Vol. 4 & Issue 3 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : May. to Jul.2014

 

Epidermal Wound Healing a Mathematical Modeling

K.S. Betageri, Dr. Sunil H. Mokashi and Gangamma H Mokashi

  • Abstract

    A coupling between wound closure by cell migration and angiogenesis is presented here to model healing of epidermal wounds. The closure of the wound is modeled as a moving interface around which a local grid refinement is applied. The numerical solution combines finite element and finite difference methods to solve the coupled diffusion-reaction equations governing the physiological problem and the hyperbolic equations governing the motion of the interface. We discuss the accuracy and workload of our numerical model. Furthermore, we illustrate that, under certain circumstances, the healing process may be stopped after initiation.

Bio-Fungicide Potential of Araucaria Columnaris (Cook Pine) Aqueous Resin Extract Against Major Phytopathogens

Saranya Devi. K, J. Rathinamala and S. Jayashree

  • Abstract

    Use of chemical fungicide to control plant diseases causes several adverse effects such as, development of resistance in the pathogen, residual toxicity, pollution to the environment etc. So an alternative way to overcome the usage of dreadful chemicals is very important. The use of plant extracts as biofungicide is one of the popular and effective method. Araucaria columnaris is a commonly seen ornamental plant known as Christmas tree. It’s a South African species, under the family Araucariaceae. Hence, in the present study, the plant resin extract was tested in-vitro against major plant pathogensby preliminary bioassay. It was found that up to 95% reduction of mycelium growth was observed against major phytopathogens such as Fusarium oxysporyum, Rhizoctoniasp, Cylindrocladiumsp, Alternariasp, and Colletrotricum sp., causing tomato wilt, damping off, foliage blight, and leaf blight diseases in economically important plants. Up to our knowledge it is the first report showing the antifungal activity of Araucaria columnaris resin as antifungal agent. By using this valuable tree, further work will be done to formulate commercial biofungicide.

Tunisian ‘Chemlali’ Oil Variety Registered Designation of Origin Predicted By Phenols Composition Analysis

Mouna Feki, Moez Bouali, Mohamed Hammami

  • Abstract

    This paper aims at building a class model that would confirm the authenticity of olive oil from Bi’r al Malluli region, which is located in Sfax, Tunisia. Its purpose is to obtain the designation of origin, using chemometrics analysis and statistical procedures. Ten orchards of Chemlali olive oil variety, where the same cultural techniques are applied, can be chosen. In this study we are going to evaluate the physicochemical quality parameters, minor components such as chlorophyll, carotenoids and the polyphenols contents of the studied olive oil. The results confirm that the studied olive oils belong to the extra virgin olive oil category. According to their minor components we confirmed the typicality and the authenticity of the studied olive oil. The principal components analysis (PCA) applied on physicochemical quality parameters and minor components don’t show any groups structure. The physicochemical and the statistical analysis results allow us to obtain the designation of origin of studied oil.

The effect of dietary supplemented with Synbiotic (Biomin IMBO®) on growth performance, carcass composition, hematological and serum biochemical parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, Cyprinidae)

Peyman Yar-Ahmadi, Negar Moradi , Nahid Ghysvandi

  • Abstract

    In order to study the effects of Synbiotic Biomin IMBO® as microbial food additive on growth performance, body composition, hematological and serum biochemical parameters four experimental diets differing in Biomin IMBO® levels were prepared (0.0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g kg-1). Moreover, numbers of 216 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) average weight 4.3±0.1 g were stocked in 12 tank and 18 fish in each tank. According to the results, the best final weight, weight gain rate (WGR %), specific growth rate (SGR), food conservation ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency rate (PER) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the fish fed 1 g kg-1 Biomin IMBO® supplemented diet. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in carcass dry mater in fish fed Biomin IMBO® compared to control group. Highest carcass protein and lowest carcass lipid content were detected in fish fed 1 gkg-1 Biomin IMBO® (P<0.05). Dietary supplemented with Biomin IMBO® had no effect on red blood cell counts (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH) or mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P>0.05). However, hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and leucocyte (WBC) levels increased in fish fed 1 and 1.5 gkg-1 Biomin IMBO® (P>0.05). Among serum biochemical parameters albumin increased in 1g kg-1 and glucose increased in 0.5 and 1 g kg-1 Biomin IMBO® supplemented diet. Serum cholesterol and globulin were significantly lower in 1, 1.5 g kg-1 and 0.5, 1 g kg-1 Biomin IMBO® supplemented diet respectively (P<0.05). Our results suggest that diets supplemented with Biomin IMBO® improved growth performance, carcass composition, hematological and some serum biochemical parameters of Cyprinus carpio.

Ethnoveterinary Practices in Rural Poultry Production in Atiba Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.

Adedeji, O.S, Amao, S.R, Alabi, T.J. and Biliaminu, T. M.

  • Abstract

    The study was carried out in Atiba Local Government Area of Oyo State, and it involved the villages of Oya tutu, Agbakin, Oba – Kayeja, Ikolaba and Eleegbo. A survey was conducted to establish an inventory of medicinal plants and the common poultry management practices used in the management of diseases and parasites. Fifty structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected poultry rearers across the five villages revealed that the ingredients used in this indigenous practices include seeds, leaves, fruit juice etc. The results of this study showed that the major causes of losses were diseases, predation and a combination of diseases, parasites and predation. In this study, 68% of the rearers used local treatment, 2% used veterinary medicine while 26% used both local and veterinary medicine for treatment of poultry diseases.

Ethno-Veterinary Knowledge in Family Livestocks Keeping In Ogbomoso North and South Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.

Adedeji, O.S

  • Abstract

    This study aimed at identifying factors influencing the use of ethno-veterinary practices amongst farmers in Ogbomoso north and south areas of Oyo state, Nigeria. It specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers; identified some diseases of goats and poultry with their corresponding indigenous cures. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 100 respondents from ten communities using pre-tested structured and unstructured interview schedules to collect quantitative data, while Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were used to elicit qualitative data from the respondents and analysed with a descriptive statistical tools. In ogbomoso north and south it has been found that male of between 41-50 year of age are mostly engaged in the practice. Most of the respondents were educated while few are not educated and most of the animals are commonly affected by coccidiosis. Some of the problems (associated with the use of indigenous knowledge) identified by the farmers were lack of institutional support and the seasonal nature of some medicinal plants. It is, thus, suggested that all identified constraints need be removed by government to enhance the use of low-external inputs for sustainable agricultural development.

Studies on the Morphology and Phytochemical Constituents of Dipcadi filamentosa in Two States of North-Central Nigeria

Abdulkareem, K.A., Garuba, T., Abdulrasaq, R. and Mustapha, O.T.

  • Abstract

    Studies were carried out on the effects of environmental differences on the morphology and phytochemical constituents of Dipcadi filamentosa with a view of establishing plant diversity among the different populations. The bulbs were collected from two States in North Central Nigeria. Kabba is located in Kabba-Bunu local Government Area of Kogi State while Kaiama, Sobi and Tanke are in Kaiama, Ilorin East and Ilorin South Government Area of Kwara State respectively. Bulbs of D. filamentosa collected from Kaiama (KB, KM and KS), Kabba (KA), Sobi (SB) and Tanke (TK) were planted in plastic pots at Botanical Garden, University of Ilorin and morphological characters were observed and measured. Phytochemical screenings were carried out to detect presence of secondary plant products. It was observed that all bulb samples collected from Kaiama were phenotypically the same and differed from other samples. Results showed that KB had highest leaf length of 13.10cm while KA failed to sprout at 2 weeks after planting (WAP). The leaf length of SB (46.57cm) and TK (46.43cm) showed no significant difference (p>0.05) from each other but significantly different from the value recorded for KS (27.60cm) and KB (20.23cm) at 10WAP.The maximum leaf area was measured in SB (73.35cm) which showed no significant difference with all the samples except KB (11.08cm). The phytochemicals screening revealed that tannins, saponins, flavonoids and alkanoids were present in all leaves of the samples from different locations and regional difference had no effect on the presence of these secondary metabolites.

Growth, Moulting and Metamorphosis Inhibitory Activity of Calotropis Procera Extract against Poikilocerus Pictus Fabr

Surjeet Singh Jat, R.C. Saxena and Jiya Lal Solanki

  • Abstract

    The extract isolated from plant Calotropis procera, when applied topically on Poikilocerus pictus at three different doses out of 10 insects, certain could not immersed into the adult and remains half ecdysed which were found to be quite dose dependent as the dose increases from 10-30 μg, the number of half ecdysed adult also got increased. Moreover, ecdysed adult was inversely proportionate to the doses. The nymphal maturation period which was 15±1 days in controlled got decreased to 12±2 days at 30 μg extract treatment. When 5 different dose of extract were applied on the insect. First two concentrations caused 100% mortality of egg i.e. fertility was found to be almost scant as compared to the control group where it showed 94% egg hatching. Similarly mortality was found to be inversely proportional to the dosage the concentration caused delayed metamorphosis with several deformities. The effect of extract on fecundity and fertility was also witnessed to be decreased as against the control group. In the present study, IR spectrum exhibited characteristics absorption bands at 2075 cm-1 and 1636.13 cm-1 for un-saturation and mass spectrum. Finally, on the basis of interpretation of graphs, the structure of compound pentacyclic triterpinic acetate was elucidated.

Isolation and Characterization of Intestinal Enzymes Producing Bacteria Along with Cultured and Captured Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) with Reference to Amylase, Protease and Lipase Activity

N.Rajasekaran, R.Sivakumar, and R.Mathialagan

  • Abstract

    The freshwater edible teleost namely Ctenopharyngodon idella was collected from Mananjeri sluice and Swamimalai fish farm to isolate and identify the enzyme producing bacteria in the gastrointestinal region. Body length and weight, gastrointestinal length and weight of this carp from captured and cultured habitat during January 2011 to June 2011 were examined. Through the microbial culture in different shape and colour of the various bacterial flora in different gut region were noticed. Amylolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria from three regions of both cultured and captured fishes. Among the 14 bacterial species 12 species were isolated from cultured specimen and 10 species were isolated from captured specimen. Among the three regions, the mid gut was found more bacterial population than hindgut and foregut. The gastrointestinal tract of cultured specimen, only three bacteria namely Corneybacterium, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes are specifically found. Moreover, in the gastrointestinal tract of captured specimen, only two bacteria namely Mycobacterium, Neisseria are specifically evidence for this study. Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterbacter, Staphylococcus and Vibrio are producing two different enzymes at a time. Totally 17 biochemical tests were applied for the identification of intestinal microflora. Among them only 11 tests are responded to identify the enzyme producing bacteria for this study.

Antimicrobial Screening and other Properties of Three Different Extracts of Galls of Quercus Infectoria

Siddiqui Kahkashan Anjum

  • Abstract

    Quercus Infectoria belongs to the family Fagaceae, the common name is Majuphal or Maayaphala. Three Methanolic Extract of galls of Quercus Infectoria obtained at three different pressures by super critical Fluid Extraction and examined for its anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity by using Well Diffusion method. The extracts were also studied for physicochemical parameter, TLC and UV Spectro Photometer

Development and validation of analytical method for estimation of Spironolactone in oral suspension

Rahul CR, Jigisha Patel, Mayank Bapna

  • Abstract

    A simple, fast, accurate and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of Spironolactone in oral suspension. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Zorbax RX-C18 (150 x 4.6) mm; 5 μm column with an isocratic mixture of methanol: water (60:40). The injection volume was kept at 20μl with mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of detection was kept at 240 nm with column temperature at 25 ºC. The retention times for Spironolactone, Methyl paraben and Propyl paraben was found to be 6.61±0.04 min, 2.25±0.04 min and 4.67±0.04 min, respectively. Methyl paraben and Propyl paraben were major excipients of the oral solution. The linearity was obtained in the range of 250-600 μg/ml, 50-120 μg/ml and 5-12 μg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.998, 0.999 and 0.999 for Spironolactone, Methyl paraben and Propyl paraben, respectively. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied for the determination of investigated drugs in oral suspension.

Gymnosperms: The Eye-Catchers in the Botanic Garden of Udhagamandalam (Ooty), Tamil Nadu, India

Jaya Vijayan, Ramachandran, V.S. and Binu Thomas

  • Abstract

    The present study on gymnosperm diversity in Government Botanic garden, Udhagamandalam (Ooty) has resulted in the documentation of 37 species of gymnosperms belonging to 19 genera and 9 families. This also highlights the role of botanic gardens for conserving such ecologically, economically and evolutionary important group of plants like gymnosperms for future generation.

First Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies on Extracts Isolated from Piptadeniastrum Africanum and Haberlea Rhodopensis

B. Grigorov, Y. Karamalakova, G. Nikolova,  B. Popov, D.T. Ndinteh, V. Gadjeva and A. Zheleva

  • Abstract

    In the present paper for the first time using in vitro Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy methods were studied extracts isolated from stem bark of Piptadeniastrum africanum and leaves of Haberlea rhodopensis. The radical scavenging activity of these extracts towards the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was investigated and compared, before and after UV irradiation. After UV irradiation radical scavenging abilities of Piptadeniastrum africanum extract was not influenced, while a twofold increased DPPH scavenging activity was found for UV irradiated Haberlea rhodopensis sample compared to that of non-irradiated sample. EPR spectra of Piptadeniastrum africanum and Haberlea rhodopensis extracts were also studied before and after 2h of UV irradiation by direct EPR spectroscopy. After alkalization both non-irradiated samples give rise to EPR singlet signals with equal g values of 2.00564 ± 0.00001G that were ascribed to ortho-semiquinone free radical structures. We consider that further more detailed EPR in vitro and in vivo studies on experimental animal models have to be carried out for possible application of those extracts as potential radical scavengers and UV protectors.

Aquaculture Disease Management Strategies Adopted by Fish Farmers of Nagaon District in Assam, India

Biraj Bikash Sharma, Dipanjal Borah and Gadadhar Dash

  • Abstract

    Nagaon district is holding first position in fish production with its high water resources in Assam. The present study was carried out to assess the aquaculture disease management strategies adopted by the fish farmers of the district. Data analysis showed that most of the farmers (68%) were primary to secondary education level with and without training related to fisheries. According to their view diseases were the main problem (47%) in the farming system followed by the supply of seed, high cost of feed, aquatic weed and algal bloom. The farmers used mostly mixture of rice bran and oil cake as a feed, whereas 30% of the farmers used rice bran singly. Apart from these around 50% of the farmers were found to be used banana leaves as feed for grass carps. For the routine health management practices around 77% of the farmers used lime followed by salt and cleaner (60%), and KMnO4 (40%). The Neem leaves were also found to be used by the farmers as an antiparasitic and antifungal agent in ponds (3.5%). The study also focused on the economic loss facing by the farmers. The Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) and bacterial ulcer disease were found to be most common (67% and 50%, respectively) followed by white patches on the gills (37%). Around 17% diseases were found to be faced by the farmers due to unknown etiology. The study revealed that proper training and education both may help to develop disease management strategies for enhance production.

Fish Biodiversity of River Wainganga at Balaghat District of Madhya Pradesh in Relation to Abiotic Parameters

Harihar Solanki, K. Borana and T. Zafar

  • Abstract

    In the present ichthyofaunal study, a total of 18 fish species belonging to 9 families, 5 orders and 13 genera were recorded during June, 2010 to May, 2012 from the Wainganga River at Balaghatof Madhya Pradesh.

In Vitro and In Vivo Generation of Free Radicals by Severe Mushroom Toxin Alpha Amanitin – Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies

Antoaneta Zheleva, Yanka  Karamalakova, Galina Nikolova, Veselina Gadjeva

  • Abstract

    The aim of the present research was by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy the unique technique for free radicals’ detection to verify our formerly published hypothesis that alpha amanitin might cause generation of free radicals either in in vitro or in vivo systems. In vitro enzyme oxidation of alpha amanitin in presence of ascorbic acid caused increased level of ascorbate radicals comparing to that system in which the toxin was omitted. By ex vivo EPR spin trapping spectroscopy statistical significant increased levels of ROS products and ascorbate radicals were found in liver homogenates of toxin treated mice comparing to those of the controls. Based on our recently EPR spectroscopy studies and present results we accept that during liver accumulation, alpha amanitin forms unstable phenoxyl radicals that are a trigger for initiation of oxidative stress in the hepatocytes contributing to the severe amanitin toxicity.

Impact of Water Soluble Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Germination and Growth of Moth Beans (Vigna Aconitifolia)

Anita Srivastava

  • Abstract

    The effect of water soluble multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (ws MWCNTs) on the germination, seedling growth, root and shoot length, vegetative biomass or any inhibitory effect on plant growth had investigated using a concentration range from 50 to 200 mg/ml. Evaluation had also conducted without using ws MWCNTs solution as control (0mg/ml). In this work I have used factory synthesized Carboxylated multi-walled Carbon nanotubes of quality controlled specifications (95% purity). After 24 hours, the treated seeds with 50 mg/ml solution has shown 100% germination while untreated 96% germination. Under the same condition but at higher concentration (100, 200 mg/ml) germination has reduced by 6 to 8%. At the end it was found that at 50<

Biotoxicity analysis of fishes in fresh water, untreated and biotreated silk dyeing effluent 

A.R. Sumayya and Sivagami Srinivasan

  • Abstract

    The work has been focused on the biotoxicity analysis of fishes in raw silk dyeing effluent and biotreated by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The biotoxicity analysis was performed continuously from 0 hr till 96 hrs. The cumulative percentage mortality rate were noted for every 12 hrs for fishes grown in fresh water, untreated and biotreated Silk dyeing effluent and compared to determine the efficiency of Pseudomonas fluorescens degraded Silk dyeing effluent  in survival of aquatic life and can be recommended as a safe technology.

Inquisition of the Potential of Hydrilla Verticillata to Remediate Nitrate Encompassing Aqueous Solutions

Swabna Vivekanandam, Santhiya Mahalingam, Vasanthy Muthunarayanan, Karthika Arumugam and Seethadevi Ganesan 

  • Abstract

    The purpose of the study is to provide a concise discussion of the processes associated with the use of phytoremediation as a containment technique for nitrate remediation. Experiments focussed on evaluating the ability of Hydrilla verticillata to remediate nitrate containing aqueous solutions (20 ppm, 40 ppm, 60 ppm, 80 ppm) were carried out in the framework of batch type experiments. . This treatment has resulted in more than 98 % of NO3 –N reduction after 10days. The FTIR analysis of the phytoremediated leaves of Hydrilla portrays no ponderable change. Conversely, the SEM analysis entails that the phytoremediated plant samples have under gone dissolution of the cellulose fibres due to the increase in the aqueous concentration of NO3 – N nitrate solutions. The overall study provides a basic understanding of the nitrate reductase enzyme, which can be actuated and stimulated by the exogenous nitrate source at very low tissue concentrations.

Case Report:  Tramadol Abuse Potential and Resultant Withdrawal Seizures

Amitabh Saha

  • Abstract

    Tramadol is a centrally acting atypical opioid analgesic with additional serotonin-nor epinephrine reuptake-inhibiting effects used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain with propensity for abuse potential. The case of Tramadol dependence discussed in this case report developed severe dependence with high doses of Tramadol, used as a drug for treating his migraine. The individual learned to self-medicate with the medication. The author further emphasize on the regulation of Tramadol prescription.

Characterization of Water Hyacinth Biomass and Microbial Degradation of the Biomass under Solid State Fermentation Using a Lignocellulolytic Fungus (Alterneria Spp NITDS1)

Subhabrata Dasa, Amit Ganglyb, Apurba Deya, Yen-Peng Tingc and   Pradip K. Chatterjeeb

  • Abstract

    Lignocelluloses biomass represents a cheap and sustainable source of renewable energy. They can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, thereby cutting carbon di-oxide emission problems. The present study aims to reveal effectiveness of water hyacinth biomass as a substrate for extra-cellular enzyme production. The locally collected biomass was characterized by evaluating its physical and chemical properties. The biomass sample was subjected to three step extraction process using solvents namely hexane, alcohol and water. The raffinate biomass after final extraction step was acid hydrolysed to estimate biomass composition. The fungus Alterneria alternata NITDS1 was studied for production of various lignolytic and cellulolytic enzymes such as laccase, lignin peroxidase, xylanase, endo-1, 4-β-D-glucanase and exo-1, 4-β-D-glucanase using the water hyacinth biomass, as substrate, by solid state fermentation. The growth pattern of the organism was studied for 40 days along with the production of the enzymes. The organism showed comparatively more lignin degradation enzymes activity than cellulolytic enzyme. The studied enzymes showed maximum specific activities at 20 days of the growth culture. 

Real Time Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Measured In Patients with Parkinson Disease – An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study

Galina Nikolova, Donika Ivanova, Antoaneta Zheleva and Veselina Gadjeva

  • Abstract

    Pathology of Parkinson disease (PD) is not well established and may be multifactorial. The major clinical disturbances in PD are consequence of dopamine depletion in the neostriatum, due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The agent that initiates the disease is unknown. A number of studies support a role for free radicals in Parkinson’s disease. The drug therapy depends on severity of disease, remains relatively nonspecific and limited long term efficacy.  In the early stages of the disease, is used a monoamine oxidase β-inhibitor. Initially, the drug is used to inhibit the degradation of dopamine. In later phases of disease, patients are treated with levodopa (L-dopa) precursor of dopamine. The present study aimed by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) methods to elucidate the radical mechanisms of Parkinson's disease and the effect of Madopar therapy  in PD patients by following out  the sera levels of some  "real time" oxidative stress biomarkers.

Development of Novel Engineering and Bio-Informatics Methods for Protein Identification

Iskra Sainova, Velichka Pavlova, Bistra Alexieva, Ilina Valkova, Tzveta Markova, Elena Nikolova

  • Abstract

    Label-free tandem mass spectroscopy assay, combined with liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) was characterized and applied as a novel proteomics investigation method for establishment of unknown proteins and protein-protein interactions. For this goal, proteins from nuclear proteins of HeLa human malignant cervical carcinoma cells, as well as from human cartilage synovial fluid and from mixture of both extracts, were separated and investigated by this technique. Some proteins from HeLa nuclear extract (NE) were established as common with proteins from synovial fluid, most of which have been proved to participate in nurturing of chondrocytes in the cartilage. In this way, novel abilities for application of stem cells for different goals, with simultaneous prevention of malignant transformations, by incubation in appropriate laboratory conditions, could be revealed. On the other hand, suggested in our previous studies abilities of peptides Secretagogin (SCGN) and Glutathione (GSH) with rat and mouse origin, respectively, to connect with cytoskeleton elements in their role as tumor suppressors, were confirmed. On this base, a mechanism for indirect influence of this peptide on the control of cell growth and proliferation, but also for prevention of malignant cell transformation, has been proposed. Future studies are necessary in this direction.

Amino Acid Profile of Hibiscus Sabdariffa

M. H. Shagal, D. Kubmarawa, J. A. Ndahi and P. E. Samson

  • Abstract

    The fresh leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa are popularly consumed in Adamawa State of Nigeria. They were analyzed to determine the amino acid composition. Data obtained showed that seventeen amino acids were present in varying concentration in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Glutamic acid, Aspartic acid, Leucine, and Arginine have considerable high concentration; 10.80 g/100g protein, 8.23 g/100g protein, 8.08 g/100g protein and 5.11 g/100g protein respectively. Methionine and Cysteine are the limiting essential amino acids in the vegetable with 0.92 g/100g protein and 1.04 g/100g protein respectively. Most of the essential amino acids compared favorably with FAO/WHO standards.

Cancer Risk Associated With Inorganic Arsenic Present in Drinking Water in Katihar (Bihar)

Santosh Kumar Prasad, Soni Rani, Arun Kumar And Badri Prasad Yadav “Bipra”

  • Abstract

    Inorganic arsenic (In-As) is known to be human carcinogen. Several districts of Bihar have had high exposures to arsenic from naturally contaminated drinking water, whose severity increased by anthropogenic contamination in various forms. In present study, we investigated cancer risk associated with inorganic arsenic consumption by human particularly in arsenic contaminated drinking water areas of Katihar district of Bihar. Ingestion of water, contaminated with arsenic causes skin cancer. The evidence assessed here indicates that arsenic can also cause lung and gall bladder cancer and that the population cancer risks due to arsenic in Katihar district water sources may be increased with time. Large population studies of arsenic affected blocks (50-827 µg/L) of this district had shown alarming condition for health. Many subjects were suffering with melanosis, keratosis, skin lesions etc. Although further research is needed to validate these findings, measures to reduce arsenic levels in water supplies should be considered.

Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant levels as Pollution Biomarkers in liver of Clarias Gariepinus Harvested from Gbarantoru Swamp: a Polluted Site in Bayelsa State

Eboh Abraham Sisein Diepreye Ere Tonkiri Ayakeme Asara Azibalua Adegi

  • Abstract

    In this study, we determined the effects of pollution on levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant (vitamins E and C), Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), in the liver cells of Catfish (Clariasgariepinus). The Catfish samples were collected from Niger Delta University (NDU) Agricultural Farm (unpolluted control site) and Gbarantoru swamp (polluted site) all in Bayelsa State of Nigeria. The pH and Temperature including Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu were analysed in the water bodies of both polluted site and unpolluted site. Heavy metals in the livers of Clarias gariepinus in polluted and unpolluted sites were also analysed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu > Zn >Pb> Cd in the Niger Delta University Agricultural Farm (unpolluted control site) and Zn >Pb> Cu > Cd statistically higher than p ≤ 0.05 in Gbarantoru swamp as compared with control of unpolluted site. Vitamins E, C and GSH are lower in the liver of Clarias gariepinus at p ≤ 0.05 compared with controls but the levels of MDA are higher in the polluted site.

Aspergillus terrus Proteases: Characterization and Applications

Mohamed Elsayed Osman, Omkolthoum Hassan Khattab and Yasmin Mohamed Elsaba

  • Abstract

    Aspergillus terreus has been used in this study for the production of proteases. The optimum conditions for proteases production have been achieved by growth on mineral salts medium supplemented with 4%wheat bran, 4% starch and without additional nitrogen source, using submerged fermentation. Purification of Aspergillus terreus proteases was performed using ammonium sulphate precipitation at 80%, chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and on DEAE-cellulose columns. The purified enzyme was active at 55°C, pH 7, stable till 45°C and at pH range 6-11 and inhibited with PMSF indicating that it is a serine protease.  The purified enzyme had a Vmax value of 588.2 U/ml and Km value of 1.64 mg/ml. studying the anticoagulant potency of the purified serine protease show its prolonging action on the extrinsic coagulation pathways using prothrombin time (PT) bio-assay.

Assessment of Antifungal Activity of Turmeric Essential Oil-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

Nguyen Thi Kim Cuc, Tran Thi Kim Dzung, Pham Viet Cuong

  • Abstract

    Turmeric essential oil (TEO) is known to possess insect-repellent, anti-microbial and antioxidant activity and is widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer with antioxidant and antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. In this work, chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were prepared by ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate (TPP) and loaded with turmeric oil by phase dispersion and solvent evaporation method. By comparing the GC retention time and the mass spectra of the components in the turmeric oil with those of authentic reference compounds in mass spectra library, the main constituents of the turmeric oil were identified as ar-turmerone (30.33%) and α-turmerone (14.14%). The antifungal activity of chitosan solution, turmeric oil, chitosan nanoparticles and turmeric oil-loading chitosan nanoparticles (TEO-CSNP) against Candida albicans, Trychophytol mentagrophyte, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicilium italicum was assessed. The MIC and MFC values of tested compounds for these fungi strains were determined and the highest value was of turmeric essential oil. The results demonstrated that turmeric oil - loading CSNP exhibited higher inhibition activity against investigated strains than chitosan or turmeric oil, and even better than CSNPs.

Extending Geographic Distribution of Byttneria herbacea Roxb. In Maharashtra State, India

Subhash R.Somkuwar, RahulB. Kamble and Alka Chaturvedi

  • Abstract

    During the course of extensive botanical exploration, in the Maharashtra State with special reference to the geographic distribution of Byttneria herbacea Roxb. of family Byttneriaceae, some addition to the habitat extension of this taxa were observed and documented. It is pan-tropical and subtropical, widely distributed in Africa, Latin America with 8 genera and about 280 species.  About half the genera are restricted to Australasia.  With this record, the known geographical distribution of B. herbacea has now extended in Chandrapur, Gondia, Nagpur and Sindudurg district. This species is an addition to the flora for these districts. 

Environmental Toxicological impact of gasoline as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon on the gills of fresh water Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (River Nile Transport Project)

Heba Allah M. Elbaghdady, Sherif H. Abdeen, Abdallah A. El-Shebly 

  • Abstract

    In the present study the histopathological effects of gasoline on the gills of Oreochromis niloticus as a sensitive indicator for the pollution were experimentally determined to evaluate the health of the fish. The results indicated that the most prevalent lesions were epithelium lifting, distortion of lamellae, clubbing, fusion of the adjacent secondary lamellae due to hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium and cells at the base of the secondary lamellae and aneurysm in the gills. The severity of the lesions observed in this study differs with the concentration of toxic material involved in that experiment. This in turn affects greatly on gas exchange, respiration and excretion of metabolic waste products.

Habitat Selection and Its Usage by some Wading Birds in Jammu Region

Pawandeep Kour, Sakshi Koul and D.N. Sahi

  • Abstract

    The present study was carried out from April 2011 to July 2012 in Jammu to ascertain the habitats utilised by wading birds primarily for foraging. Four wading birds were selected namely Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta),Indian Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii) and Red Wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus).The selected stations were categorised into four ecological habitats like open agricultural fields, lentic and lotic water bodies and urban areas, to investigate the habitat utilization by the selected wading birds. Due to increasing anthropogenic pressure, shift in the foraging habits from feeding near the wetlands to feeding in the scattered heaps of garbage was recorded in case of Cattle Egret and Red Wattled Lapwing

Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Microcosmus exasperatus Heller, 1878

V.K. Meenakshi, M.I. Delighta Mano Joyce, M. Paripooranaselvi and S. Gomathy

  • Abstract

    Hyperlipidemia is caused by a block in the lipid metabolism which is a major risk factor leading to cardiovascular and many other related diseases. The main aim of the present study is to assess the antihyperlipidemic activity of Microcosmus exasperatus against triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Adult Wistar male albino rats were divided into six groups – group I acted as normal control, group II hyperlipidemic control both received normal saline, group III to VI hyperlipidemia induced by triton X-100, were given extract in varying doses and standard drug atorvastatin respectively. A significant decrease in the level of protein, albumin, globulin and increase in the levels of SGPT, SGOT and ALP was noticed in the triton induced group, whereas in the extract treated groups it was brought back to normal. In triton induced group there was a significant elevation in plasma lipid profile - TC, TG, HDL-C, VLDL, LDL, PL and in the extract treated groups, restoration to the normal level was observed. The results indicate that the ethanolic extract of Microcosmus exasperatus has antihyperlipidemic activity against triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

  • Abstract

  • Abstract