Vol. 3 & Issue 4 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2013


Production and optimization of L-Glutaminase (EC. by serratia marcescens using wheat bran under statistical designs

Suresh Kumar. , Muthuvelayudham. and Viruthagiri .

  • Abstract

    L-Glutaminase majorly produced by micro organism including bacteria, yeast and fungi. L-Glutaminase mainly catalyzes the hydrolysis of γ-amido bond of L-Glutamine. In this report, Optimization of the culture medium for L-Glutaminase production using serratia marcescens was carried out. The optimization of L-Glutaminase production using Wheat bran as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of ten nutrients for their influence with Wheat bran on L-Glutaminase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. The basal medium contained Peptone 30 g/L, Manganous sulphate 0.7 g/L, K2HPO4 0.7 g/L, NaCl 9 g/L was selected based on their higher influence on L-Glutaminase production. After medium components optimization, the Temperature, pH, Time, composition of the Wheat bran, and Inoculum size was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The predicted optimum levels are as follows: Temperature 28.43 0C, pH 6.07, Time 67.96 h, wheat bran 26 g/L and Inoculum size 1.30 %. This medium components and parameters were projected theoretically to produce an L-Glutaminase activity of 2299.96 IU/ml.

Weight Variation and Its Effect on Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Total Protein Concentration in the Brain Regions and Hypophyses of Pigs in the Tropics

Amata, .A and .O. Adejumo

  • Abstract

    In an experiment to determine the effects of variations in weight on the acetycholinesterase (AChE) activity and total protein concentration in the brain regions and hypophyses of pigs commercially reared in the tropics, a total of 80 pigs were sorted into 8 body brain regions and hypophyses assayed for AChE activity and for total protein concentration. The body weight categories were 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, 81-90 and 91-100kg. Bothe sexes were equally represented in each category. Acetylcholinesterase activity was highest in the amygdala, hippocamus and mid-brain of pigs within the 41-70kg weight categories and lowest in the cerebral cortex of pigs within the 31-40kg weight category although the differences were not significant (P>0.05). Variations in mean Specific Acetylcholinesterase (SAChE) activity and in mean concentration of total proteins with pig body weight and brain regions/hypophyses were highly significant (P<0.01). Specific Acetylcholinesterase (SAChE) activity was highest in amygdala, hippocamus and hypothalamus of pigs within the 41-70kg weight categories and lowest in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of pigs within the 31-40 kg weight category. Total protein concentration was highest in the pons and cerebellum of pigs within the 31-40 and 91-100kg weight categories. Total protein concentration was lowest in the hypophyses of pigs within the 41-50kg weight category however; there were no observed variations in relation to AChE activity.

Estimation of the Type and Quantity of Sugar in Milk

Ajit V Pandya, Dhigesh Joshi, Sheban Vora and Ajay Vishwakarma

  • Abstract

    Sugar/Carbohydrate is widely present in all the living substances hence it is called the “staff of life”. It is present as a storage form in all the fruits, vegetables in its various forms and quantities. It was determined through a series of experiments performed on a selected sample of cow milk as the research material and the results taste and contributes approximately 40% of whole cow's milk's calories. Lactose is a sugar was estimated to the value of 4.7 gm in 100gm of milk. The values obtained are within the range. Milk contains Lactose, Casein protein, fat and fat soluble vitamins. Under certain conditions, the sugar content of the milk may vary such as degree of freshness and contamination of milk, type of animal from which the milk is obtained, methods used during milching It is recommended to nutritional requirements of the body.

Evaluation of Beneficial Effects of Medicago Sativa (Alfalfa) In Iron-Overload Conditions

Rinal Pateln and Pravin Tirgar

  • Abstract

    In medicine, iron overload indicates accumulation of iron in body from any cause. The most important causes are thalassemia, hereditary haemochromatosis (HHC) of present study is to investigate in-vivo iron chelating potential and beneficial effects of protective activity of methanolic (250 mg/kg) and water (500 mg/kg) extracts of induced iron overload models in Wistar rats which results in condition of chronic serum iron and ferritin , urine and fecal iron levels including complications on vital organ by histopathological study and test for biomarkers were (SGPT, SGOT, Serum creatinine, creatine kinase) were estimated to measure organo protective effects. There were significant decreased in serum iron, ferritin were observed compared to iron overloaded rats. These beneficial effects were observed because methanol and water extracts of M. sativa increased excretion of iron in urine and fecal due to iron chelation property of extract. Organo-protective effects on liver, heart and kidney of both extracts of M. sativa in iron overloaded rats were confirmed by histopathological study and of our study confirmed that methanol and water extracts of Medicago sativa have significant iron chelating activity and organo-protective effects in iron thalassemia, haemochromatosis like conditions.

Analysis of Ascorbic Acid Contents in White Guava and Red Guava

Ajit V Pandya and Dave Nidhi K

  • Abstract

    Ascorbic Acid is essential for all the living cells. An Important source of Ascorbic Acid is Guava fruit. Crops with additional healthpromoting and nutritional benefits, such as White and Red Guava, are increasingly gaining momentum both for health professionals and consumers. This Guava fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, carbohydrates etc. The result revealed difference in that ascorbic acidontent of Red and White Guava The comparative analysis revealed that Red Guava content rich ascorbic acid than White Guava.

Antigenic and Biological Interaction of Staphylococcus spp. in Host Tissues for Causing Mastitis: A Review

Subhasree Patnaik, Arun Prasad and Subha Ganguly

  • Abstract

    Abstract: Mastitis is one of the most economically important diseases of dairy industries around the world producing great economic loss to farmers. It occurs in clinical and sub-clinical forms. Mastitis the chronic inflammation of the mammary gland of cattle and can have infectious and non-infectious etiology. It is characterized by physical, chemical and usually bacteriological changes in the milk and pathological changes in the glandular tissue of the udder and affects quality and quantity of milk. Mastitis is usually caused by bacteria that invade the udder, multiply and produce toxins which are harmful to the mammary gland. The present article highlights the mode of action of the active antigenic principles of the bacteria in causing the infection in cattle population in India

Bacterial Contamination of Personal Mobile Phones in Iraq

Husam Sabah Auhim

  • Abstract

    The high prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from mobile phones was attributed to the poor hygienic and sanitary practices. In general the rate of bacterial contamination of personal mobile phones was 82.5%, in personal mobile phones for male the rate of bacterial contamination was 85% while in personal mobile phones for female was 80%. Generally the microorganisms isolated and their percentage frequency of occurrence were Staphylococcus aureus (45%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (27.5%) Bacillus spp. (52.5%) and Esherichia coli (12.5%), in personal mobile phones for male the microorganisms isolated and their percentage epidermidis (25%), Bacillus spp. (50%) and Esherichia coli (25%), while in personal mobile phones for female were Staphylococcus aureus (40%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (30%), Bacillus spp. (55%) Esherichia coli (0.0 %). the result showed that there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the microorganisms isolated and their percentage frequency of occurrence between personal mobile phones for male and female. The research findings indicate that staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus spp. are the main bacterial isolates frequently associated with personal mobile phones.

Physical Characteristics of Raw, Processed And Stored Honey Of Indigenous Giant Bee Apis Dorsata F. And Hive Bee Apis Cerana Indica In And Around Bangalore Rural And Urban Districts

Balasubramanyam, M.V.

  • Abstract

    Multifloral honey of indigenous giant honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected in and around Bangalore rural and urban districts and its physical characteristics of refractive index, optical density, viscosity and surface tension in raw, processed and stored honey were determined during February 2011 to March 2012. All the four physical characteristics tested in three grades of honey samples exhibited quantitative variations. The refractive index of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 1.47 and 1.48 respectively. Similarly optical density of processed honey of A. cerana and A.dorsata was 0.61 and 0.64 respectively. . The viscosity of A. dorsata and A.cerana stored honey was 76.82 poise and 78.94 poise respectively. Further, surface tension of A. dorsata and A.cerana stored honey was 102.31 dynes/cms and 104.13 dynes/cms respectively. The refractive index of A.dorsata raw honey was less than that of than of processed honey of A. cerana. Viscosity and surface tension of processed honey was less than raw and stored honey in A.dorsata and A.cerana. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of viscosity and surface tension of raw, processed and stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana was significant at p<0.01% levels while refractive index and optical density of raw, processed and stored was not significant at p<0.01%.

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization and Diagnosis of Mastitis: A Review

Subhasree Patnaik, Arun Prasad, Subha Ganguly, Madhurendra Bachan, Dimdim Gangmei and Ravuri Halley Gora

  • Abstract

    Mastitis is one of the most economically important diseases of dairy industries around the world producing great economic loss to farmers. It occurs in clinical and sub-clinical forms. Mastitis the chronic inflammation of the mammary gland of cattle and can have infectious and non-infectious etiology.

Heavy Metal Accumulation in Certain Marine Edible Fishes along the Gulf of Manner in Kilakarai, Taminadu, India

M. Anand and P. Kumarasamy

  • Abstract

    Contamination of heavy metals, namely, Copper, Chromium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Ferric and Zinc were evaluated in the selected edible marine fishes of Dussumieria acuta, Tenualosa ilisha and Sardinella longiceps at Gulf of Mannar region in Kilakarai collected during the January 2012. The selected three marine edible fishes accumulated varying the determination of heavy metals. The level of heavy metals was determined using ELICO’s SL- metals in selected fishes analyzed was in the order of magnitude as by Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni and Zn. The result shows the Zinc concentration were the maximum levels followed by the Cd>Cr>Cu>Ni>Co. It is revealed that the heavy metal concentrations in the selected marine edible fishes are below the threshold level associated with the toxicological effects and the regulatory limits. The bio-concentration factors revealed that the fishes have accumulated heavy metals along the food chain rather than from the water column and sediment.

Mastitis, an Infection of Cattle Udder: A Review

Subhasree Patnaik, Arun Prasad and Subha Ganguly

  • Abstract

    Mastitis the chronic inflammation of the mammary gland of cattle and can have infectious and non-infectious etiology1. It is characterized by physical, chemical and usually bacteriological changes in the milk and pathological changes in the glandular tissue of the udder and affects quality and quantity of milk2.Mastitis is usually caused by bacteria that invade the udder, multiply and produce  toxins which are harmful to the mammary gland3. It remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world producing great economic loss to farmers. There are two forms of mastitis viz., clinical mastitis (CM) and Sub clinical mastitis (SCM).

Rhizospheric Bacteria with the Potential for Biological Control of Parthenium hysterophorus

Vishwas Shankar Patil

  • Abstract

    Partenium hysterophorus is a serious weed of the country. Parthenium weed decreases the primary agricultural production and also causes health problems in humans and animals. The use of microorganisms as a biological agent for weed control is a recent approach and is gaining importance. Deleterious rhizospheric bacteria have potential to suppress plant growth. Rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from seedlings and mature plants of Parthenium hysterophorus. Rhizobacterial isolates were tested to inhibit the growth of target weed species and crop plants under laboratory conditions. Three bacterial isolates were found to be promising and were further tested on weed and crop plants under glasshouse conditions.

Recommendation of flaA and flaB as housekeeping genes in detection of Helicobacter pylori

Masome Madhi, Farkhonde Poursina, Sharare Moghim, Farzad khademi Peiman Adibi .Jamshid Faghr , Hussein Fazeli ,Bahram Nasr Esfahani

  • Abstract

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) has unipolar flagella made up of FlaA and FlaB proteins encoded by flaA and flaB genes. These regions are conserved and can be found in all strains of H. pylori. In this study based on bioinformatics’ methods, flaA and flaB nucleotide sequences of forty H.pylori complete genomes were extracted from NCBI databank and aligned with MEGA4 software. Based on conserved regions of flaA and flaB genes, 6 primer pairs were designed by AlleleID6 software. The designed primers were compared with glmM primers. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed with six primer pairs, twenty clinical samples and H. pylori 26695 as positive control. Primer Blast showed that three pairs of our designed primers were able to detect all 40 standard strains while glmM primers used in many papers were not capable of detecting all 40 standard strains of H. pylori. Although, few missense and some silent mutations, in comparison with H. pylori26695, were identified in flaA and flaB genes in this study, there was more semblance between them and other standard strains. So, it would bebetter to use these markers instead of glmM primers for detection of H.pylori as diagnostic kits.

A Histochemical Study of Neurosecretory Cells in the Adult Spodoptera Litura (F.)

M M Shaikh, J D Shaikh and Vidya Pradhan

  • Abstract

    The present paper describe the histochemical study of neurosecretoy cells in the adult Spodoptera litura which are collected from caster plant. In the present insect Spodoptera litura the neurosecretory cells are present in medium, lateral and posterior part of protocerebrum of second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth instars larvae and pupal stage.

Invitro culture of Stevia rebaudiana var Bertoni

Patil, N.M.

  • Abstract

    The effect of different plant growth regulators on explants was studied by In vitro culture technique in Stevia rebaudiana var Bertoni, an important medicinal, zerocalorie value, sweet tasting and antidiabetic herb. For effective shoot initiation, nodalsegments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog‘s (MS) medium supplemented with  varying plant growth regulator combinations. The control was compared with the medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and BAP for shoot induction and 2, 4-D and IAA for callus induction. The best results were obtained from MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA at the concentrations of 2.0 mg/l and 0.5 mg/l for shoot initiation and 2.5mg/l and 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D and IAA for callus induction respectively. Further study on development of plantlets invitro and their hardening are in progress.

On The Occurrence of One New Species and Three New Records of the Genus Aplidium from Indian Waters

V.K. Meenakshi and S. Senthamarai

  • Abstract

    Ascidians which are pharmacologically important marine sedentary organisms were collected from mussel landing centers, trawl discards and by SCUBA diving from the Gulf of Mannar waters of India. They were identified up to the species level. The survey reports one species - Aplidium digitalis n.sp., as new to science and three species Aplidium filiforme Kott, 1992, Aplidium lunacratum Kott, 1992 and Aplidium macrolobatum Kott, 1992 of the family Polyclinidae as new records to Indian waters. The total number of Aplidium species reported from Indian water could be raised from three to seven. Key to the species of genus Aplidium recorded from India is given with detailed descriptions of all the new records.

Fish Diversity in two Tributaries of River Narmada, Central India.

Vipin Vyas and Kripal Singh Vishwakarma

  • Abstract

    In the present study on Sip and Jamner River tributaries of River Narmada in Central India, between May 2011 and April 2012. The fish composition comprised 34 species of fishes belonging to 17 genera, 8 families and 3 orders were identified. Atotal of 427 and 112 individuals were caught from Sip and Jamner stations, respectively. The most abundant group of fish was the Cypriniforimes. The dominant species, Rasbora daniconius consisted 30.08%of the population. Fisheries resources are on the decline in India due to over exploitation and inadequate management of her inland waters. For sustainability of these resources, an adequate knowledge of species composition, diversity and relative abundance of her water bodies must be understood and vigorously pursued

Seasonal Variation of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Floodplain Wetlands of West Bengal

Golam Ziauddin, S. K. Chakraborty, A. K. Jaiswar and Utpal Bhaumik

  • Abstract

    The meandering nature of the river Ganga in its lower course in West Bengal has given rise to a large number of floodplain wetlands, mostly open-type of ox-bow lakes, mainly in the districts of Burdwan, Nadia and North –24 Parganas. Floodplain wetlands are considered among the most productive ecosystems and play a very important role in socio-economic condition of the region as they are used for commercial fishery. Realizing the importance of such wetlands and paucity of literature on the physicochemical characteristics of this ecosystem, investigations were carried out in Kole beel, an ox-bow lake formed near Somra bazar in Hooghly district, during the period 2011-2012. An investigation was carried out in two floodplain wetlands with open (Kole) and closed (Suguna) system. Seasonal fluctuations in water column were conspicuous and mostly dependent on the replenishment resources and volume. Studies were undertaken to assess the general physico-chemical condition of water during this period. The lake is infested with dense growth of aquatic vegetation belonging to the submerged, floating and alkaline in nature with the pH varying between 7.5-8.4. The dissolved oxygen content and Secchi Disc transparency values reflect the pristine condition of the water. The water was moderately hard and the nutrients were present only in trace amounts.

Influence of CaCl2 on Physico-chemical, Sensory and Microbial Quality of Apricot cv. Habi at Ambient Storage

Sartaj Ali, Tariq Masud, Talat Mahmood, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi and Amjed 

  • Abstract

    Apricot is a highly perishable fruit of immense nutritional and health promoting potentials. However, short storage life of the fruit hampers its distant marketing. The present investigation was undertaken to assess some affordable postharvest techniques to extend shelf life of apricot. Local apricot variety cv. Habi was treated with various concentrations of calcium chloride (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4%) packed in corrugated cartons along with potassium permanganate dipped sponge cubes as ethylene scavengers. Postharvest quality traits as fruit firmness, weight loss, TSS, sugars, sensory characteristics and microbial load were recorded at 2 day intervals during ambient storage. Minimum losses in firmness and fruit weight, while maximum retention of total sugars and sensory attributes were obtained for 3 and 2% CaCl2 treated samples. The results of microbial study demonstrated lower microbial loads for 4% CaCl2 concentration followed by 3% during ambient storage. The overall results revealed that treated fruits with 3% concentration significantly maintained freshness and quality attributes up to 12 days.

Floristic Analysis of Manendragarh Flora District-Koria (Chhattisgarh) INDIA

Mantosh Kumar Sinha and Deepima Sinha

  • Abstract

    Koria district in Chhattisgarh lies between 22 °58' and 23 °51' North Latitude and 81°59' and 82 °45' East Longitude and has a forest area of 81.23%. Average rainfall is 121.36 cm. and annual mean temperature is 24°C.The district is dominated by Upper Gondwana rocks which are rich in deposition of coal. The district has a sizeable tribal population using enormous range of plants for their basic needs, sustenance and livelihood. The district has very rich plant diversity, including medicinal plants. Some plants species are on the verge of extinction. Keeping these points in view the present investigation was planned to enumerated floristic analysis of the medicinal plants observed in the wild conditions reveals that there are 284 genera and 364 species distributed in 93 families of seed plants. Three genera and four species of pteridophytes were also observed. Analysis also shows that there are 235 genera and 304 spp. representing dicot plants and 49 genera and 60 spp. representing monocots. The familywise Dicot/Monocot Ratio was 6.75; whereas, generawise D:M ratio was 4.79. At species level it was found to be 5.06. The generic coefficient was found to be 78.021.

Assessment of the Risk Factors of Oral Candidiasis among Commercial Sex Workers in Ijebu – Ode Local Government Area of Ogun Satate, Nigeria

Quadri J.A, Ojure M.A and Mosobalaje 

  • Abstract

    Small amount of candida fungus are present in the mouth, digestive tract, and skin of most healthy people and are normally kept in check by other bacteria and microorganisms in the body. However, certain factors such as low immunity, oral sex, long term and long term antibiotic therapy, can disturb the delicate balance, causing the fungus candida to grow out of control, causing thrush. This research was carried out to assess the risk factors of oral candidacies among commercial sex workers in Ijebu-Ode area of Ogun state. Purposive sampling method was used to select the areas for the study while simple randomly sampling was used to select the fifty (50) commercial sex workers. Questionnaire was administered and analyzed using chi-square test at 0.05 level of significance. The finding shows that 48% of the subjects were at different time on long term antibiotics therapy while 40% do practice oral sex which is one of the major risk factors of oral candidiasis; it also showed that 40% commercial sex workers had STI (sexually transmitted infection) at different times. It appeared from the result that 44% of commercial sex workers have experienced oral candidiasis. Two of the three hypotheses were accepted.

Studies on the production of Neutral Protease by Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 using Lablab purpureus seed powder under solid state fermentation

D. Siva Rama Prasad and K. Jaya Raju

  • Abstract

    Among all the enzymes proteases have significant role. Proteases are the enzymes which causes the breakdown of proteins. In view of wider applications of these proteases, in the present study the production of neutral protease using Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 carried out under solid state fermentation. Various substrate powders (Lablab purpureus seeds, Diascoria alata, Tamarind seeds, Water melon that Lablab purpureus seed powder has more potential to serve as a substrate for neutral protease production by the fungal strain Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215. Various physico-chemical fermentation parameters were studied and optimized for the production of highly active neutral protease. The parameters optimized are fermentation time (4 days), fermentation temperature (400C), optimum pH (7), initial moisture content (160%), inoculums age (4 days old) and inoculums volume (1ml). The effect of supplements like carbon source lactose (1%) and nitrogen source casein (0.5%) were studied and maximum yield obtained is 258.57 U/gds. The proteases have wider applications in the field of food, pharmaceuticals and leather industries etc.

Population Composition, Distribution and Habitat Preference of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in Chittaurgarh District, Southern Rajasthan

Mohammed Yaseen, Rashmi Saxena and Sunil Dubey

  • Abstract

    Chittaurgarh District has an area of 2.19% of Rajasthan state and 330 to 487 m elevation range. It is also known as “a former capital of the Sisodia clans of Rajput and of Mewar”. A district survey to determine the status, demography and encounter rate of the Indian Sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone) was carried out during the summer period of 2010 to 2012 in all10 tahsils. A total of 280 Sarus crane were counted in 2010, 322 in 2011 and 329 in 2012 during survey. During 2010 survey, 85.37% adults and 14.63% juveniles were reported. In 2011, 88.46% adults with 11.54% juveniles and during 2012, 87.97 adult and 12.03% juvenile were observed. Maximum numbers (17) of juveniles were recorded in 2010. Our study confirms the views of earlier researchers that wetlands were most commonly frequented by Sarus Cranes.

Treatment Strategies against Female Reproductive Lead Toxicity: A Review

Ragini Sharma and Khushbu Panwar

  • Abstract

    Environmental endocrine disruptors have been at the heart of discussion about chemicals and their effects on fertility, but the focus on the heavy metals and the role of antioxidants during developing stages has been largely overlooked. Lead induced oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of lead poisoning by disrupting the delicate pro oxidant or antioxidant balance that exists within poisoning is controversial. Most of the chelating agents tend to have adverse side effects and the benefits are transitory. The chelating agents cannot be used during developing stages as this period is highly sensitive to these agents and chelators have concomitant and injurious side effects on development. The assumption of oxidative stress as a mechanism in lead toxicity suggests that antioxidants or vitamins might play a role in treatment of lead induced toxicity. In the present review methods of screening for sub-clinical lead poisoning along with dietary treatment and prevention are discussed.

Physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of banana juice produced and consumed in Bweramana (Rwanda)

Claver Fatakanwa and Léopord Dufitumukiza

  • Abstract

    Banana juice and other derivatives foods of banana are of most important to Rwandan peoples. Although such highly preferred, if banana juice is not well processed and preserved it may lead to different diseases. The aim of this study is the biological and physico-chemical analyses of banana juice produced and consumed in Bweramana sector of Rwanda. Samples were analyzed for yeasts and molds which were found to be of 9.0x101 cfu/mL; total mesophilic aerobic flora with 2.0x104 cfu/mL which was found to exhibit the very high value. Interestingly, salmonella and shigella the same as Escherchia coli were absent. Fecal coliforms and RAS (anaerobic) were both of them found with a low value; <1 cfu/mL. The total Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecal count were in the range of 7.0x101 cfu/mL and 7.0x102 cfu/mL respectively; and total coliforms with count 4.4x102 cfu/mL. All the samples were of acidic pH ranging between 4.69-4.78; total acidity 4.5 g/L and total sugars with 60g/L. Overall, the study demonstrates unsatisfactory hygienic practice during the preparation of that beverage and it needs to be microbiological controlled in order to ensure health safety.

Assessment of Genetic Modification in Imported Maize (Zea mays) Seeds and Processed Soybean (Glycine max) Foods in Tanzania

Chagula A. Mwita, Ken M. Hosea and Masoud H. Muruk

  • Abstract

    In the current study, DNA and protein based methods were used for the assessment of genetic modification in imported maize seeds and processed soybean foods in Tanzania. A total of 30 imported maize seed samples were collected from seed companies, research centers and farmers from six maize growing regions; Ruvuma, Mbeya, Iringa, Morogoro, Kilimanjaro and Arusha. Similarly 31samples of soybean food products were obtained from supermarkets and major shops in three major cities of Tanzania, namely Dar es Salaam, Arusha and Mwanza. A protein based method; Immunochromatographic strip (ICS) was first evaluated and optimised before applied on the screening of all maize samples targeting specifically a genetically engineered Cry1A (b) protein. Standard protocols were then applied for the extraction of genomic DNA from all samples. Standard singleplex Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs) were performed on genomic DNA extracts targeting different specific gene segments. Primer pairs CDPK/cry1A(b), IV01/cry1A (b), HS01/cry1A(b) and 41_95-F/41_95R were used to amplify specific genome integration segments in Event176, BT11, MON810 and GTS 40-3-2 respectively. Results from both ICS and PCR strategies used on maize seeds in this study demonstrated absence of GM contents; cry1Ab gene from maize seed samples tested. Likewise results from PCR strategy on soybean indicated absence of GM contents; cp4 epsps gene from tested soybean food produc ts. Importantly in the presen tstudy, for the first time in Tanzania the utility of ICS methods has been successfully

Estimation of Food and Feeding Habit of an Endangered Fish Mahseer (Tor tor) in Culture Pond at Powerkheda Fish Farm, Central India

Jyoti Sharma, Alka Parashar and R.K. Garg

  • Abstract

    The present investigation is undertaken to analyze the food and feeding habit of an endangered mahseer T. tor (a state fish of Madhya Pradesh) under pond conditions at the fish farm of fisheries federation, Powerkheda, Hoshangabad, India. Gut analysis showed that plant matter formed the main component of the gut contents and constituted about 45.31 % of the total food consumed, while insects constituted 22.65 %, molluscs 8.70%, algae 15.59%, and debris 3.59 %. The percentage of artificial feed was 4.762 %. However, the relative gut length (RGL) ranged from 0.421-2.112 and gastro-somatic index (GaSI) ranged from 1.39-3.66 % indicating their omnivorous tendency. The present study shows that, by providing different environmental condition to T. tor it accepts wide range of food available which suggest that, it can be cultured in various conditions that is important for its conservation and protection. The study provides important information on feeding index, index of preponderance, diet preference and feeding strategies which could be useful for aquaculture enhancement of this potential species for conservation significance.

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Lantana camara Linn

Richa Sharma, Rashmi Shrivastava, Jyotsna Mishra, and Sunil Dubey

  • Abstract

    Lantana camara is a significant weed which is a low erect or subscandent, vigorous shrub with stout recurved prickles and a strong odour of black currents. The plant is spread widely in all over Madhya Pradesh state of India. Successive extracts from the whole plants of Lantana camara Linn (Verbanaceae) were used for their phytochemical screening. Hence, the present study describes the preliminary phytochemical screening and percentage yields of the various extracts like methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and distilled water isolated from the whole plant of Lantana camara Linn.

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn

Rashmi Shrivastava, Richa Sharma, Jyotsna Mishra, and Sunil Dubey

  • Abstract

    Phytochemical are secondary metabolites found in one or more parts of the plants for their defense. Keeping this view in mind the present study was carried out in Euphorbia thymifolia (Linn.) plants collected from Vidisha (M.P.), India. The extracts obtained in ethanol by soxhletion gave the percentage yield (7.4%) and its glycosides, triterpenes, tannins, steroids and the absence of saponins and proteins.

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