Vol. 4 & Issue 2 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Feb. to Apr.2014

 

Optimization and Characterization of Proteases Produced by Different Species of Aspergillus in Special Reference to pH: A Review

Seema Tiwari, Sunil Tiwari, Rashmi Arnold, Arti Saxena, Sunil K. Pandey and Neeti Mishr

  • Abstract

    pH is the most important factor, which markedly influences the enzyme activity. Enzymes are affected by changes in pH. Extremely high or low pH values generally result in complete loss of activity of enzymes. The pH optimum of the acidic protease enzyme was determined using buffer solutions of different pH using the following buffers at 0.5 M concentration: acetate (pH 4-6), phosphate (pH 7.5, 8.5) and Tris-HCl (pH 10). The present study was undertaken to describe the optimization and characterization of proteases produced by different species of Aspergillus in special reference to pH.

Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bacterial Alginate

Husam Sabah Auhim

  • Abstract

    Bacterial strain H 8, which produces high amount of extracellular polysaccharide alginate, was isolated from soil, and identified as strain of Azotobacter chrococcum by its biochemical /physiological characteristics, alginate was extracted, partially purified and used as adsorbent. Analysis of alginate by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) show that the -OH groups present in bacterial alginate are clearly seen at 3433.06 cm-1, the peaks attributed to the -CH3 groups present at 2916.17 cm-1,and some distinct peaks such as carboxyl group showed strong absorption bands at 1604.66 cm-1, 1411.80 cm-1 and 1303.79 cm-1. Adsorption of lead (II) ions onto bacterial alginate was investigated with the variation in the parameters of contact time, temperature, pH and the amounts of adsorbent. Alginate has a high affinity and binding capacity for lead (II) ions, best adsorption level occurred after 30 min of treatment. Addition 50 mL of 1% alginate to 50 mL of solution containing lead (II) ions at 35°C, alkaline pH (10) was more suitable for lead (II) ions adsorption than neutral or acidic pH, and the lead (II) ions in the original solution can be removed completely by bacterial alginate, the removal ratio for lead (II) ions was 100 %

Prevalence of LBW and Macrosomic Newborns in the Neonatal Ward of Vlora Hospital

Ela Peto,Emirjona Kiçaj, Xheladin Çeka, Emiljana Coraj, Vasilika Prifti

  • Abstract

    Birth weight of the newborn has a great impact on their health. There are many maternal factors that contribute in it. To evaluate the prevalence of macrosomic newborns and LBW, to distribute them according to demographic maternal factors during January - December 2013.This is a cross – sectional study realized in the neonatal ward of Vlora hospital. This study included 652 newborns. We used a self-administered questionnaire based on clinical charts. The study included 652 newborns, 85.3% of them were 2500 – 3999 grams, 4% were < 2500 grams and 10.7% were ≥ 4000 grams. With the increase of the mother’s age over 30 years old, we noticed that the number of macrosomic newborns increased, while the percentage of LBW stayed the same. The pre-gestational BMI affects the increase of the macrosomic newborns. With parity  increase, we notice a decrease in LBW newborns, and an increase of the macrosomic newborns. Parity is an important factor that affects the weight of the newborn. When the parity increases, so does the number of macrosomic newborns, the number of newborns with LBW decreases. Overweight and obese mothers have a higher tendency to have macrosomic newborns. The gestational age is another important factor on the birth weight, gestational age increases, LBW newborn decrease, macrosomic increase. Macrosomic newborns are mainly males, LBW are mostly females.

Radiation Doses to Patients Undergoing Some Selected X-Ray Diagnostic Procedures

Nworgu O. D. and Bamidele L.

  • Abstract

    The level of dose and its distributions in adult patients undergoing seven selected common types of x-ray examination in two public hospitals in Nigeria were investigated using exposure parameters. A total of 224 patients were included in this investigation. The ages of the patients involved were from 18 years to 75 years, while their average weights ranged from 67kg to 73kg. Mean, median, first and third quartiles, and maximum to minimum ratio of Entrance Surface Doses (ESDs) are determined. The results show that for each of the examinations, the individual ESD values were found to be comparable with those from similar studies in Ghana, Sudan and in Nigeria. When compared with established international reference doses, the mean ESDs were found to be below the reference values, except in chest AP and pelvis AP where the ESDs of 0.47mGy and 12.0mGy were recorded. The value of ESD obtained was validated by direct measurement using thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD). The difference between the calculated and the measured radiation dose was quite small.

Proximate Composition and Effect of Solvent on the Distribution and Concentration of Active Chemical Components of Piper Guineense Seed Using GCMS

Udofia, P. G., Essien N., Ukpe, R. A. and Robert, A. N.

  • Abstract

    The proximate and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) studies of 50:50acetone/DEE, acetone and DEE extracts of Piper guineense seed were carried out. The result showed 0.80% moisture, ash, 1.37%, crude protein, 10.77%, crude fibre, 9.81% and carbohydrate 79.61% from the plant material. Binary solvent of acetone/DEE showed 21 spectral lines, followed by acetone with 19 while DEE showed 18 molecules. Concentrations of the molecules even when all were present in chromatograms of the three solvent systems were different, but the retention times were slightly different in some cases. Most molecules in the three solvents were present in isomers of the original compound. Therefore different extracts showed different extraction coefficient in their ability to extract secondary metabolites from Piper guineense seed.

Effects of Seasons, Host Age, Size and Sex on Monogenetic Trematode, Hamatopeduncularia indicus of Host Fish, Arius jella

Akhter Ali Siddiqui

  • Abstract

    A total number of 220 Arius jella were examined for parasitic infection. The effect of some factors, on the incidence of parasitic infection on the host fish is carried out. The result of this study showed that, more than sixty percent of the examined host fishes were infected. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than male. The large sized fishes were more subjected to parasitic infection than smaller ones. A definite seasonal effect is noted, the summer found to be season of severe infection of fishes, where the percentage of infection was obviously higher than other seasons. The average prevalence (%), mean intensity and relative abundance were calculated to be 44.22, 2.26, and 0.88, respectively. The above results and their reasons corroborated with the findings of earlier researchers.

HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors: Update and Perspectives

Pritam N. Dube

  • Abstract

    HIV replication requires the insertion of the viral genome inside the nuclear genome of infected cells through a recombination process catalyzed by the virus-encoded enzyme, integrase. HIV integrase has recently been recognized as a reachable antiviral target following the promising results of integrase inhibitors in clinical trials. The present review focuses on the recent advances in understanding the cellular mechanisms of HIV integration and the sites of actions of inhibitors. It also provides an extensive list of the known mutations that have been characterized for HIV-1 integrase with their impact on integrase activity, viral replication and response to anti-integrase drugs. Novel rational approaches for inhibiting HIV integration are also discussed, as well as the two integrase inhibitors in clinical trials and other selected inhibitors in development.

An Ethno-Medico-Botanical Study of Honnali Taluk

T. Vasantha Naik

  • Abstract

    A survey on medicinal plants, used for the treatment of disease has been conducted in different remote areas of Honnali Taluk, Davangere district of Karnataka. Different people of the district orally use paste of some locally available plant species for the treatment of number of diseases. But the selection of plant species as well as parts has been found to be variable from one person to another.

Ethnobotanical Remedies for Gastro-Intestinal Problems from Honnali Taluk, Davanagere District Karnataka, India

T. Vasantha Naik

  • Abstract

    The present paper deals with ethno-medical information on 12 flowering plant species commonly used by women and men of Honnali Taluk and it is very common among aged people. The cause of disease, its symptoms, and plant organs utilized and methods of preparation of remedies are provided. The information data on ethno-botanical plants were collected through the dialogue and arranging meeting with local knowledgeable people of the villages. The ethno-medicinal data was gathered from local elder and the tribal men, ‘Vaidhyas’.

Genetic Pollution – Biodiversity Traditional Concerns

M. C. Rao

  • Abstract

    Plant invasions arising from agricultural, forestry and other activities are becoming of increasing concern worldwide. Such invasions have traditionally been viewed as plants dispersing by seed beyond their intended area of use and becoming weeds. With regard to the potential harmfulness of the GMO there is a violent debate between those who believe that the advantages for medicine and for society are greater than the possible effects on the environment and those who state that too little is known to be able to use them and that the environment will feel the effect of the genetic pollution of the natural species with numerous consequences: the involuntary transmission of resistance to herbicides in infesting plants, the evolution of more resistant parasites, the increased use of herbicides, the disappearance of species of insects and as a consequence the loss of biodiversity. This bacterium that lives in the soil produces a protein that becomes toxic only in the insect’s intestine and causes its death. The protein is not toxic for humans nor for other animals, in fact, before the invention of these sophisticated techniques in genetic engineering, was it used as a natural insecticide, particularly in Canada to protect the forests from insect attacks. In this way it is possible to eradicate all the infesting plants without the need for further treatments with products that are extremely harmful for man and the environment.

Studies on Length-Weight Relationship and Ponderal Index of Cyprinus Carpio in Govindgarh Lake, Rewa (M.P.)

Vima Patel, S.N. Shukla and Shally Patel

  • Abstract

    The paper deals with the Length-weight relationship and ponderal index of Cyprinus Carpio in Govindgarh Lake, Rewa (M.P), during the period July 2011 to June 2012. The investigation is the length-weight and condition factor of six hundred and nineteen adult Cyprinus Carpio fishes in Govindgarh Lake, Rewa were investigated. The value of regression coefficient for the length-weight relationship was calculated to be 2.8372. This suggests that the growth forms in the entire specimen sampled because are very close to 3 hence, it can be said that undertaken fishes were followed to be cube law. Similar strong positive (P < 0.001) correlation coefficient r = 0.99 was found during the present study.This suggests that the two variables (Length & Weight) are highly correlated. In the present study maximum value of ponderal index were found during summer season. The high value during summer season may be attributed to active metabolic activities, sufficient availability of food, and maturity time of gonads and preparatory period of pre-spawning

Potential of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato in Increasing Vitamin A Dietary Intake in Up to 60-Month-Old Children in Laikipia, Kenya

JedidahWanjiku Kiharason, and DorcasKhasungu Isutsa

  • Abstract

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a significant nutritional problem globally, since about 33% pre-school children don’t get enough vitamin A in diets. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) that is rich in beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, can sustainably alleviate VAD. The OFSP has shown stable yields in many environments, and is popular among children. Consumption of OFSP can have a similar effect as Vitamin A capsules; it provides sustainable, cost-effective source of vitamin A to resource-poor families. This study performed cross-sectional questioning of 227 mothers of 25-60-month-old children to assess sweetpotato production and consumption in Laikipia District of Kenya. Assessment of night blindness followed the WHO recommended procedure, dietary intake of vitamin A estimation used a 24-hour recall by mothers, and worm infestation used interview of mothers. Results showed that 42% households grew and consumed sweet potatoes, with the majority (82.7%) dealing with the white-fleshed variety; 24.2% children had consumed sweet potatoes in the last 7 days; 3% had consumed adequately. Consumption did not depend on size of land for growing sweet potatoes, and maternal literacy did not affect vitamin A intake. Children (69%) consumed less than recommended vitamin A. Night blindness was absent due to uptake of vitamin A supplements during polio immunization campaign. Worm infestation was low (15% children) due to deworming before vitamin A capsules administration. Intake of 100 g of OFSP could provide at least a week’s requirement of vitamin A, consideringstorage of extra intake of beta-carotene in the body, while production and consumption of OFSP constitutes a sustainable source of vitamin A.

Defensive Role of Antioxidant Enzymes Peroxidase, Esterase and Catalase in Beauveria Species under Abiotic Stress Stimuli

Padmini Palem P.C and Padmaja.V

  • Abstract

    Beauveria isolates which manifested endurance to a set of abiotic stress stimuli were selected for understanding the changes in antioxidant enzymatic profiles under in vitro conditions. Three antioxidant enzymes i.e., peroxidase, esterase and catalase profiles were evaluated by native PAGE method. Stress induced alterations in expression of isozymes were recorded in selected isolates when compared with corresponding isozyme profiles of positive and negative controls. Results of the present study furnish evidence for defensive role of above mentioned enzymes against deleterious effects of stress induced by abiotic stimuli in entomopathogenic fungal isolates of Beauveria.

Studies on the Piscine Biodiversity of Kohira Water Reservoir (Jagdahawa Lake) of Kaimur, Bihar, India

Santosh Kumar Prasad

  • Abstract

    The present study was undertaken to analyze the piscine biodiversity of Kohira water reservoir (Jagdahawa Lake) of Chainpur block of Kaimur district of Bihar for duration of one year from January to December 2013. Among vertebrates, fishes are one of the most important groups of varied diversity. Fish sample were collected every month during January to December 2013 with the assistance of local skilled fishermen. Kohira water reservoir (Jagdahawa Lake) was rich in piscine biodiversity. During the piscine biodiversity studies, the fishes collected from Kohira water reservoir (Jagdahawa Lake) were contributed by 28 species which belongs to 19 genera, 12 families under 8 orders. Out of these 28 species cyprinidae family was dominant of all with 10 species.

Chemical Characterization of Some Fish Sold in Lome (Togo)

Tomkouani Kodom, Etchri Amouzou, Phintè Nambo, Gbandi Djaneye-Boundjou, L. Moctar Bawa

  • Abstract

    Fish is the most eaten sea food in Togo. Its bad conservation is a risk for the health of the consumer. The aim of this study is to determine the chemical quality of fish sold in Lomé. Biogenic amines such as Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA) and Histamine were analysed in different fish sampled in Lomé (Togo). TVB-N and TMA were determined by extraction with trichloroacetic acid and perchloric acid. Extraction with perchloric acid gives high yield in the case of shark, smoked and salted fish. However, trimethylamine (11.2 to 103.4 mg/100 g) is the most common compound. Histamine was determined by the colorimetric method after extraction with distilled water. In all scombroïd fish (Mackerel) sampled in nine big markets of Lomé, histamine content was higher than 50 mg/100 g of dried fish, a standard established by FDA (USA). This study clearly suggests a certain degree of decomposition of most fish sold under aerobic conditions in Lomé markets probably due to poor hygienic practices.

Impact of Ecological Factors on Genetic Diversity in Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham Based on ISSR Amplification

A. John De Britto , P. Benjamin Jeya Rathna Kumar and D. Herin Sheeba Gracelin

  • Abstract

    Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham is one of the most important anti-cancer drug yield plant belongs to the family of Icacinaceae. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity of different N.nimmoniana landraces based on molecular markers, five landraces were collected from different populations of Western Ghats of south India. The ISSR method was utilized for evaluating the genetic diversity. A genetic analysis was performed using 12 primers. A total of 108 bands were produced. The overall percentage of polymorphism was 87.10. Nei’s overall gene heterozygosity was 0.3333. The genetic distance ranged from 0.2146 to 0.4099 and the genetic identity ranged from 0.6637 to 0.8068. The Shannon’s information index was 0.4924. The UPGMA dendrogram showed the relationship between five different populations in two major clusters. Genetic diversity is correlated with soil factors.

Utilization of Water Resources and Fishing Patterns in Kashmir Valley – A Case Study

Imtiyaz Qayoom, Asifa Wali, M. H. Balkhi and Bilal Ahamad Bhat

  • Abstract

    Kashmir valley is home for number of water bodies wherein variety of fishes and serve food to a large number of people in the region. Moreover, the aquacultural practices adopted at government and private levels have boosted the fish production to meet the demand of protein in the valley. Jammu and Kashmir State has achieved the record annual fish production of 19.9 thousand tonnes annually out of which Kashmir province contributes more than 80%. In this paper, growth pattern of three different fish species viz. Trout, Mirror carp and Country fish in Kashmir province of J&K was assessed using fish production data from 1956-57 to 2011-12. Forecasting of fish production has been also made on the basis of best fitted statistical models. It is observed that Kashmir province has shown a continuous growth rate of 4.2% in fish production since 1956-57. Cubic model was found to be the best fitted model for all the species. However, when future fish production of the valley was taken into consideration, the statistical models indicated that overall fish production of the valley is showing a decreasing trend. Moreover, it is the matter of concern that we are yet unable to meet the target of 70,000 thousand tonne consumption of fish required to meet the demand of protein in the region despite the increasing trend shown by the annual fish production data.

Investigations on Minor Constituents of Indigenous Apis Dorsata and Apis Cerana Indica Honey of Madikeri District, Karnataka

Balasubramanyam, M.V.

  • Abstract

    Multifloral honey of indigenous dwarf honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected from Madikeri, Karnataka and its minor constituents like minerals, vitamins and proteins were determined during February 2011 to March 2012. The potassium content of honey of A.dorsata was 70.12 ppm while honey of A.cerana had 68.50ppm. The potassium content of honey of A .florea was highest (70.12 ppm), and honey of A. cerana was least (68.50ppm). The chromium content of honey of A.dorsata was maximum (0.027ppm) while, honey of A.cerana was minimum (0.025ppm). The thiamine (B1) content of honey of A.dorsata was 0.09 μ gms., while honey of A.cerana was highest of 0.08 μ gms. The pyridoxine (B6) content of honey of A. dorsata was maximum of 1.80 μ gms. and minimum of 1.44 μ gms. from A cerana honey. The protein content of honey of A.dorsata was highest (0.67%) and least (0.59%) from honey of A.cerana. The potassium of honey from all two honeybee species was statistically significant at 1 % (p<0.01) level and chromium of honey from all two honeybee species was not statistically significant at 1% (p<0.01) level. The thiamine (B1) content of honey from all two honeybee species was not statistically significant at 1 %( p<0.01) level and pyridoxine (B6) content of honey of wild and apiary honeybee species was not statistically significant at 1% level (p<0.01). The protein content of honey from two honeybee species was not statistically significant at 1 % level (p<0.01). Results clearly exemplify honey of A.dorsata had relatively higher minor constituents than that of A.cerana. Further, studies obviously indicate that quality of honey of wild and apiary honeybee species are equally good with subtle variations which are discussed in ensuing paper.

Utilization of Microbial Bioassays for Screening the Possible Toxicity in Regularly Used Food Dyes

Ruchika Atri, A. Singh, N. Mathur, A. Verma

  • Abstract

    Food additives are the substances that are intentionally added to modify visual appearance, taste, texture, processing or the storage life of food. Today, food colorants as additives are randomly used in many foods. However, their use in food is still controversial. The great bulk of artificial colorings used in food are synthetic dyes. For decades synthetic food dyes have been suspected of being toxic or carcinogenic and many have been banned. However, most of the food colors are still being used which are either not safe or are being used in quantities exceeding the statutory limits. The present study aimed to investigate the possible genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of four frequently used food dyes by utilizing Salmonella mutagenicity assay /Ames assay (Prokaryotic assay) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay (eukaryotic bioassay). The main emphasis of the present study was utilization of microbial bioassays as simple, rapid and practical toxicity tests for pre-screening of large numbers of food additives. Result of this study show that among the four food dyes tested two were found to be significantly genotoxic even at lower doses. When cytoxicity in these food dyes was measured using Sachharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay similar results were obtained. The significance of the data is discussed with respect to other information on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of the food colors.

Diurnal Time Budget and Activity Pattern of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus Antigone Antigone) in Chittaurgarh District, Southern Rajasthan, India

Mohammed Yaseen, Rashmi Saxena, Sunil Dubey and Neha Dashora

  • Abstract

    The Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) is a globally threatened bird and kept under vulnerable category by IUCN. The time-activity budgets of the Sarus cranes were recorded in Modia Mahadev Dam, in Chittaurgarh District, Southern Rajasthan. Foraging, oafing, standing and miscellaneous activities constituted major part of the time budget throughout the study period (daily, monthly and annually). Most of the activity time was allocated to foraging and loafing throughout the year, except for July and August months when duration of different activities was reduced in order to allocate maximum possible time for nest formation which was more imperative than other routine activities. Standing being comfort behaviour varied significantly over the months. Resting did not vary significantly over the months but showed a relative increase and decrease along with the change in temperature through different seasons. Some occasional observations also revealed that juveniles being physically weaker needed more time for resting. Vigilance was more prominently performed by parents after the hatching of eggs until the attainment of fledging stage of their brood. The well-established pairs showed more tendency towards unison calls and displays compared to the unbounded pairs or unpaired individuals of the flock. Account of activities was not significantly different between male and female Cranes in summer season (t= 0.28, df= 12, P=0.77), monsoon season (t= 0.00, df= 14, P=0.99) and winter season (t= 0.07, df= 12, P=0.94).

Growth and biological production of polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) by bacillus megaterium MTCC 8075

R. Muralidharan and K.V.Radha

  • Abstract

    In this study, a two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the production of Poly-β- hydroxy Butyrate (PHB) using Bacillus megaterium MTCC 8075. The culture conditions for PHB production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 9763 were optimized with different carbon, Nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and Incubation time. PHB production was attained in the presence of glucose as carbon source with a yield of 55.0 mg PHB/g cell weight and peptone as nitrogen source with a yield of 17.2mg/g cell weight. The optimum pH was found to be 7. A maximum yield of 35.46mg PHB/g cell weight corresponding to a temperature of 35°C was obtained and at an incubation time of 72 hours (52.2mg/g cell weight). PHB was characterized using Infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy

Protective Synergistic Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E on Cigarette Smoke Induced Serum Enzyme Activity in Albino Rats

Ajaz Ahmad Parrey and Shoaib Mohammad

  • Abstract

    Present study was under taken to investigate the possible protective synergistic effect of Selenium (0.01mg/100g b. wt.) and Vitamin E (2.5mg/100g b. wt.) on serum enzyme activity in albino rats after exposure to cigarette smoke for 30 and 60 days for one hour per day. A reduction in serum enzyme activity viz. LDH, GOT, GPT after supplementation of Selenium and Vitamin E in combination was observed in comparison to cigarette smoke exposed rats. Due to the synergistic effect of Selenium and Vitamin E, the intensity of inflammation caused by cigarette smoke is reduced by antioxidant defence mechanism.

  • Abstract

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