, liver histology, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. The result shows significant reduction in weight gain among groups B, C and D animals when compared with the control. Histological studies also revealed diffused hepatic degeneration of the liver in all treatments except the control; this damage is more evident in group D animals. There was a significant increase in ALP, AST, ALT and GGT activity in groups B, C and D when compared with the control group, the highest was observed in group D. Biochemical evidence of tissue injury in the liver was supported by histological findings of the liver which showed disturbance of normal hepatic cytoarchitecture on rats in groups B, C and D. It is concluded that feeding on unprocessed cassava is harmful to the liver.

Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Antibiotics Effective Against Foodborne Pathogens Isolated from Kulfi

Bibhuti Bhushan Sahu, R. Usha, Arijit Das, Sourav Bhattacharya and M. Palaniswamy

  • Abstract

    Kulfi is a very popular frozen dairy dessert from the Indian Subcontinent. It is available in a variety of flavors and relished by people all over the world. Since kulfi is prepared from ingredients such as milk and water, assessment of its bacteriological quality is necessary to prevent the risk of foodborne infections among the consumers. The present study was undertaken to isolate bacterial pathogens from kulfi sold in Bangalore, India, and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics effective against them. Eighteen kulfi samples, comprising of six different brands, were analyzed. Different bacterial pathogens were isolated and their biochemical characterization confirmed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus citreus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The occurrence of psychrotolerant β-haemolytic bacterium Chryseobacterium gleum was also detected in a kulfi sample. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that the gram positive bacterial isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin and clindamycin, whereas, the gram negative forms were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin. In order to determine the MIC, antibiotic concentrations ranging from 0.025-250 μg/ml were used. MIC values of ofloxacin and gentamicin against the gram positive bacteria and that of ciprofloxacin against the gram negative bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 1-5 μg/ml. Higher MIC values observed in the case of some bacterial isolates including the psychrotolerant β-haemolytic bacterium Chryseobacterium gleum may be linked to their increased level of resistance to the tested antibiotics

Screening of Antibiotic Producing Actinomycetes from Streams

J. A. Johnson, T. Citarasu, P. A. Mary Helen

  • Abstract

    Actinomycetes were isolated from the leaf litter sample from streams by serial dilution agar plating method. The antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes extract was tested against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extract was tested against seven bacteria and five fungi. Then bioactive compounds were purified by silica gel column chromatography and it was identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Ten compounds such as 1H-Cyclopropa[a]naphthalene (11.199%), 2,4-Imidazolidinedione (12.238%), Diethylphthalate (13.494%), 1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid (23.825%), 10-Formamido-10,11- dihydro-2,3-dimethoxy (24.934%), Naphthalene (26.816%), 6-Methyl-1-pyridin-2-ylmethylene-1H,5H-f (27.334%), 1Beta,4Beta-Epoxy-6-Hydroxy-A-Homo-5,7,9 (29.227%), 1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid (29.943%), Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate (33.193%) were identified. Cytotoxic activity of actinomycetes extract on A375 cell lines were analysed by Trypan Blue dye exclusion method. The DNA of actinomycetes was isolated and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal eubacterial 16S rRNA gene primers and it was phenotypically identified as Saccharothrix sp.

Influence of NaF on seed germination, membrane stability and some Biochemicals content in Vigna seedlings

B.R. Gadi, Verma Pooja and Amra Ram

  • Abstract

    The effect of sodium fluoride (0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 mM NaF) was studied on germination behaviour, membrane stability and some biochemical parameters in in-vitro grown seedlings of Vigna radiata L. After 7 days of treatment germination percentage, root length, shoot length, vigour index, percentage of chlorophyll stability index (CSI), membrane stability index (MSI) and soluble protein content were decreased in seedlings under fluoride stress. Sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment resulted in a significant enhancement of osmolytes such as proline and total soluble sugars content. Thus, the results of this experiment indicate that NaF disturbed the seed germination, seedling growth and membrane stability whereas, increased proline and carbohydrates in Vigna seedlings

An Overview of Microbial Lipases

K.S.S.Rekha, M.V.V.Chandana Lakshmi, V.Sridevi and M.Manasa

  • Abstract

    Lipases are the most pliable biocatalyst and bring about a wide range of bioconversion reactions, such as hydrolysis, interesterification, esterification, alcoholysis, acidolysis and aminolysis that play a key role in fat digestion by cleaving long-chain triglycerides into polar lipids and these Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases, EC catalyze the hydrolysis and the synthesis of esters formed from glycerol and long-chain fatty acid and they are ubiquitous enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols to glycerols and free fatty acid. Lipases have been utilized for fat modification, fragrance development in dairy product and for the synthesis of personal care product, oil industry, dairy industry, pharmaceuticals and bakery industry and cosmetics. The most important microbial lipase-producing strains for submerged and solid-state fermentations are reviewed as well as the main substrates, including the use of agroindustrial residues. Current process techniques (batch, repeated-batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode) are discussed and the importance of lipase catalyzed fat splitting process, kinetics, deactivation kinetics, pre-purification and novel purification technologies.

Effect of Inorganic Salts and Surfactants on the Production of α-Amylase by a Mangrove Isolate of Aspergillus flavus using Solid-State Fermentation

Shilpi Bhardwaj, Vedamurthy A.B., Sourav Bhattacharya and Arijit Das

  • Abstract

    Filamentous fungi have been widely used for the production of amylases under solid state fermentation, wherein certain cultural parameters may provide good growth of microorganisms and thereby better enzyme production. The effect of salts of certain metal ions on amylase production b the mangrove isolate of Aspergillus flavus was studied. The highest yield of amylase production was obtained by the addition of magnesium sulphate (0.1%) and calcium chloride (0.02%) respectively. Supplementation of the enzyme production medium with non ionic surfactants in general and Tween 80 in particular resulted in an enhanced secretion of the starch hydrolyzing proteins in the medium. Inoculum level is an important parameter for any fermentative operation. Optimum inoculum size was found to be 10% spore suspension, beyond which enzyme production was seriously affected. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the mangrove isolate of A. flavus may act as a potent strain for industrial production of α-amylase using SSF.

The Evaluation of Combine Drug Action of Codeine as a Supplementary Drug with Biginelli Dihydropyrimidinone Compounds

A.Deepak M. Nagrik, bDamodar M.Ambhore,cShrikant S.Patil,bJanakiram B.Devhade

  • Abstract

    Dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) were synthesized by the three component Biginelli reaction which includes the condensation of aldehyde, β-ketoester and urea. Codeine was used as the supplementary drug in combination of the resultant Biginelli compounds for biological screening. Interesting results were obtained in accordance with the principle of “Synergism”. It was observed that, synthesized Dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) and the supplementary drug, Codeine worked together to produce results which were not independently obtainable

Toxicity Evaluation and Bioaccumulation of Copper in Selected Tissues of Fresh Water Crab, Barytelphusa guerini from Aurangabad Region

V. K. Mukke and D N Chinte

  • Abstract

    Fresh water crabs are economically important because crabs are used as an alternative source of food by the people from Aurangabad region. Heavy metal and their salts containing effluents are directly discharged into the aquatic environment by many industries from Paithan and Aurangabad region. Heavy metal pollutants are a major problem in aquatic environment because of their toxicity, their persistency and tendency to accumulate in organisms and undergo food chain amplification. In the present investigation acute toxicity test was carried out to determine the LC50 values (lethal conc.) of copper sulphate by using static bioassay method. The LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs of exposure were recorded as 14.02, 13.56, 12.91 and 12.41 ppm respectively. In the present study the copper content in different body parts of fresh crab, B. guerini was studied. The copper content was found high in all the tissues as compared to control group. The observations in the present study showed marked variation. The highest concentration of copper encountered in gill. The order of metal accumulation in various tissues of the crab was gill> muscle> HP> ovary> Testis.

Acaustical Study of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions in Different Composition of Lactose at Varying Temperatures by Ultrasonic Technique

ShashiKant and Kamini Sharma

  • Abstract

    The ultrasonic velocity (U) and density (p) measurements have been carried out for sodium chloride in 2, 4 and 6 wt. % lactose at different temperatures i.e. 303.15K, 308.15K, 313.5K, 318.15K. These measurements have been performed to evaluate some important acoustical parameters like adiabatic compressibility (β), change ( ∆β) and relative change in adiabatic compressibility (β/βo), acoustic impedance (Z), intermolecular free length (Lf), Wada’s constant (W), relative association (R.A.), relaxation time (τ). The variation of

Detection of Human Blood Sugar using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Technique

Jinan Fadhil Mahdi, S. N. Helambe, and Nazneen Akhter

  • Abstract

    Dielectric properties of liquids cover a vast area of interest for scientists from a variety of disciplines of science and technology including medical physics and bio sciences. Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) based method for determination of human blood sugar levels is presented. This method of detection of blood sugar based on dielectric properties works well and needs further refinements by designing different sample cells with impedance matching and improved waveform analysis techniques. The TDR based blood analysis system is capable of finding out the blood sugar level of blood samples just using one drop of blood in minutes. The blood sugar level of the sample is found to affect the peak voltage values of the reflected waveform from the TDR setup. The system is tested for its reproducibility and accuracy by conducting series of experiments. The resulting waveforms are analyzed manually and using computer program, from graphs using the TDR data file. There is excellent agreement between values of blood sugar levels determined using TDR based instrument and standard conventional techniques, this validates the instrumental setup and the measuring technique. The relation between the peak voltage value and the blood sugar level of the sample is presented and details discussed.

Development and Validation of A HPLC-UV Method for Simultaneous Determination of Aromatic Fungicide Residues in Red Chilli Followed by Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion

Tentu. Parvathamma, A. Ramesh and Tentu. Nageswara Rao

  • Abstract

    A simple, sensitive and inexpensive method was developed using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), together with high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of aromatic fungicide residues (Chlorothalonil and Biphenyl) in red chilli. The evaluated parameters included the type and amount of sorbent (silica gel, C18 and neutral alumina) and the nature of eluent (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile).The best results were obtained using 1.0 g of red chilli sample, 1.0 g of C18 as sorbent and 20ml of ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, (v/v)).The method was validated using in red chilli samples spiked with fungicides at different concentration levels (0.03 and 0.3 μg/mL). Average recoveries (using each concentration six replicates) ranged 90-98%, with relative standard deviations less than 2%, calibration solutions concentration in the range 0.01-2.0 μg/mL and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.01 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL respectively.

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