Vol. 2 & Issue 4 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2012


Effect of Salicylic Acid on Photosynthetic Pigments and Some Biochemical Content in Vigna Seedlings under Cadmium Stress

Verma Pooja, Amra Ram and B.R. Gadi

  • Abstract

    The objective of present study was to investigate the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) under cadmium toxicity in seed germination, membrane stability and some biochemical content in in-vitro grown seedlings of Vigna radiata. Cadmium chloride treatments (CdCl2; 0.0, 25, 50 and 100μM) decreased seed germination, chlorophyll stability index (CSI), membrane stability index (MSI), photosynthetic pigments and soluble protein content, while increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde -MDA), proline and total soluble sugars content. SA (0.25mM) decreased the germination percentage of seeds, photosynthetic pigment and MDA content while increased soluble protein, proline and total soluble sugars content and percentage of CSI and MSI in V. radiata seedlings. Salicylic acid pretreatment decreased the toxic effect of cadmium manifested through lower lipid peroxidation by decrease in MDA content while increased the proline and sugars content and percentage of CSI and MSI. SA also increased the soluble protein content in CdCl2 treated seedlings. Present study shows that SA ameliorates the toxic effects of CdCl2 by increasing the CSI, MSI and proline content while decreasing the MDA content.

Study on Certain Fungal Diseases in Culturable and Non-Culturable Species of Fishes of Upper Lake, Bhopal

Rekha Chauhan

  • Abstract

    Fungal diseases of fresh water fishes are known to be problematic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the increasing aquatic fungal flora of the Upper Lake and the percentage of infection of various species in fishes. For this, investigation was carried out on fungal infected fishes from November 2011 to April 2012. A total number of 2066 fishes were examined. Out of them, about 287 fishes were found infected. The most affected species of fish were Clarias batrachus (24.6%). Total 13 species of fishes found infected from which 27 isolates have been found out, which belong to 8 genera and 14 species. Cultures were made on hempseeds, sesame and mustard seeds. Pure cultures were made on sabouraud dextrose agar, glucose yeast agar and potato dextrose agar. Identification of various species was done on the basis of their vegetative and reproductive characters. During investigation period, among all the eight genera, Achlya and Saprolegnia found most virulent. Maximum percentage of infected fishes fond in December (32.3%) followed by November (24.6%) and January (22.8%). Aspergillus niger and Fuzarium sp. were isolated first from fungal infected fishes of this region. To find out the pathogenecity of these species need further study

Analytical Method Development and Validation of Lamivudin by Using Revers Phase HPLC

Manoranjan , Sharada , Venkateswarlu , Sravan Prasad , Noorunnisa  and Someshwar 

  • Abstract

    A simple, validated and sensitive HPLC method have been developed for the estimation of lamivudin in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. Literature review reveals that analytical methods like ion exchange chromatography, thin layer ion exchange chromatography and U.V are quite expensive when compared to HPLC. Therefore the present study has been under taken in order to develop a new simple, rapid, efficient and reproducible RP-HPLC method for analysis of lamivudin. After the optimization of the HPLC method, validation of analytical method for the developed RP-HPLC method was done in accordance with ICH guidelines. The %RSD was calculated to be 0.71 and having the correlation co-efficient 0.9996. From the calibration curve constructed by plotting concentration Vs peak area, was found that there exist a linear relationship in the concentration range of 50-150% for lamivudin.

Germination Behavior of Some Kashmiri Paddy Cultivars

Nuzhat Quadir, Sajad A.Wani, Bilal A. Bhat, Towseef A. Wani and Quraazah A.

  • Abstract

    The present study was aimed to investigate the germination behavior of some locally cultivated paddy varieties of Kashmir division viz., Shalimar Rice-1 (V1), Jehlum (V2) and Kohsar (V3). The paddy varieties were soaked in tap water at 250C for 24 hours. After soaking water was drained from each variety. The varieties were placed on wet cotton cloth in petriplates, covered with more wet cotton cloth and the petriplates closed with wrapping film. These petriplates were incubated at 350C for 3, 4 and 6 days. The varieties were solar dried to arrest germination followed by milling and pulverization to obtain flour. Physico-chemical analysis was carried out and the results revealed that there was gradual increase in Reducing sugars (%), Protein content (%), Moisture content (%), Embryo growth lengths (mm), Ash content (%) while as Milling rate, Bulk density (g/ml), fat content (%) decreased. Significant changes were observed in pasting properties determined from decrease in viscosity values (cp) (Peak viscosity, Hold viscosity, Final viscosity, Break down and Set back). Amongst the treatments and varieties, 6 day incubation period (T3) and Shalimar Rice-1 (V1), respectively gave the best results.

Population Dynamics of the Cestode Parasites from Marine Water Fish; Trygon Species

Chinte D. N. and Mukke V. K.

  • Abstract

    The present communication deals with the study of population dynamics of cestode parasites from the host Trygon sephen were collected from the different fish landing centers such as Rajiwada, Mirakarwada, and Bhagwati bander from Ratnagiri district for the period of 2000-2002. The percentage, incidence, intensity, density and index of infection of these parasites among the population of Trygon species is recorded along with influence of season on these values during study period on these values during study period.

Effect of Spirulina Impregenated Feed on the Fingerlings of Catla Catla

J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav, Susan Manohar, and T.A. Quereshi

  • Abstract

    The influence of Spirulina impregnated feed on the growth of Indian major carp, Catla catla was investigated in a 60-day culture trial. Experimental diets were used in which Spirulina replaced fish meal protein from the standard diet at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. There was a significant difference in the final weight attained by Catla at all levels of Spirulina incorporation as compared to the fish-meal-based control diet. However, the replacement of fish meal by 5% Spirulina resulted in significantly superior growth of Catla. The specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio recorded in Catla improved with higher levels of Spirulina inclusion in comparison to control feed. In general, fish fed with Spirulina diets had a significantly better feed conversion and growth. The study demonstrated the usefulness of Spirulina for partial or complete replacement of fish meal in the diets of culturable fishes which will also prove cost effective.

Antimicrobial screening and identification of Bioactive compounds present in marine sponge Zygomycale sp. collected from Kanyakumari coast

J.A. Johnson, T. Citarasu and W.A.Manjusha

  • Abstract

    The marine environment is a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present study was carried out to investigate in vitro antimicrobial activity of marine sponge Zygomycale sp. collected from Kanyakumari coast (south east coast of India). The sponge extract was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens and four human fungal pathogens, and it revealed that, the extracts showed potent anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Sterptococcus pyogenes and it exhibited antifungal activity against all pathogenic test strains. The bioactive compound present in marine sponge was identified by GC-MS analysis and the compounds are Tetracontane,3,3,2,4-trimethyl, Tricozane, Decane,Dodecane,2,6,10-trimethyl ester, Trifluroacteicacid,n-octadecyl ester, Eicozane, Phenol,2,4-bis(1,1- dimetyl ethyl)-ester,Dibutyl phthalate. The results of present investigation revealed that, the endosymbiotic bacteria from the marine sponges are a potential source of novel antibiotic leads.

Lead Toxicity and infertility in Female Swiss Mice: A Review

Nazera Qureshi and Ragini Sharma

  • Abstract

    Lead is one of the oldest known and most widely studied occupational and environmental toxicant. Lead is a metal, which has been associated with human activities from the past 6000 years. Today, lead is still used in batteries and some insecticides and is found in cigarette smoke. Sources of lead may be natural, as it is found in the earth’s crust and thus enters the food and water supply. Lead compounds are known to adversely affect the various mammalian systems. Reproductive toxicity, which can be defined as the adverse effect of chemicals, lead being one that can affect the gonadal structure and functions, can cause alterations in fertility and impaired gamete function. However reproductive toxicity is comparatively less expedited. The toxicant can also lead to induction of malformations in children, reduce chances of conception, may be embryocidal and cause still birth, or death of progeny. The toxic effects of lead on adult female reproduction are decreased fertility, the inability to sustain pregnancy and reduced pregnancy outcomes. There is a lack of information concerning whether environmental health effects are more or less prevalent or manifested differently in women compared to men. Previously, most research in the area of toxicology and environmental and occupational health involved male subjects. There is paucity of information about the direct actions of heavy metals on the female reproductive system, fertility and development. Unlike the testes, the ovary has not been as amenable to study; hence the present review aims to accomplish the lacuna by reviewing exposure and health effects of lead manifested in females.

Haematological Studies of Mercuric Chloride Affected Freshwater Catfish Clarias gariepinus Fed with Spirulina

J.D.Saroch, Humaira Nisar, Rekha Shrivastav, T. A. Qureshi and Susan Manohar

  • Abstract

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Mercuric chloride on the haematological parameters in the freshwater catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Control, 0.1mg/l mercuric chloride and 5% Spirulina fed fishes exposed to 0.1mg/l mercuric chloride were used in the basic test for a period of 120 days. The fishes were sacrificed after an interval of 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days respectively and haematological tests were performed. A total of 30 fishes were used for each concentration as well as in the control. The treatment with mercuric chloride was found to inflict a drastic reduction in the total count of RBC’s. The reduction was time dependent; as concentration of mercuric chloride increased, the RBC levels declined. Exposed fishes showed a significant increase in W.B.C count when compared to the control. Whereas the fishes exposed to mercuric chloride showed significant decrease in haemoglobin content and haematocrit level when compared to the control whereas Spirulina fed fishes showed a recovery in haematological profile of the fishes as compared to the fishes exposed to 0.1mg/l mercuric chloride.

Toxicological impact of Diesel Fuel on the Vital Organs of Oreochromis mossambicus

P.S.Navaraj and J.Yasmin

  • Abstract

    An evaluation of the toxicity of diesel in liver tissue of Oreochromis mossambicus has been attempted in this study. The bioassay of the fish treated in different diesel concentrations via 5%, 15%, 25%, 35% has revealed the toxicity of diesel through Lc50 value, 16% for 96h. Subsequently, fish exposed to different sub lethal concentrations (2%, 6%, and 8%) for three months. Liver has shown significant impairments via, thrombosis in hepatoportal blood vessel, melanomacrophage centers, hemolysis, hemorrhage, lymphocytic infiltration between the hepatocytes, necrosis & fibrosis in hepatocytes were observed and these damages are found to be duration and dose dependents.

Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Investigations on Fruit Extract of Nothapodytes Nimmoniana (J. Graham) Mabberly

Pooja Sharma, Priya Thuluvath, and Ajay Sharma

  • Abstract

    The present study was designed to investigate comparative anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (EFEN). N. nimmoniana contains camptothecin, an anticancer drug, regarded as one of the most promising drug of twenty first century. Anti-inflammatory activity of EFEN was performed by using carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The extract showed dose-dependent inhibition of paw volume and the maximum percent inhibition was found at the dose of 200 mg/kg (75.79%). The EFEN was effective in both first and second phase of inflammation. Analgesic activity was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions in rats and mice. It is expected that EFEN might suppress the formation of prostaglandins and bradykinin or antagonize the action of these substances and thus exerts its peripheral analgesic activity in Randall-Selitto assay and acetic acid induced writhing test. The EFEN significantly increased the reaction time in hot plate and tail flick test, suggesting its central analgesic activity.

A Study Showing the Ameliorative Potential of Trans- Resveratrol, α- Lipoic Acid and Vitamin E on Endosulfan Induced Alterations in the ATPase in Olfactory Lobe of Male Swiss Albino Mice

Preeti Singh and Habiba Bano

  • Abstract

    Brain is profoundly vulnerable to oxidative damage on exposure to certain hazardous substances. Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is a known, strong neurotoxin in animals as well as in mammals including human beings. The present study aimed to study hazardous impacts of endosulfan on olfactory system, which play a major role in analyzing and perceiving the sense of smell, choice of mate, food localization etc. ATPase, the biomarker of present investigation, is a sympathetic neurotransmitter involved in brain function, sensory perception, and nervous system control of muscles and organs. The deleterious effects caused by endosulfan have been linked to its ability in alterations of ATPase levels. Hence, there is an urgent need to establish a counter policy by means of food regime which can check oxidative stress caused as a result of environmental stressors. This study has been designed to employ antioxidants like resveratrol, alpha lipoic acid and vitamin E as potential therapeutic agents in counterbalancing negative health hazards of endosulfan on the normal functioning of brain. The study was divided into ten groups in which olive oil was given as a vehicle in control group, while endosulfan administered at 2.45 mg/kg/bodyweight/day for 15 days served as an experimental group. Other groups constituted of antioxidant treatment groups and antioxidants pre treatment groups exposed to endosulfan. Altered ATPase histoenzymological profile was observed in different layers of olfactory lobe in endosulfan intoxicated mice, while antioxidant pretreatment groups were able to render protection to some extent as compared to that of control. The findings of present study suggest the inherent potential of antioxidants against endosulfan induced neurotoxicity in the olfactory lobe of mice.

Effect of Orchidectomy and of Testosterone Administration upon Duodenal Ulceration Induced by Cysteamine

Ashokan Kannarath Valappil

  • Abstract

    Duodenal ulcers were induced in adult and old male mice using cysteamine hydrochloride under various experimental conditions. Under these experimental conditions, orchidectomized adult and normal old male mice strikingly decreased sensitivity to ulcer induction while testosterone propionate administration to orchidectomized adult mice showed an increased sensitivity to ulcer induction. This change in ulcer sensitivity reflected from histological, histochemical and biochemical studies. The histological study was performed by using haematoxylene-eosin staining technique. The histochemistry of the duodenal region was studied by using periodic acid Schiff reaction (PAS) for glycoprotein. The biochemical study was performed to study various constituents of glycoprotein like hexose, fucose, sialic acid and the protein from Brunner’s gland. The result showed that ulcer severity was more in orchidectomized- cysteamine treated mice and old mice treated with cysteamine. The histological studies showed that orchidectomy decreased or did not show any change in the ulcer sensitivity considering Cryptus Lieburkuhn and Brunner’s glands. The same result reflected by differential intensity in the staining property of the Brunner’s gland. The biochemical study showed that the glycoprotein contents were reduced many times in orchidectomized-cysteamine treated-testosterone administered adult and old male mice. These findings prove that testosterone of booth exogenous and endogenous augment the ulcer pathogenesis in cysteamine induced ulcer in male mice.

Morpho-Anatomical Diversity of Leaves in Lagerstroemia L. [Lythraceae]

Anil A.Kshirsagar and N.P.Vaikos

  • Abstract

    The anatomical studies of leaf in six species of Lagerstroemia are investigated. The anatomy of leaf is variable in all examined species. The leaves are dorsiventral and hypostomatic. The distribution of mechanical tissues is very interesting, which are in the form of collenchyma, sclerenchyma and vascular tissues. The mesophyll is made of palisade and spongy tissue. The palisade is one or three layered of unequal sized cells. Hypoderm is recorded in some species, hypoderm is either collenchymatous or parenchymatous.The midrib region is broad. The vascular bundle is an arc shaped; bicolateral and which is surrounded by patches of sclerenchyma.Trichomes are recorded in some species. The stomatal guard cells with outer ledges. The leaf anatomy can be employed for segregation of studied taxa.

A Study of Antibiotic Resistance, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of E.coli Strains Isolated from Meat Samples

P. Prasad, Dr. P. Anuradha, C.P. Agasthya Baby and A.Chandra Sekhar

  • Abstract

    A Total of 18 meat samples were collected from different slaughter houses and meat stalls in and around Tirupati, India. Samples were cultured on MacConkey, Nutrient agar medium and 9 E.coli isolates were obtained. The isolates were confirmed by gram staining and biochemical tests. These 9 isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, highest rate of resistance were observed against ampicillin and most of the E.coli isolates showed resistance to two or more antibiotics and where therefore multi drug resistance. Molecular characterization of E.coli strains were carried out by plasmid analysis and whole cell protein analysis by SDS-PAGE. Plasmid isolation was done by alkaline lysis method and plasmid bands were observed in 7 isolates. Whole cell protein analysis of E.coli isolates obtained by SDS-PAGE were inspected visually and compared with each other. The protein profiles of all isolates exhibited different banding pattern.

Production of Protease through SSF by Bacillus Subtilis NCIM 2724

Meena Vangalapati, Sree Satya Nandam, Surya Prakash D.V and Sumanjali Avanigadda

  • Abstract

    Production of protease employing the laboratory isolates of Bacillus sps. under solid state fermentation. The present study was designed for study of increasing the production of protease feasible at commercial level and an attempt has been made to optimize the different physico chemical parameters required for obtaining the maximum production of protease using Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lincheniformis. Bacillus subtilis gives the maximum enzyme production by using papaya peel as the substrate with the optimized conditions of incubation time 24hr, temperature 300C, moisture content 40%w/v, and inoculum level of 0.8%w/v and with substrate concentration of 10g and pH 8.0, glucose concentration 2.0%w/v. The maximum production of protease enzyme considering all optimum conditions of various parameters was found to be 0.69 mg/ml.

Determination of Zinc and its association with Hormonal Alterations in Uterine Leiomyomas in Indian Women

Hemlata Bagla, Soumya Nair, Rakesh Sinha, Parul Shah

  • Abstract

    Zinc (Zn) is vital for many biological functions and critical to tissue growth. In the present work, it was sought to investigate the impact of Zn in initiation and progression of uterine leiomyomas (UL) and its possible association with hormonal alterations that occur thereafter. The Zn levels in 148 uterine tissues which includes 98 leiomyoma samples (intramural and subserosol leiomyoma samples) and 50 control samples of premenopausal women aged 20-50 years were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method. The blood samples drawn from above subjects were analyzed by Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) technology to estimate E2 level. The patient categorisation was done on BMI basis which showed a positive relationship with occurrence of disease. The results of analysed samples show significantly higher levels of Zn in the intramural leiomyoma tissues than subserosol leiomyoma and control samples. The statistical results obtained revealed that obese women showed higher Zn and E2 concentration than their counterparts. A positive correlation was found between the E2 level of the subjects and the Zn concentration in tissue samples. A case – control study was conducted to further evaluate the sociodemographic data obtained from patients. The altering levels of Zn identified in the present work may suggest an independent, positive association with risk for clinically detected UL.

Evaluation of In-Vitro Antihelminthic Activity of Aconitum Heterophyllum

Aditya M. Pattewar, Pandharkar T.M, Yerawar P.P. and Patawar V.A.

  • Abstract

    This study involves the evaluation and comparison of invitro anthelmintic activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of root of traditional medicinal plant Aconitum heterophyllum belongs to family Ranunculaceae against Pheritema postuma most commonly known as an Indian earthworm. Extraction was done by Soxhelation and Maceration for extraction of alcoholic and aqueous extract respectively. Various dilutions of extracts were prepared as in concentration range of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, all dilutions were screened for in-vitro antihelmintic activity against Pheritema postuma; piperazine citrate was used as standard. The observations were recorded as time required for first three attacks of paralysis and time required for complete death of parasites. The results of study conclude that plant Aconitum heterophyllum possess good anthelmintic potential particularly at dose of 100%. Study can be further extended as to find out exact chemical constituent responsible for anthelmintic activity so as to improve potency of extract.

Optimization of Alkali Pretreatment Process Parameters for Sweet Sorghum Bagasse by Enzyme Hydrolysis Using Response Surface Methodology

Lavudi Saida, Sandeep singh Dhaliwal , H.S.Oberoi  and M.Laxmi Narasu

  • Abstract

     Pretreatment studies were done by using both acid and alkali on Sweet Soarghum Bagasse (SSB) and further enzyme hydrolysis was done with a blend of commercial enzymes such as Celluclast, Novozyme and pectinase mixtures as well as crude enzymes produced by Aspergillus niger from solid state fermentation. The preliminary results showed that alkali treated sweet sorghum bagasse yielded higher sugar levels than acid treated substrate. Hence alkali pretreatment optimization studies were performed by Response Surface Methodology (R.S.M) to maximize sugar levels. Alkali pretreatment parameters were evaluated, such as autoclave time (10-30 min), autoclave temperature (125-140 oC) and alkali concentration (1.5-4%) to maximize sugar levels. The process parameters such as autoclave temperature 125oC, autoclave time 29 min and alkali concentration 3.88% was found optimal for enzyme hydrolysis. The final glucose concentration (64.5 g/L) obtained at the optimized conditions was significantly more than non-optimized conditions.

Insights into Binding of Potential Antitumor Quinoxaline Analogues against Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 Using Docking Studies

Arun Kumar V.A., Keshav Mohan

  • Abstract

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) belongs to a family of protein kinases and CDK2 consideredas potential anti-cancer target among CDKs. A CDK2 inhibitor is a chemical that inhibits the function of CDKsand preventsover proliferation of cancer cells thus used to treat cancers. Quinoxaline and its derivatives are an important class of benzoheterocycles displaying a broad spectrum of biological activities which have made them privileged structures in pharmacologically active compounds. Modification in their structure has offered a high degree of diversity that has proven useful for the development of new therapeutic agents having improved potency and lesser toxicity. In the present work, attempts were made to identify leading quinoxaline moieties as candidate drugs against CDK2 by carrying out docking experiments with our in-house synthetic 46 analogues and assigning docking scores. Ten moieties with docking score -5 or above were zoomed in as candidate moieties. Structural features of the above quinoxaline analogues will be presented with a view to arrive at potential drug target for CDK2.

The Plackett-Burman Model - An Improved Alternative to Identify the Significant Factors Implied in Fungal Production of Glucose oxidase from potato

S. Pavan kumar, C.S.V. Ramachandra Rao, S.Bhavani Charan Prasad

  • Abstract

    Glucose oxidase producing fungus was isolated from potato and grown on czapekdox agar media. The isolate showing maximum activity was identified by Bergys manual. Plackett-Burman designwas used to develop the culture medium to find the optium values of process variables (pH Temperature, fermentation time, carbon source, nitrogen source, salt concentration and inoculum size)for Glucose oxidase production. Maximum glucose oxidase activity was observed for glucose as carbon source, KH2PO4as salt, NaNO3 as nitrogen source at pH 6 and temperature at 30°C.

Occurrence of Helminth Parasites of Freshwater Murrel, Channa punctatus (Bl.)

Rumeet Kaur, Kamalesh Borana, Pinky Kaur, Shivani Sharma and Rekha Chauhan

  • Abstract

    Present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of different helminth parasites of freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus (Bl.). Seventy five specimens of C. punctatus were examined for the occurrence of helminth parasites. Two species of digentic trematode (E. heterostomum and Clinostomum complanatum) and one species of acanthocephla (Pallisentis sp.) were recovered from different organs. According to their prevalence (%), E. heterostomum (28.0%) is dominant species followed by Pallisentis sp. (26.6%). While Clinostomum complanatum (20.0%) showed least prevalence.

Seasonal variation of some Caulerpa species (Chlorophyceae) in Tirunelveli region, the Southern coast of Tamil Nadu

John Peter Paul, J. and Patric Raja, D.

  • Abstract

    A study on the distribution of seaweed resources in Tirunelveli region was carried out for a period of four years from January 2007 to December 2010 by making monthly collection of some Caulerpa species from intertidal and subtidal regions at four stations along the south east coast of Tamil Nadu namely Kootapuzhi, Perumanal, Idinthakarai and Koothankuzhi. The seaweed species were enumerated at random using a quadrate (0.5m2). A total of eight species of Caulerpa were collected in the study area such as Caulerpa crassifolia, Caulerpa latevirens, Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa parvula, Caulerpa peltata, Caulerpa racemosa, Caulerpa scalpelliformis and Caulerpa sertularioides. The frequency and density were calculated and all the Caulerpa species showed a similar pattern of seasonal variation. Among the seaweeds collected the highest frequency (67.50%) and density (6.07) were observed in Caulerpa scalpelliformis during summer season and the lowest frequency (13.75%) and density (0.61) were recorded in Caulerpa sertularioides during post-monsoon season. From the present study it was concluded that all the Caulerpa species (Chlorophyceae) exhibited the maximum frequency and density during the summer season followed by the declined trend was observed in the successive seasons. During the post-monsoon season the frequency and density of Caulerpa species (Chlorophyceae) was minimum in the selected region of south east coast of Tamil Nadu.

Correlative Remedial Effects of Spirulina and Vitamin E on the Histoarchitecture of Liver and Kidney of Mercuric Chloride Challenged Catfish Clarias gariepinus

Gagandeep Kaur, J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav and T. A. Qureshi.

  • Abstract

    Remedial potential of Spirulina and Vitamin E on the toxicated fish Clarias gariepinus was investigated in the present study. Fishes were procured from local fish markets of Bhopal. Anomalies were recorded in Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.6ppm) toxicated fish fed with the basal diet, Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.6ppm) toxicated fish along with the administration of 5% Spirulina in diet and Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.6ppm) toxicated fish along with the administration of Vitamin E (Tocopherol acetate). Severe damages were observed in the histo-architecture of liver and kidneys of the exposed fish.Necrosis,vacuolization,eccentrically situated nuclei, destructed haemopoietic tissues have been observed.Remedial effect of Spirulina and Vitamin E (Tocopherol acetate) revealed some signs of recovery in the haemopoietic tissues but Spirulina found to be comparatively much effective than Vitamin E (Tocopherol acetate).

Detection of Helicoverpa armigera Gut In- and Active Proteinases by In-gel Activation on Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis X-ray Film Contact Print Method

Vinod D. Parde, Tewodros Aregai, Alemayehu Dubale, Mohana Rao Abburi and H. K. R. Prasad Saripalli

  • Abstract

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) play an important role in host plant resistance to insect pests. Therefore, the present studies were carried out plant and chemical protease inhibitor for inhibition of zymogen activation, and their biological activity against the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most important pest of agriculture and horticulture crops worldwide. The present studies indicated that H. armigera gut proteinases were synthesized in inactive isoforms, and get activated by trypsinlike proteinases. Nine proteinase bands were detected using in-gel activation on two-dimensional gel X-ray film contact print technique, and in addition to that in-gel activation method used for detection of pro-proteinase, however four activated proteinase detected when larvae fed on chemical inhibitors and three pro-proteinases bands detected on X-ray film when larvae fed on non-host plant protease inhibitors. Gelatin coating present on the X-ray film was used as a substrate to detect electrophoretically separated pro- and proteinases of H. armigera gut extract on SDS-PAGE and twodimensional gels. In gel activation method involved electrophoresis, followed by washing the gel with non-ionic detergent in case of SDS-PAGE, equilibration of the gel in trypsin (0.0001%) buffer, overlaying the gel on X-ray film, followed by washing the film with hot water to remove hydrolyzed gelatin, revealing activated pro-proteinase bands. This in-gel activation on two-dimensional gel X-ray film contact print technique is having significant application for the detection, identification and characterization of different proteolytic enzymes.

Comparative Esterase Isozyme Variability in two Tephritid Fruit Flies, Bactrocera Dorsalis and B. Tau

Md. Abdur Rashid, Tarana Siddika, Rowshan Ara Begum and Reza Md. Shahjahan

  • Abstract

    Investigations were made on the comparative esterase variability of two tephritid fruit flies of economic importance (Bactrocera dorsalis and B. tau) using larvae, pupae and body parts from different age groups of adults of both sexes. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, 7.5%) was employed for this purpose, the gels were stained on α- and β- napthyl acetates. Altogether six esterase bands (Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Est-4, Est-5 and Est-6) were detected in both B. dorsalis and B. tau. A remarkable variation was observed in the expression of esterase isozymes in both species. Expression of these isozymes increased with age in general, i.e., 2nd-, 3rd-instar larvae, pupae to adult on ward. This enzyme expression was also found to be increased from anterior part of the body to the posterior, in both species. Cypermethrin and malathion killed adult samples showed less isozyme expression compared to those of non-treated ones.

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