Vol. 4 & Issue 1 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Nov.2013 to Jan.2014


Late Planting of Wheat Varieties vs. Climate Change Adaption: Prospects for Resilient Varieties and Features

Orjeta Jaupaj, Ilirjana Stamo, Vladimir Malo, Nikollё Bardhi, Aranit Shkurti5, Afёrdita Laska

  • Abstract

    The issue of building resilience to the climate change has already become a concern for the worldwide research activities. Nevertheless, one of the major apprehensions should be related to ensuring food security for the public at large. Actually, Albania is expected to cope with an increase of extreme climatic events caused by hard and intense precipitations mainly occurring during autumn months. Therefore, such events are likely to threaten the planting process of wheat culture in the western part of Albanian territory, which happens to be prone to constant floods when such events occur. This study aims at evaluating the resilience of three wheat varieties, i.e., LB7, DxM and STF4 against their late planting. To serve this purpose, 1000 plants for each variety have been sown in two different periods consisting of normal and late planting time. In the anthesis stage of crops, the concentration of photosynthetic pigment occurring in flag leafs as well as their surface area has been analyzed in each plot. Besides, the number of kernels in the spike and their weight has been evaluated at the end of the vegetative period.

Bacterial Flora Associated with Intestine of Tropical Estuarine Fish Species

C.N. Ariole and N. A. Kanu

  • Abstract

    The intestinal microflora of three fish species (Tilapia guineensis, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Liza falcipinnis) from three rivers (Bonny River, New Calabar River and Sombriero River) in the brackish water zone of the Nigerian Coast was investigated. Populations of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria present in the digestive tracts of fish species and in rivers were estimated using spread plate method. The total heterotrophic, proteolytic, amylolytic, hydrocarbon-degrading and total coliform bacteria in the digestive system of fish were abundant and ranged from 6.60 to 6.88logcfu/g, 5.38 to 5.53logcfu/g, 5.3 to 5.61logcfu/g, 5.68 to 5.95cfu/g and 5.20 to 5.70logcfu/g respectively. The counts varied among fish species and were higher than in water. The culturable bacterial genera in the digestive tract of fish were identified as Aeromonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Vibrio, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus and Enterobacter. The results indicate that intestinal bacteria possess enzymatic activity that may be beneficial for the fish. The presence of opportunistic pathogens may predispose the fish to bacterial epizootics especially if populations are stressed by environmental contaminants.

Isolation of Protease Producing Bacteria from Soil and Genomic Library Construction of Protease Gene

Amandeep Kaur , Seema Ahuja and Geetika Sharma

  • Abstract

    Six soil samples were collected from various areas of Chandigarh and Kharar, out of which 3 were waste soil samples and 3 garden soil samples. In all, 16 isolates from the garden soil and the waste soils were processed for the isolation of bacterial species. Bacillus was selected as the major producer of proteases. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of this genera was found to be 45ºC and 7 respectively by Well Assay Method. Gram staining and microbial study of microorganisms was done to determine the species. The screened microbial colonies revealed the protease producing species of Bacillus. A genomic DNA library was constructed and screened to obtain the corresponding protease gene. It is revealed from the present study that this protease shows high activity on skimmed milk plates by generating a clear zone of hydrolysis

Toxicity of the pesticide Dimethoate 30% EC on the Carbohydrate content of the Fresh water fish, Labeo rohita

Binukumari.S and Vasanthi.J

  • Abstract

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticide Dimethoate 30% EC of the fresh water fish, Labeo rohita for 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. The 10 healthy fishes were exposed to different concentration of pesticide to calculate the LC50 value. The LC50 value is 0.398 ppm. Compared with the control group, a significant decrease of carbohydrate was ascertained in the experimental group.The above results of examinations of the carbohydrate content indicate a marked neurotoxic effect of Dimethoate in fishes.

Effectiveness of Modern Newborn Care on Physiological Parameters of Neonates

Mrs. Umarani. J and Shilpa G.S

  • Abstract

    Despite health improvements over the last thirty years, lives continue to be lost due to early childhood diseases, inadequate newborn care and childbirth-related causes. The present study aims to stabilize the physiological parameters and to decrease the neonatal mortality with the implementation of modern newborn care which includes kangaroo mother care, exclusive breast feeding with eye contact, rooming-in and interaction/communication to the newborn by the mother. Quasi experimental two group pretest post test design was adopted. Totally 60 neonates were selected for the study. The intervention was administered to the neonates of experimental group and the routine care was given to the control group for 4 days. The results revealed that there is a significant difference in the weight and the temperature of the newborn between experimental and control group at P<0.05 level.

Analysis of Ligand Molecule of Nef Protein of HIV-1

Diksha Gautam, Mohammed Yaseen and Kusum Lata Sharma

  • Abstract

    Nef stands for "Negative Factor”. It is a accessory protein responsible for the infection in the host, survival and replication. Nef localize primarily to the cytoplasm but also partially to the Plasma Membrane of the host cell so to stop its function a ligand molecule or drug molecule is required. In this work we find out some drug molecule which can stops the Nef action according to their lowest energy. By comparing result on the basis of dock score we find out that Crambescidin 826 having -193.101, Integracin A having -181.87, cytosporic acid having -177.722 lowest energy, so on the basis of their dock score among all CRAMBESCIDIN 826 is the best drug molecule having lowest energy.

Biogenic Production of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Acalypha Indica

D. Gnanasangeetha and D. SaralaThambavani

  • Abstract

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles have fascinated meticulous research interest because of its significant applications in the field of medicine, pigment electronics, spintronics and piezoelectricity. The biogenic invention of zinc oxide nanoparticle is a better option due to ecofriendliness. Aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha indica were used to synthesis zinc oxide nanoparticles not only in the laboratory scale, but also in their natural environs. This green synthesis approach shows that the environmentally benign and renewable aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha indica can be used as a stabilizing agent for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The fashioned nanoparticles ranged in dimension of about 100-200nm. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) entrenched that the formed nanoparticles are zinc oxide nano cubes.

Evaluation of Enzymatic Activity during Vegetative Growth and Fruiting of Pleurotus HK 37 on Agave sisalana Saline Solid Waste

Mutemi Muthangya, Anthony M. Mshandete, Suhaila O. Hashim, Mzee J. Amana, Amelia K. Kivaisi

  • Abstract

    Mushroom cultivation is an effective method for the production of nutritional food in addition to offering a holistic approach to agro waste management by utilization of the abundant lignocellulosic waste including sisal leaf decortications waste (SLDW). Production of 1 kg of mushrooms generates 5 kg of a co-product called spent mushroom substrate (SMS). Alternative means of disposal of the resulting SMS is production of extracellular enzymes generated by mushrooms during their growth and development. In this study, Pleurotus HK 37 was studied for its ability to produce laccase manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and xylanase on SLDW under solid-state fermentation. Laccase activities reached the highest values of 27.3 U/ml when the substrate was fully colonised. The activity then declined with each subsequent harvest to 15.0 U/ml. MnP assay had two peaks of 8.9 U/ml and 8.0 U/ml on full colonisation and during the 3rd flush, while LiP and xylanase activities had highest recorded activities of 0.34 U/ml and 0.28 U/ml, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate the potential utilization of sisal leaf decortications waste as raw materials for simultaneous production of edible mushrooms and extracellular enzymes from a commercial fungus, Pleurotus HK 37, which is a potential biotechnological application.

Study of the Cytotoxicity Effect of New Cr (III), Co (II), Fe (III), and Cu (II) Complexes of Chalcone on Cancer (Cell Line Hep-2) and Antimicrobial Activity

Omar H. Al-Obaidi

  • Abstract

    A new series of Cr(III) , Co(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes with the chalcone ligand were studied on the growth of Hep-2 (Human hepatocellular ademocarcinoma ),which is the human larynx cancer cell Line by using in vitro system and compared with anticancer drug cisplatin (cis-pt) as appositive control. The cancer cells were treated with different concentration and cis-pt after 72 hr. exposure time. The cytotoxic activity was tested by inhibition rate as parameter. The results showed significant differences (p<0.05) for each three treatments when the inhibition rates were increased.The synthesized compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity by cup plate diffusion method. The results indicate the enhanced activity of metal complexes over the parent ligands.

Alterations in Antioxidant Enzymes Levels Following Sub Chronic Exposure of Sodium Arsenite in Female Rats

Madhuri Mehta and S. S. Hundal

  • Abstract

    The present work was undertaken to assess the sub chronic effect of sodium arsenite on antioxidative potential of lungs, brain and spleen of female albino rats. Forty eight female rats were divided in to 4 groups consisting of 12 animals each. Group I animals received distilled water throughout the experiment and served as control. Group II, III and IV animals received sodium arsenite at the doses of 10μg/L, 30μg/L and 50μg/L dissolved in distilled water ad libitum for 60 days. Half of the animals from each group were sacrificed after 30 days of sodium arsenite exposure and remaining half after 60 days under mild anaesthesia. Lungs, spleen and brain were collected, weighed, minced and homogenized for the estimation of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), a marker for oxidative stress. A significant decline in the activity of SOD, CAT, GST and GSH in all tissues at different time periods (30 and 60 days) has been detected while the levels of LPO were found to increase significantly in treated animals as compared to control. In conclusion, we may infer that exposure to sodium arsenite decreased the antioxidative potential of lungs, spleen and brain, making them susceptible for various diseases due to generation of oxidative stress.

Determination of Changes in Antioxidant Status in Hypertension-Induced Congestive Heart Failure Patients

Oladunjoye Z. M, Akinosun M.O, Ojure M.A, Quadri J.A, Aborishade M .V

  • Abstract

    Congestive heart failure is a common end point of many abnormal cardiac conditions. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked with oxidative stress which provides the strongest evidence for the protective role of antioxidants. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables which are good sources of antioxidants has been associated with lower coronary risk. Specifically, there is evidence of reduced coronary risk in population with high blood levels of the antioxidants nutrients, Vitamin C and E. Change in the level of total antioxidant status (TAS), Vitamin A,E, C levels and antioxidant trace metals (Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese) were studied in the plasma of sixty one (61) participants comprising thirty (30) hypertensive subjects without heart failure (HTN) eleven hypertension induced congestive heart failure subjects (CHF)and twenty (20) non hypertensive apparently healthy individuals (Control) using spectrophotometric method, HPLC and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques respectively. The age of the subjects ranged between 30 and 79 years. In CHF group, there was significant lower mean plasma levels of TAS and Vitamin C in congestive heart failure compared with controls (p=0.04, p=0.04 respectively). Other parameters were not statistically different. Similarly, HTN group had significantly lower level of TAS compared with controls (p=0.01). On the contrary, Vitamin E level was significantly high in hypertension group (p=0.00). Other antioxidant parameters compared; Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Selenium, Zinc, Copper.

Studies on Prevalence of Anemia in Growing Children at Age Group of 5-17 Years

Shivani Awasthi, Rashmi Arnold, Arti Saxena, Rashmi Pandey, Snehlata Pandey and Seema Tiwari

  • Abstract

    Due to deficiency of protein, the synthesis of hemoglobin is reduced. The RBCs are macrocytic and hypo chronic. Anemia is due to RBC destruction is increased due to intra vascular causes metabolic defects. Childhood and teenagers go spurts of rapid growth, which requires a great deal of iron.A balance diet with adequate amount of iron is important at these times. Pernicious Anemia is due to atrophy of the gastric mucosa because of autoimmune destruction of parietal cells. The gastric atrophy results in decreased production of intrinsic factor and poor absorption of vitamin B12 which is the maturation Factor for RBC. Before knowing the cause of this anemia, it was very difficult to treat the patients and the disease was considered to be fatal. Synthesis of hemoglobin begins in the proerythroblasts and continues even into the reticulocyte stage of the red cell. Therefore, when reticulocyte leave the bone marrow and pass into blood stream, they continue form minute quantities of hemoglobin for another day of so until they become Mature erythrocytes. The present investigation involves the prospects of prevalence of anemia in growing children at age group of 5-14.

Medicinal potential of Commiphora sponthulata, Hugonia casteneifolia and Raphidiocystis chrysocoma indigenous to Tanzania

Sylvester Leonard Lyantagaye

  • Abstract

    Herbal medicines constitute a potentially important resource for new and safe drugs for the management of microbial infections and other diseases. This study aimed at examining whether or not crude plant extracts of Hugonia casteneifolia, Commiphora sponthulata and Raphidiocystis chrysocoma have antimicrobial activities on some pathogenic bacterial isolated from sick domesticated animals. Agar diffusion technique was used to determine the inhibition of microbial growth and broth dilution technique was used to determine MIC and MBC. The study has shown that R. chrysocoma extract is very potent against Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, H. casteneifolia is potent against S. agalactiae and S. aureus, and C. sponthulata extract is potent against Salmonella gallinarum only. All the three plant extracts are non-cytotoxic. This is the first scientific evaluation of the veterinary medicinal potential of the H casteneifolia, C. sponthulata and R. chrysocoma from Tanzania, providing the baseline for further investigations towards discovering new drugs.

Biochemical Characterizations of Some Pathogenic Bacteria of Bhojwet Land, Bhopal (M.P.)

Madhulika Singh

  • Abstract

    Biochemical characterization is based on enzymatic reaction of bacteria whether they possess enzyme or not since each enzyme is protein which is coded by a gene that is why provided a better knowledge of bacterial diversity. In our studybiochemical characterization of each isolate was done to evaluate the inter relationship between various group of organism.

A Review on Lung Diseases in Special Reference to Asthma and its Impact

Stuti Shrivastava, Pratibha Rani Dwivedi, Seema Tiwari, Rashmi Arnald, Arti Saxena and Snehlata Pandey

  • Abstract

    The lung is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located in the chest on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. In addition to their function in respiration, the lungs also alter the pH of blood by facilitating alterations in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme. It may serve as a layer of soft, shock- absorbent protection for the heart, which the lungs flank and nearly enclose. Immunoglobulin-A is secreted in the bronchial secretion and protects against respiratory infections

Isolation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Bacteria from Upper Lake, Bhopal

Madhulika Singh

  • Abstract

    30 October 2013; Revised: 25 November 2013; Accepted: 24 December 2013 Abstract Bacteria are natural and vital member of all aquatic communities, and are the foundation of lake and stream ecology without them the natural water worlds would not be possible. The basic objective of the project was to improve the water quality as well as to increase the storage capacity of these lakes. The project activities involved both preventive and curative measures like increasing the storage capacity of the lake through de-silting, control of weed through de-weeding, prevention of pollution in the lake through diversion and treatment of sewage, catchment area protection through creation of buffer zone etc. The implementation of these activities resulted in increasing the water holding capacity of Upper Lake by four percent. The lake water sample (n = 5) were collected from 5 different.

A Study on Biochemical and Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Pratibha Rani Dwivedi, Stuti shriwastava, Seema Tiwari, Rashmi Arnold, Arti Saxena and Umesh Pandey

  • Abstract

    TB is most common opportunistic disease that affects people infected with HIV. As HIV debilitates the immune system, vulnerability to TB is increased. Recently, new multi drug-resist strains of tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have developed and are spreading. A multidrug resistance strain is defined as M. tuberculosis resistant to ionized and rifampin with or without resistant to other drugs. This has resulted is many case of magically treatable, and often fatal diseases. Inadequate therapy is then most common means by which resistant bacteria are acquired and patients who have previously undergone therapy should be presumed to harbor MDR-TB, until proved otherwise. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of certain pathologically important isozyme (eg LDH) in cases (TB patients) and controls and to standardize the PCR based identification method for mycobacterial strains in DNA samples extracted from sputum specimen.

Phytochemical Studies of Hyptis Suaveolens (L.) Poit

T. Rose Marya, K. Anushaa, K.V. Mallaiahb, K. Ravindranadhc, M.C. Rao

  • Abstract

    Hyptis suaveolens belonging to Lamiaceae family is native of Tropical American region. In the present study acetone leaf extract of wild Hyptis suaveolens was analysed by GC-MS.20. Different compounds were identified in crude extract and 11 compounds were isolated from aqueous extract. Of these compounds AllylOctadecanoate and Octadec-9- Enoic Acid were in major amounts. These results indicate that these compounds may be responsible for the antimicrobial and insecticidal activities.

Ecological Studies of Natural Populations of Cosmos caudatus, H. B. K. With Special Reference to Pollination, Seed Behavior and Biomass Distribution

Rashmi Arnold, Seema Tiwari, Arti Saxena . M. Mishra, Pranjali Anand and Rashmi Pandey

  • Abstract

    Under different density dependent mortality situations and degree of intraspecific competition an organism is under positive selection to allocate a greater protection of its resources to reproductive or vegetative parts. Populations with density dependent regulation i.e., those which are better able to tolerate competition will be selectivity favored to allocate a greater proportion of resources to vegetative activities. The theoretical Notion Related with this problem is R and K selection. Keeping all this in view the studies were planned to investigate energy allocation situated and ecological strategies within species cosmos caudatus, H.B.K. the species exhibit a determinate growth as the apical meristems are converted into flower recepticles.

Investigations on Minor Constituents of Indigenous Apis Dorsata F. and Apis Cerana Indica Honey of Shimoga District, Karnataka

Balasubramanyam, M.V.

  • Abstract

    Multifloral honey of indigenous giant honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected from Shimoga, Karnataka and its minor constituents like minerals, vitamins and proteins were determined during February 2011 to March 2012. The potassium content of honey of A.dorsata was 70.12 ppm while honey of A.cerana had 68.50ppm. The potassium content of honey of A.dorsata was highest (70.12 ppm), and honey of A. cerana was least (68.50ppm). The chromium content of honey of A.dorsata was maximum (0.027ppm) while, honey of A.cerana was minimum (0.025ppm). The thiamine (B1) content of honey of A.dorsata was 0.09 μ gms., while honey of A.cerana was highest of 0.08 μ gms. The pyridoxine (B6) content of honey of A.dorsata was maximum of 1.80 μ gms. and minimum of 1.44 μ gms. from A cerana honey. The protein content of honey of A.dorsata was highest (0.67%) and least (0.59%) from honey of A.cerana. The potassium of honey from all two honeybee species was statistically significant at 1% (p<0.01) level and chromium of honey from all two honeybee species was not statistically significant at 1% (p<0.01) level. The thiamine (B1) content of honey from all two honeybee species was not statistically significant at 1 %( p<0.01) level and pyridoxine (B6) content of honey of wild and apiary honeybee species was not statistically significant at 1% level (p<0.01). The protein content of honey from two honeybee species was not statistically significant at 1 % level (p<0.01). Results clearly exemplify honey of A.dorsata had relatively higher minor constituents than that of A.cerana. Further, studies obviously

Potential of Agaricus Bisporus for Bioremediation of Different Heavy Metals

Deepika Chauhan and Chandrakala Suhalka

  • Abstract

    Bioremediation means to reduce heavy metals or toxic substances with the help of biological organism. Agaricus bisporus was noted potent for heavy metals bioremediation. Present study was conducted in aspects of change in biomass with the increasing concentrations of different heavy metals in spam of Agaricus bisporus. It was observed that maximum biomass was in control that was 0.0736 gm and minimum biomass in 100 ppm concentration of PbSO4 that was 0.0048. In AAS (Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer) analysis maximum concentration of absorbed heavy metal in 100 ppm concentration of PbSO4 i.e. 17.209 and minimum was in 25 ppm concentration of CuSO4 0.572.

Primary Production of Phytoplankton’s in Oligomesotrohic Freshwater Body Harsi Reservoir and Their Potential Ecological Significance

V.P. Shrotriy, R.K. Garg and D.N. Saksena

  • Abstract

    Rates of solar energy flow through the producer-consumer populations of the Harsi reservoir (25’470 to 25’480 N and 79’520 to 77’ 550 E) were studied. Total 60 common primary producers (phytoplanktons) were identified in the reservoir with highest number of species (35) representing Chlorophyceae with 58.33% as dominant group and 02 species of Dinophyceae with 3.33 as scares group. The average gross primary productivity was recorded similar as 134.82±154.94 and 138.35±176.27 mg Cm3h-1, though net primary productivity as 87.94±97.44 and 80.53±107.30 mg C m3 h-1 during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Correspondingly, respiration rate was 47.55±57.50 and 58.37±68.96 mgCm3h-1 during study periods. The NP: GP was exceeding 0.5, NP: RR was more than 1 and % of respiration was less than 40%, which clearly indicated pytoplanktonic primary productivity was quite high without any definite seasonal pattern and good amount of organic production is available for its transfer to next trophic levels. Hence, the reservoir has a good potential for fish yield, however, additional measures are also recommended to prevent excessive environment of trophic status, development of phytoplanktonic bloom and macrophytes and run-off of organic waste.

Quantification of the Size of Quadrat for Sampling in Evergreen Forest of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary; Kerala, South India

M.A.Suraj, Manoj.K and Balasubramanian K

  • Abstract

    An attempt has been made to quantify the size of the quadrat in evergreen forest of the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary. From the study it was found that the size of quadrat required for the ecological or phytosociological study in evergreen patches of Karian Shola in Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is 1500 m2 (38.73m x 38.73 m).

Palm Oil Inclusion in the Diets of Rabbits fed Cholesterol and its Effect on the Peroxidation of Lipids and the Activity of Glutathione Peroxidase

I.A. Amata and D.O. Adejumo

  • Abstract

    Palm oil inclusion (5%) in a cholesterol based diet (5%) was studied to determine its effect on the peroxidation of lipids and on the activity of glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver of rabbits. Enriched membrane fractions were used to measure lipid peroxidation in vitro using thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Measurements of conjugated diene levels were also carried out. Palm oil supplementation significantly (P<0.05) reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in the liver of rabbits fed the 5% cholesterol diet, compared to the rate of lipid peroxidation in the liver of rabbits fed the 5% cholesterol diet without palm oil inclusion (5%). On the other hand, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly (P<0.05) increased in the liver of rabbits fed the 5% cholesterol diet with 5% palm oil inclusion when compared to the activity of glutathione peroxidase in rabbits fed the cholesterol diet without palm oil inclusion. This study suggests that palm oil inclusion in the diet of rabbits could prevent lipid peroxidation and increase glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver of rabbits fed cholesterol diets.

Role of Different Enzymes in Nectar to Honey Transformations in Indigenous Rockbee, ApisDorsata F.

Balasubramanyam, M.V.

  • Abstract

    Enzymes form integral part and play decisive role in biological metabolism and systems. The present studies delve on the role of enzymes viz., invertase, amylase, glucose oxidase and catalase in nectar-honey transformation during May 2011 to April 2012. Five stages in formation honey from nectar comprises floral nectar (fn), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh). Invertase in fn and sh cells was minimum of (0.00ml) and maximum of (42.40 ml) respectively. Similarly amylase in the fn was least (0.00ml) and highest in sh (16.01 ml). Glucose oxidase in fn and sh cells was minimum of (0.00ml) and maximum of (6.68 ml) respectively. Correspondingly, catalase in the fn was least (0.00ml) and highest in sh (4.96 ml). The analysis of variance of invertase and amylase was significant at 1 % level (p<0.01), whereas glucose oxidase and catalase was not significant at 1 % level (p<0.01). Results have confirmed that the sources of all enzymes are instigated from hypopharyngeal, post-cerebral, thoracic, labial and mandibular glands of foragers and house bees are accountable for honey formation. Further, each enzyme is substrates specific which are discussed in ensuing paper.

The Effect of Different Chemical Treatments and Salt Stresson the Germination Potential of Tavernieracuneifolia (Roth) Ali seeds

Poonam S. Mangalorkar, Karan G. Rana, Rahul D. Parikh and Padamnabhi S. Nagar

  • Abstract

    Tavernieracuneifoliais an ethnobotanically important traditional medicinal plant of Semi-Arid region of India belonging to the family of Fabaceae. As the plant is ecologically identified as glycophyte the seeds were treated with various salts. Effect of various salts (KCl, MgCl2, NaCl, Na2CO3, MgSO4,) on the germination of T. cuneifolia seed was studied. Germination decreased with increase in salinity. The inhibition of germination by salt solution was in the order of NaCl> MgCl2> MgSO4>KCl. Non-germinated seeds under various salt treatments when transferred to distilled water recovered completely, indicating little ionic effect of salinity on seed germination and viability. Germination rate was highest in those seeds which were treated with concentrated sulphuric acid with the germination percentage to be 80.

Overestimation of Hemoglobin Due to Paraproteins in Myeloma: A Case Report

Deepak Nayak M., Indira Shastry K. , Asha Patil , Ravindra Prabhu

  • Abstract

    Paraproteins have been shown to interfere with a number of clinical laboratory tests due to their precipitating quality. We describe herein a patient diagnosed with multiple myeloma, for which the automated cyanmethemoglobin method displayed a falsely elevated hemoglobin level. The calculated hematocrit agreed with a spun hematocrit, suggesting that the hemoglobin concentration was being overestimated by the automated counter. The plasma turbidity and the increased IgM levels, confirmed the presence of paraproteins which caused the discrepancy. This case aims to highlight some of the lesser known, rare causes of preanalytical errors concerning hemoglobin estimation by autoanalyzers.

Withania somnifera: A Wild Plant Effective in Treatment ofVarious Types of Cancer

Monika Kumari

  • Abstract

    Withania somnifera L. Dunal (WS), an Indian plant commonly known as “ashwagandha” has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis, tumors, tuberculosis, chronic liver diseases and for immune-modulatory effects. Main plant part of WS with pharmacological importance is basically rooted. Biological active compounds especially steroidal lactones (withanolides, withaferins), are thought to be responsible for much of its pharmacological activities. These are found effective against many types of cancer specially the most common cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer. The effects of WS extracts have been demonstrated in vitro on human cancer cell lines, and in vivo on mice, but still there have been no human trials and it is not brought in market to cure cancer patients. This article focuses on researches done using WS extracts and its bioactive compounds on most common types of cancer.

  • Abstract

  • Abstract