Vol. 3 & Issue 3 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : May. to Jul.2013

 

Some aspects of bee attractants on Pumpkin

K .V.Jayaramappa  and V. Sivaram

  • Abstract

    Honeybeesand flowering plants are interdependent and a good example for mutualism and co-evolution. The use of bee attractants, Bee-Q and Fruit Boost™ in the pollination on target crop was evaluated. The bee visitations on Pumpkin flowers were made for two weeks followed by estimation of yield. The different concentrations of Bee-Q and Fruit boost™ was evaluated to understand the honeybeemvisitation pattern of target crop for improving pollination efficiency. The observationsmindicate that, Bee-Q at 12.5 g/l and Fruit boost at 0.5 ml/l of Pumpkin plots attractedmhigher number of bee foragers than the control plots. In addition, the plots sprayedmwith bee attractants enhanced the yield and diameter of fruit. The present researchmwork suggests that the bee attractants increase marginal percentage of bee visitation,myield and diameter of fruit on Pumpkin.

Habit and Habitat of Sarus Crane Grus antigone antigone,and Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in Mainpuri( Uttar Pradesh), India

Amita Sarkar, Bhavna Upadhyay, Abhinav Chauhan , Archana Sharma and Prashant Mishra

  • Abstract

    District Mainpuri lies about 125 Km from Agra (U.P.).It has many wetlands ,thus, it is a good habitat for many wetland birds.Saman bird sanctuary is situated in Mainpuri; which provides good habitat for birds. Five study sites were selected in Mainpuri;Markandeshwar ,Bhamwat canal ,Sauj ,Saman bird sanctuary and Krithua. Presence of Sarus crane Grus antigone antigone (cited vulnerable as IUCN Red list) and Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus (qualifies as endangered) is being reported in these areas.In this field report we describe the different type of behaviour and facts about Sarus crane and Egyptian vulture during our trips to Mainpuri between February 2011 to September 2011.Our field report also shows the decline of Sarus crane and Egyptian vulture in northern India

Neutralization of Hepatitis C through a Synthetic Peptide Potent Vaccine by Structural Designing of Disease Causing Strain Hepc1 (Isolate 1)

T. Karishma, M. Lakshmi Bhavani , S, Vamsi Krishna, M. Padmavathi

  • Abstract

    Hepatitis C virus (isolate 1) strain is a virus which has a genomic configuration of RNA by causing a disease in humans as Hepatitis C. Hep C is very dangerous and there is no vaccine yet discovered. This Hep C is passed through contaminated blood i.e. only blood is the mode of transmission for this virus which occurs due to sexual contact. This virus transcribes number of proteins which are responsible for various attributes it contains 3 structural and 7- non structural gene among which core protein E1, E2 and p7 are structural proteins and p23, p70, p8, p27, p56/58, p68 are non structural forms. By using all these proteins this Hep C virus causing all sorts of liver diseases, but still there is no specific vaccine for this disease. These resulting impairments of liver functions cause the disabilities associated with Hepatitis. The present study summarizes recent advances in understanding of biology of Hepatitis, clinical features of this disease and current diagnostic criteria and new approaches to treat the infection and immune mediated complications. The main objective of this project is to design the development of vaccine against hepatitis by Reverse Vaccinology Approach. Hepatitis c virus (isolate1) is the only viral strain that is causing liver chronic i.e. chronic disorders more globally with 4 different proteins. After screening all the proteins it was found out that the protein sequences with less identity was chosen.

Cellulase Sources in the Eudrilid Earthworm, Eudrilus Eugeniae

Aladesida, A.A., Owa, S.O., Dedeke, G.A., Osho, B.A. and Adewoyin, O.A.

  • Abstract

    Earthworms have been known to breakdown leaf litter to release the nutrients laden in the leaves. Their ability to breakdown leaf litter implies that they have a source of cellulose. The present work looked at these sources to establish if they were exogenous or endogenous in origin. Earthworm samples of the species Eudriluseugeniaewere fed with tissue paper as cellulose source. The resulting faecal droppings were subjected to various carbohydrate tests to confirm the final products. Some of the worms were defaunated by treating with antibiotics to ensure the cellulose source was exogenous. Survival tests were also carried out on the faunated and defaunated earthworms. The results showed by Molisch's test the presence of carbohydrate in both fresh and egested tissue paper; while Benedict test and Barfoed's test indicate that the ingested tissue paper was digested to monosaccharide level. Seliwanoff's test also confirmed that the breakdown product was the monosaccharid ructose. Result of the survival test showed a significantly higher survival rate in the faunated than the defaunated earthworms. The results also showed that cellulose is of both exogenous and endogenous source to the earthworms. It is thus proposed that in plant litter treatments introduction of earthworms should be encouraged above merely introducing microbes as the gut of the worms is here shown to support microbial activity.

Exposure of Microflora Present in Various Habitants and its Drug Designing Studies

K. Ramya, D. Sivareddy and M. Padmavathi

  • Abstract

    The Micro flora isolated from the clinical samples like infectious bloo and Buccal samples from different habitants and confirmed through different biochemical characterizations. The blood samples collected by intravenal puncture and the buccal samples are collected by using the buccal swabs from mouth. In Biochemical characterization of the microbes, different biochemical tests like glucose fermentation tests, starch hydrolysis tests, citrate tests etc are done for confirmation of bacteria. Among all the microorganisms Bacillus anthraces is the most common and dangerous which causes Anthrax. Casp1 is the responsible protein to cause this anthrax disease. In the present study a potent inhibitor was designed to inhibit the activity of Casp1 protein through drug designing.

Molecular Mining of M.paratuberculosis Using Systems Biology Approach

M. Padmavathi

  • Abstract

    Molecular mining studies of tuberculosis focused a number of molecular techniques in assessing the strains. This can be done by testing the genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. These methods are used to control the tuberculosis. For example molecular techniques added accuracy, addition there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains such as M. paratuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters or lineages may differ in virulence, pathogenesis and epidemiologic characteristics all of which may significantly impact TB control. In the present study the current molecular tools and its approaches used to better understanding the epidemiology of tuberculosis.

Recent Advances in Banana Improvement through Biotechnological Approaches

Babita, H.S. Rattanpal and Kishore Kumar Thakur

  • Abstract

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are the most important tropical fruit crops. The major constraints to banana and plantain production are fungal diseases (black Sigatoka and Fusarium wilt), pests (banana weevil and nematodes) and viruses. The development of resistant cultivars is considered to be the most effective approach in controlling diseases and pests. The development of tissue-culture techniques has ensured production of cleans (pest and disease-free) planting material and also establishes faster, grow more vigorously, have a shorter production cycle and produce higher yield. Tissue culture is an excellent mechanism for promoting banana conservation and germplasm distribution since most cultivars are seedless. Embryo rescue, involving the excision and culture of developing zygotes, represents the technology that most easily assists conventional breeding. Several molecularmarker techniques have been applied to banana, including genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymorphisms based on the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), microsatellite DNA, RAPD, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). Agro bacterium-mediated transformation offers several advantages over direct gene transfer methodologies like particle bombardment, electroporation and marker-assisted selection has become areliable method to improve disease resistance in  Musa. It can therefore be concluded that biotechnology has great potential for the management of diseases and pests in bananas in an integrated approach system.

Floral Diversity of Bhitarkanika, East Coast of India and its potential uses

Durga Prasad Behera and Lakshman Nayak

  • Abstract

    Bhitarkanika is one of the spectacular National Park of India endowed with largest biodiversity of mangrove species and their associates. There are about 71 species of mangrove with their associates found in Bhitarkanika. In present observation a total of 28 families of 59 species mangrove with their associated flora was observed out of which the family Rhizophoraceae occurs in highest number ( 16.95%) followed by Leguminosae (8.47%) and families like Plumbaginaceae, Cyperaceae, Avicenniaceae contributing ( 5.08%) each having 24 species together representing 40.66% of total species. Rest 35 species of different families contributing 59.32% of abundance in study area. The local communities inhabited the mangrove areas along with their periphery depends in mangrove forest for their day today requirements such as food, fodder, timber , fuel, medicine etc. This paper provide field information on potential uses of mangrove and their associated flora uring study period .The flower and fruit bearing seasons of some of the mangrove associated flora were recorded with the help of local people.

Effect of Growth Promoters on Broiler Birds under Experimental Supplementation in Feed

T. Hrangkhawl, S.K. Mukhopadhayay, S. Ganguly and D. Niyogi

  • Abstract

    The present study conducted to study the effect of mannan oligosaccharide and dietary organic acid supplements on body weight of broiler birds. The present investigation showed better growth performance in combination with organic acid salts in terms of body weight. It was found that mean villus length increased significantly (P<0.01) in the treatment groups rather than the control birds.

Studies on Prevalence and Seasonal Variations of Culex quinquefasciatus in Punjab

Jagbir Singh Kirti & Simarjit Kaur

  • Abstract

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say is a cosmopolitan in its existence and found throughout the world. It is a domestic mosquito often associated with unhygienic conditions and species breeds in stagnant water with high organic content. It frequently enters houses and other human dwellings and bites frequently humans in urban, semi- urban and village areas. An entomological survey was carried out to document prevalence and seasonal distribution of quinquefasciatus for the first time in the state of Punjab. The present species was prevalent during all seasons showing peaks in spring and winter. It is noticed that the minimum temperature was found to be correlated with PMHD (per man hour density) whereas other climatic parameters like temperature (maximum), humidity and rainfall were inversely correlated with PMHD. The results will help in implementing and designing effective vector control strategies.

Studies on Antimicrobial Properties of Vegetable, Fruit & Spice Peels and Shells

Suvro Saha, Uma Ghosh and John Barnabas

  • Abstract

    The current study examines the extraction and assay of antimicrobial metabolites from peels and shells of vegetables, fruits and spices. Peels and shells are primarily discarded into environment as agro waste, nevertheless in our studies we initiate that these may well be explored for therapeutics, which could be economic, eco-friendly, presumed not to cause side effects as they originate from a natural source and therefore also benefit the waste management. Peels and shells were dried, powdered, followed by extraction with solvents such as acetone, methanol, hot water and cold water. Our findings report the antimicrobial effect of ten peels and shells against six species of bacteria and three species of fungi. The significance of our work also goes to show that all peels and shells except for the orange peels were probably the earliest investigation of this sort to survey such wastes for antimicrobial properties. Our findings demonstrate that, maximum antibacterial and antifungal action were experiential to be found by cold-water extraction of jackfruit against Proteus vulgaris and Aspergillus niger respectively

Effect of Cadmium Chloride on the Histoarchitecture of Kidney of a Freshwater Catfish, Channa punctatus

Nasrul Amin, Susan Manohar, Kamlesh Borana, T. A. Qureshi and Salma khan

  • Abstract

    The present study conducted to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride induced histological alterations in the kidney of a freshwater catfish, Channa punctatus. The fishes exposed to 3mg/l (96 h LC50) and 5 mg (96 h LC50) of cadmium chloride for a period of 15 and 45 days. The most common changes in the kidney of fish exposed cadmium chloride were characterized by loosening of haemopoietic tissue, uriniferous tubules have lost their original appearance, vacuolated cytoplasm, degeneration in the epithe

Effect of Cadmium Chloride on the Histoarchitecture of Liver of a Freshwater Catfish, Channa punctatus

Nasrul Amin, Susan Manohar , T.A Qureshi and Salma Khan

  • Abstract

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride induced histological alterations in the liver of a freshwater catfish, Channa punctatus. The fishes exposed to 3mg/l (96 h LC50) and 5mg/l (96 h LC50) of cadmium chloride for 15 and 45 days. The most common changes in liver at all doses of cadmium chloride were loosening of hepatic tissue, enlargement of bile passage vacuolated cell cytoplasm, necrosis and eccentric nuclei. .

Occurrence of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizas (VAM) in Medicinal Plants of Marathwada Region of Maharashtra, India

U. N. Bhale

  • Abstract

    An investigation has been made about the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi colonization on some medicinal plants. Ten medicinal plants belonging to different families growing in various part of Marathwada region in Maharashtra, India were studied for their AM association. The maximum percent of root colonization was found in Eucalyptus globulous (96%) and minimum in Glossocardia bosvallea (8%). Hyphal colonization was found in all tested plants while vesicles were found in Tribulis terrestris, Commiphora whitti , Adathoda zeylanica, Eucalyptus globulous,Calotropis procera and Hygrophila schulli. Hundred grams of soil showed an average of 349 spores in Hygrophila schulli which was maximum while minimum in Commiphora whitti (30).Twenty two AM fungal species were reported from rhizosphere soil. Glomus is the most dominant AM fungus followed by Acaulospora,Gigaspora, Sclerocystis and Entrophospora.

Identification, Characterization, Optimization Studies and Applications of Protease Enzyme from Bacillus lichenifirmis

M. Padmavathi

  • Abstract

    Proteases are essential constituents of all forms of life on earth including prokaryotes, fungi, plants and animals. Proteases are highly exploited enzymes in food, leather, detergent, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, waste management and silver recovery. Protease enzyme is produced from a number of microbes. One of the bacteria is Bacillus lichemiformis which produces a higher amount of protease enzyme and the activity of enzyme. By using RSM optimizing studies, this species can produce the higher amount of protease enzyme in presence of glucose and nitrogen sources 0.0.987 U/ml.

An Investigation on the Indigenous Method of Fish Drying in Bandipora District of Kashmir Valley

T. H. Bhat, Rizwana, M. H. Balkhi and Bilal Ahmad Bhat

  • Abstract

    The study conducted in district Bandipora that is one of the major fish producing districts of Kashmir valley. Sun drying of fish adopted by all the fishers of this district and contributes significantly to their income. The conventional method employed in drying of fishes is unscientific and can cause serious health hazards. Quality assurance of processed fish is of utmost concern that has greater implications and report the traditional method of fish drying.

Comparative Ecophysiological Study of Tapinanthus Bangwensis, [Engl. And R. Krause] Danser (African Mistletoe) On Two Host Plants

O. Jacob Oyetunji and D. E. Edagbo

  • Abstract

    Some ecophysiological aspects of African mistletoe, Tapinanthus bangwensis, [Engl. and R. Krause] Danser on two hosts were investigated. The leaf mineral nutrient analysis, total reducing sugar content and chlorophyll content of the mistletoe and the hosts were estimated. The characteristic feature observed was that the Na concentration was similar in the mistletoe and its Citrus species host while it was significantly higher in Irvingia species. The Ca, Mg, P, N and chlorophyll were more in the hosts relative to the mistletoe. Also, the relative water content estimation carried out showed a high percentage level in which the hosts had slightly higher rates than the mistletoe at the period of rainy season but a contrary result was obtained in the dry season when the mistletoe maintained higher water content than the hosts. Based on the results achieved in this study, it can be asserted that mistletoe thrives on its hosts relative to the available nutrients, water content and to a slight extent on the host photosynthate; while the extent to which mistletoe can affect the host is dependent on how much of the resource is diverted by the parasite and also the overall supply available to the host.

Diversity of Cyanobacteria in the paddy fields of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh

Danaboyina Krishna Sai Babu. and Sivakumar, K.

  • Abstract

    The present investigations carried out on some paddy fields of Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh (India) to study the biodiversity of Cyanobacteria from July 2010-June2011. Cyanobecteria are the most important nitrogen-fixing organisms because of their autotrophic nutrition and flourish in rice fields and known to sustain the fertility of this ecosystem. The rice ecosystem allows Cyanobecteria to function properly, selectively and effectively. Thirty-six species of cyanobecteria recorded. The present investigation carried out the diversity of nitrogen fixing Cyanobacterial communities of Guntur rice fields, Andhra Pradesh, India at Tenali mandal site water and soil samples taken, samples were analysed for taxonomic enumeration. Thirty-six species recorded. Most of them were from the orders of Nostocales, Chroococcales and Stigonematales

Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Evaluation of “Ji-otor” and “Ntubiri-ikpa” Traditional Foods of Ikwerre Ethnic National in Nigeria

Amadi B. A. Duru M. K. and Nwachukwu 

  • Abstract

    Nutritional and anti-nutritional evaluation of “Ji-otor” and “Ntubiriikpa” traditional foods of Ikwerre ethnic national in South-Southern, Nigeria was carried out. “Ji-otor” and “Ntubiri-ikpa” were prepared with crops grown and processed within the locality. Results obtained revealed that both samples are high in moisture content when compared to those of other traditional foods, and could contribute carbohydrates as well as ash significantly to human nutrition. Their antinutrients were low to affect the nutrients in food hence, as foods of plant origin; these anti-nutrients may impact health benefits to the studied foods.

Study the Spirulina as a Potential Antidiabatic

Priti Kumari, Shaheda Khanam, Manish Chandra Varma, Pritam Kumar, Reena Chouhan and Asutosh Kumar Pandey

  • Abstract

    In the sub-acute study, repeated administration (once a day for 28 days) of the SPIRULINA. Acts significantly (P < 0.001) reduction in the blood glucose level as compared with control group. Maximum reduction in blood glucose level was observed (233.6±16.539, 174.32±1.215 and 85.65±3.881 mg/dl respectively) on 35th day in the diabetic mice treated with SPIRULINA (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). Body weight of control treated (30.64±0.366, 30.68±0.358, 29.99±0.272, 29.72±0.29, and 29.41±0.306 and 29.19±0.324 gram respectively) and SPIRULINA treated (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) diabetic mice weight increased during study period

Studies on Drying Characteristics of Prawn and Fish

D.Kamalakar, L.Nageswara Rao, K.Siva Prasada Rao and M.Venkateswara Rao

  • Abstract

    Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Food preservation can also includeprocesses which inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut, which can occur during food preparation. Main objectives of the study are to know the drying character of prawn and fish and the effect of temperature on drying rate.

A Review on Biologically Active Constituents from Grape Pomace

J. S. Kothawade, A. S. Dhake and N. V. Shinde

  • Abstract

    Pomace is the solid remains of grapes, olives, or other fruit after pressing juice or oil. Pomace contains various chemical constituents like Rutin, Resveratrol, Catechin, Epicatechin, Gallic acid, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Tartaric acid, Chlorogenic acid, Anthocyanins. These constituents are shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The total Phenolic content, the total flavonol content and total anthocyanins content investigated by RP-HPLC, ESI-MS of grape pomace obtained from vinification of grape varieties (mainly Vitis vinifera) widely produced in various countries was investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. This review encompasses biological activity possessed by various chemical constituents who is isolate or derives from grape pomace and their applications.

Synthesis and in-vitro Biological Evaluation of a Novel Series of 4-(Substituted)-5-Methyl-2-Phenyl-1, 2-Dihydro-3H-Pyrazol-3-One as Antioxidant

Shweta S. Bule, M. R. Kumbhare, P.R. Dighe,

  • Abstract

    A novel series of 4-(substituted)- 5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,2- dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (5a-n) were synthesized by reacting various substituted R-NH2 with 5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one in the presence of formaldehyde. Structures of all new synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral data (IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR). The title compounds were screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity. Among the 7 prepared compounds, Compounds 5a , 5b, 5c exhibited significant antioxidant activity in model of 1,1-diphenyl- with Ascorbic acid as a standard drug.

Indigenous Methods of Conservation of Seeds and Other Propagules for Use in Subsequent Planting Seasons in Otukpa District of Benue State, Nigeria

D. E. Edagbo, T. I. Borokini, D. A. Ighere and C. Michael

  • Abstract

    The methods of conservation being employed by the rural farmers in Otukpa District of Benue State in Nigeria were the focus of this study. Eleven rural communities were randomly selected and 8 rural farmers were interviewed in each community. Questionnaires were deployed to elicit the methods of conservation generally practiced and other associated activities including the underlying factors propelling the conservation mission. Generally, the farmers subjected their seeds to drying in sunlight and different traditional pre-treatment before storage while the roots and tubers were buried in the soil using appropriate method. It was observed at the end of the study that the rural farmers were truly custodians of the natural resources in their domain and not poachers and that basically their indigenous knowledge and traditional methods of conservation were handed down to them from succeeding generations. By and large, the rural farmers have proved to be of inestimable asset to the sustainable use of plant genetic resources in our fast depleting ecosystem. It is therefore necessary to build a synergy between the rural farmers and scientists so that indigenous knowledge and modern sciences are integrated to showcase innovation and pragmatic agricultural practices.

Climate Change Adaptation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) 1: Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Extent of Biozyme® Usage in Production of Potato Tubers

B. K. Karanja,  D. K. Isutsa and  J. N. Aguyoh

  • Abstract

    A survey was conducted using a structured interview of 234 potato growers. A total of 60.2% of the respondents interviewed were men. Out of 84 respondents aged 26-40- years-old, 75 knew Biozyme®. Most respondents (85.5%) had primary school education adequate in accessing information. There was a significant relationship between education level and awareness of Biozyme®. A total of 82.1%, 79.5% and 80.8% respondents were involved in farming in Likia, Sururu and Mau-Narok locations, respectively. Most farmers with less than 2.5 acres farm size were aware that Biozyme® could enhance productivity through intensified usage. Farmers were aware that application of Biozyme® on potato plants increases tuber size and hastens physiological maturity. There was a significant relationship between gender, age, education and farming experience with awareness of Biozyme® and its usage. The homogenous locations did not affect awareness of Biozyme®. Majority of the growers (68.8%) reported applying Biozyme® and 64% of the farmers reported harvesting their potatoes early to fetch premium returns. However, 41% of the farmers reported a loss of 11-20% during delayed marketing or storage. A total of 71% of the farmers were not aware of proper postharvest handling of potato tubers to reduce yield loss during storage. Storage losses were not a matter of concern by most farmers, although they could be higher than 20%. Therefore, farmers should be educated and sensitized by agricultural extension officers on proper agrochemical usage, potato tuber postharvest losses, curing and storage conditions.

Climate Change Adaptation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) 2: Influence of Biozyme® Rate on Potato Growth and Development

B. K. Karanja,  D. K. Isutsa and  J. N. Aguyoh

  • Abstract

    Potato is an important food crop worldwide. Growers adopt potato production due its short growing season and poor soils tolerance. They use agrochemicals to improve growth under unreliable rainfall. Biozyme® foliar feed is widely used to hasten maturity and enhance yields of crops. It is said to be a storehouse of hormones and nutrients that improve crop health. It contains major hormones along with primary and secondary nutrients. This study determined if Biozyme® could overcome deficit rainfall and enhance potato growth to adapt to climate change. The arrangement was split plots in randomized complete block design replicated three times and repeated once. Main plots were assigned to potato cultivar (Tigoni and Asante) and subplots to Biozyme® rate (0, 125, 250, 500 and 750 ml/ha). Each subplot was planted with 28 tubers spaced at 30 cm x 70 cm in four rows. A distance of 1 m separated plots. Plant growth in height, stem diameter and aboveground biomass increased with increase in Biozyme® rate. The 750 ml/ha rate increased height by 41%, stem diameter by 55.34%, chlorophyll by 19.45 spads, flowers by 21.86%, as compared to the control rate (0 ml/ha), but was not significantly different from 500 ml/ha rate. Increased height, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass is good as it enhances photosynthate synthesis and translocation to edible tubers. Thus, foliar-feeding potato plants with at most 500 ml/ha Biozyme® is recommended for hastening growth in regions with deficit rainfall

Taxonomic Studies on Type Species of Genus Tarika Moore (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) from India

Jagbir Singh Kirti and Rahul Joshi

  • Abstract

    A taxonomic feature of type species, Tarika varana (Moore), has been described. Genus Tarika Moore has been recharacterised by incorporating female genitalic features of the type species. The female genitalia of the type species have been illustrated for the first time.

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