Vol. 4 & Issue 4 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2014


The promotive effect of different concentrations of marine algae as biofertilizers on growth and yield of maize  (Zea Mays L.) plants

Fatma M. Al-shakankery , Ragaa A. Hamouda and Ammar M. M.

  • Abstract

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of using seaweeds (Padina vickersiae, Enteromorpha compressa, Ulva fasciata, Gelidium crinale, Jania rubens and Laurencia obtusa) as biofertilizers for improving growth and grain quality of maize (zea maize L.) plants. Gelidium crinale (3g/hill) gave the highest plant height (305.33 cm). The highest yield (cob weight 485.3 gm) was obtained with U. fasciata (4.5g/hill). Ulva fasciata (3 and 4.5 g/hill) gave the heighest increase in nitrogen content of grains 800% compared to control. Ulva fasciata (3g/hill) gave  lipid percentage of 8.66% which was the highest compared to control while P. vickersiae (3 g/hill) gave the highest ascorbic acid content of (238.93 mg/100g).

Quality evaluation and sensory properties of yoghurtproduced from tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus), Coconut( Cocos nucifera), Soursop (Annona muricata) and Conophor nut         (Tetracarpidium conophorum)

Beatrice O. T. Ifesan, Victoria O. Oyerinde and Odunayo S. Jimoh

  • Abstract

    There is need to investigate protein rich products from plant sources to replace animal protein which is scarce and expensive. Coconut milk, tiger nut milk, soursop milk and conophor nut milk samples were employed in the production of yoghurt using skimmed milk as control. The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their physicochemical, phytochemical, antioxidant, microbial and sensory qualities. The total titratable acidity (TTA) and total solids (TS) of yoghurt samples were significantly different and ranged from 0.31% to 1.43% and 6.35% to 14.06% respectively. Crude protein content of yoghurt samples include: 4.09g/100g, 4.61g/100g, 3.56 g/100g, 3.04 g/100g, and 7.22 g/100g for coconut, soursop, conophor nut, tiger nut and skimmed milk yoghurts respectively. The fat contents were from 2.28 g/100g to 4.39 g/100g, carbohydrate (0.54 g/100g to 3.11 g/100g) and ash (0.60 g/100g to 0.71 g/100g). Yoghurt samples were screened for their total phenolic, saponin, tannin, oxalate content and antioxidant activity using 2, 2’–dihenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results revealed that total phenolic content (0.15 mg/g to 0.35 mg/g), saponin (0.54 mg/g to 33.64mg/g), tannin (0.09mg/g to 2

Health issues related to the intake of cabbages grown at soils irrigated with contaminated waters

L.M. Shengo, C.W.N Mutiti, K.A. Nonda and A.T. Mukadi

  • Abstract

    This research has been centred on health issues related to the intake of cabbages grown on soils irrigated with contaminated water from a river. It has been carried out in the city of Lubumbashi located in the DR Congo in view the establishment of a link between the diseases likely to affect the humans health and the presence of contaminants in the locally grown cabbages and in water used for their  watering by the marker gardeners. The obtained results have revealed the presence of cadmium, faecal Streptococci and Escherichia coli in the watering water and the accumulation of cadmium (18.8 mg/kg), lead (62.5 mg/kg), copper (943.0 mg/kg) and nickel (28.1 mg/kg) in the locally grown cabbages to concentrations acknowledged phytotoxically excessive as well. Based on the obtained results, it has been concluded that the watering of cabbages with water from a river is an unhealthy practice. Concerning the excess cadmium and lead found in the locally grown cabbages, it could endanger the consumer’s health. Considering health risks related to the intake ofcontaminated foodstuffs, the market gardeners are urged to improve practices in the urban agriculture of vegetables consumed in the City of Lubumbashi. 

Obesity outcome in mothers independent of dietary fat type after birth but during pregnancy period

Sanaa Jameel Thamer

  • Abstract

    The maternal obesity have adverse effect on mother and neonatal health also developed serious metabolic risks in mother life related to change in adipose metabolic process. The aim is to study the effect of dietary fat types on obesity development during pregnancy and the role of Leptin to modulate energy balance after delivery and correlation with metabolic problems. Female Wister rat feeding during the pregnancy period (3 weeks) on one of the following diets: control diet (10%fat: tallow), high fat diet (45%fat: tallow), moderate saturated fat diet (22.5%fat: tallow) and moderate unsaturated fat diet (22.5%fat: olive oil). After delivery, dams exposure to control diet for 4 weeks, gestational weight gain and postpartum body weight were recorded, plasma analysis were measured pre and postpartum periods. Feeding dams during pregnancy with saturated fat diets (45%, 22.5%) increased gestational weight gain as higher energy consumed and elevated glucose, lipoprotein, Leptin levels and reduced Insulin sensitivity by reducing HOMI even when exposure postpartum to control diet, the previous parameters still high (W: 57.871±5.422 gm, 47.923±6.110 gm; Glu: 16.033±0.472, 14.433±0.399; T.ch: 2.276±0.022,1.790±0.024; TG: 1.263±0.020, 1.135±0.010 mmol/L; Lep:6.876±0.020 ng/ml, 4.832± 0.010 ng/ml; HOMI: 26.702 ± 0.200, 23.590±0.219) compared to control group, while feeding dams with unsaturated fat diet (22.5% olive oil) showed favorable effect on gestational weight and weight gain, plasma analysis including lipoproteins, Leptin, Insulin and HOMI levels pre and postpartum periods (Pre: W:315.66±9.127gm, 36.855±5.299 gm; Glu:13.233±0.100; T.ch: 1.141±0.011; TG: 0.745±0.017 mmol/L; Lep: 2.759±0.009 ng/ml; Insu: 1.379±0.004 ng/ml;  OMI:17.659±0.122) (Post: W: 319.397±6.835 gm; Glu: 13.033±0.457

Polysyncraton Nott, 1892 an unrecorded genus of the family Didemnidae from India

V.K. Meenakshi, S. Senthamarai and S. Gomathy

  • Abstract

    Ascidians belonging to the family Didemnidae are producers of pharmacologically potent natural compounds. Till recently only four genera of the family Didemnidae - Didemnum Savigny, 1816, Lissoclinum Verrill, 1871, Diplosoma MacDonald, 1859 and Trididemnum Della Valle, 1881 has been reported by earlier workers from India. The present survey adds one more genus of ascidian - Polysyncraton as a new record for Indian waters. Polysyncraton millepore Vasseur, 1969 collected from trawl discards of mussel landing centers of Melakurumpanai, Kanniyakumari District is described in detail with original camera lucida diagrams.

Modified Atmosphere and Humidity packages of Mushrooms (Pleurotus Ostreatus) and Tomatoes (Lycopersicon Esculenttum var. Petomech) to Avoid Water Condensation

Clément Y. Yué Bi, Benjamin N. Yao, Hubert K. Konan, Kablan Tano

  • Abstract

    Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) and tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum, var. Petomech) were packaged in modified atmosphere (MA) containers able to maintain optimal atmosphere for each product at optimal storage temperature (4 °C for mushrooms and 13 °C for tomatoes). Moisture absorbers (sodium bicarbonate and polymer of super moisture absorber mixture 60:40 for mushrooms and "beta" lactose and polymer of super moisture absorber mixture 40:60 for tomatoes) as powder form wrapped in permeable sachets were introduced in these packages. A group of packages without moisture absorbers was used as a control. Packages of the two products with and without moisture absorbers were stored both at constant temperature and under temperature fluctuations conditions (ΔT = 10 °C). Temperature and relative humidity were followed throughout storage. Condensation index and quality attributes were determined at the end of storage. Inside packages without moisture absorbers, air was saturated (relative humidity = 100%) after 48 h (2 days) and 240 h (10 days) for mushrooms and tomatoes, respectively. In packages with moisture absorbers, relative humidity increased quickly and stabilized to 95% after 36h and 93 % after 240 h (10 days) for mushrooms and tomatoes, respectively. The use of moisture absorbers has avoided considerably moisture condensation and delayed the loss of the products quality. Maintaining the optimal relative humidity inside modified atmosphere packages by adding moisture absorbers reduced significantly mushrooms and tomatoes decay. Produce shelf-life were prolonged with the use of moisture absorbers (10 days for mushrooms and 14 days for tomatoes). 

Evaluation of the cooking process of neem (Azadirachta indica) nuts as a pretreatment prior to oil extraction

Nde Bup Divine, Siriyabe Marth, Mohagir M. Ahmed, Fon Abi Charles, Zourmba Paul, Nkeng Elambo George, Kapseu Cesar

  • Abstract

    Traditional methods are usually used locally to produce ‘bio-neem oil’ which is void of residual solvents. The major disadvantages of the method are low oil yields and high acid values. To ameliorate this process, cooking of neem nuts was evaluated by response surface methodology. Independent variables studied were cooking time and temperature while the responses were moisture content of the cooked kernels, quantity of oil extracted, acid value and the refractive index of the oil. Cooking time and temperature significantly influenced the cooking process but their interaction effect was negligible. Optimum ranges obtained for the cooking process were cooking time (5-20 min) and cooking temperature (40-50oC). At the mid-point of these ranges (12.5 min and 45 oC) theoptimum responses obtained were: moisture content 46.37 % w.b., oil content 21.43 %, acid value 3.53 mg KOH/g oil and refractive index 1.460. Experiments conducted under these optimal conditions showed no significant difference with the calculated results. Results for the raw kernels were: moisture content 43.00±1.41 % w. b., quantity of extracted oil 15.88±0.26 %, Acid value 8.13±0.78 %, and refractive index 1.461±0.01, indicating that, there was a 35 % increase in quantity of oil extracted and a 57 % reduction in acid value.

Phytochemical Screening of Sargassum swartzii (Seaweeds- Brown algae)

S. Manimegalai,P.Manjula


  • Abstract

    Seaweeds or marine algae are potential renewable resource in the marine environment. The medicinal uses of seaweed are vast and range from tropical burn therapy to softening of tumours. The Phaeophyceae or brown algae is a large group of marine multicelluar algae and play an important role in marine environments both as food and for the habitats .In the present study, brown algae was selected and the secondary metabolites like carbohydrates, reducing sugar, cycloglycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols are found to be high in the methanolic extract of Sargassum swartzii. Powder and fluorescence analysis of dried powder of Sargassum swartzii were observed. From the study , it may be concluded that the methanolic extract of Sargassum swartzii is a good source of phytoconstituents.

Isolation of Marine Green Alga-Associated Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Fish Pathogenic Aeromonas Strain

Ariole, C.N., Ihunwo, H. O. and Ozuru, C. N.

  • Abstract

    Culturable bacteria and fungi associated with green seaweed (Cladophora sp.) collected from the Niger Delta coastal region in Bonny Island were isolated. The antimicrobial activities of the isolates against fish pathogenic Aeromonas strain were evaluated. Isolation of strains was by spread of algal homogenate on sterile acidified potato dextrose agar plates and the antimicrobial activity was investigated using agar diffusion assay. A total of 18 bacterial and 21 fungal isolates were identified. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Escherichia and Acinetobacter were isolated at different frequencies with Pseudomonas predominating. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Saccharomyces, Candida, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus and Debaryomyces were isolated at different frequencies with Aspergillus and Saccharomyces predominating. Six (6) bacterial strains (33.3%) and 5 fungal strains (23.8%) were found active against fish pathogenic Aeromonas strain. These diverse genera of aerobic microorganisms are of particular interest due to their ecological significance. Their antimicrobial activities could improve the chemical defense capability of their host. Furthermore, the antagonistic microbes could be employed as probiotics, after further investigations, for management of aeromonasis in fish and shellfish farming.

Effect of temperature and pH on growth of fungi Trichoderma harzianum

S. Reetha, G. Bhuvaneswari, G.Selvakumar, P.Thamizhiniyan, and M.pathmavathi

  • Abstract

    Trichoderma harzianum was obtained from Department of microbiology, Annamalai University. Then these fungi was grown on solid medium of PDA(Potato dextrose agar),at various temperature levels like 25ºC,30ºC,35ºC,45ºC.and also at various pH levels like 5,6,7,7.5. The growth rate was determined from the radial growth of the fungus on Petri dishes. Trichoderma harzianum was grown faster at 25-30ºC and it grow very slowly at above 35 and there is no growth at 45ºC optimum temperature of Trichoderma was found between 25 to 30ºC approx 28ºC by radial growth. The colour of the culture trichoderma white to light and dark green at various incubation periods. The maximum growth of Trichoderma harzianum was observed the range of pH at 7-7.5 the minimum growth was observed at the range of pH 5.

Status and Distribution of Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia in Udaipur District, Rajasthan (India)

Gazala Aftab

  • Abstract

    The present distribution of Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia has been assessed in this study in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia locally called Indrokh, is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests. Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia is threatened due to unsustainable harvesting by local community. Habitats of Anogeissus were degraded by cutting of mature trees, soil erosion, enchroachment, developmental activities and human inhabitation that lead to viability reduction. A probable list of location of the species in the study area was prepared, based on the literature, reports, thesis and informal interviews with the local people. Using the above information, random transects were located and surveyed. Present study reveals that Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia is dotted in eastern part of Udaipur district.

Feeding deterrent activity of certain plant extracts against Helicoverpa armigera pest of Cicer arietinum.

S. K. Bisen and S.K. Bansal

  • Abstract

    In the present study, feeding deterrent activity of Annona squamosa extract (AS-1 & AS-2) and Ageratum conyzoide sextract (Ac-1 to Ac-2) was tested against Helicoverpa armigera and it was observed that in control arm there was no extract applied on leaves however, antifeedant activity was reported to be low i.e. 24±1.23% in paired or dual choice test. Similar result (25.06±1.40) was reported in control in no-choice test. When Annona squamosa (As-1) extract was sprayed on leaves the larvae have shown 62.15±1.35% antifeedant activity in paired choice test and 65.40±1.35% antifeedant activity in no-choice test. Similarly, when As-2 fraction of Annona squamosa was applied on the larvae, the antifeedant activity was found to be increased i.e. 63.00±1.50% in dual choice test and 64.34±2.05% in no-choice test. Similar experiment was repeated for Ageratum conyzoides fraction and it was noticed that this plant extract showed highly pungent smell that’s why both fractions of A. conyzoides showed highest antifeedant activity.

Techniques for Extraction and Quantification of Endomycorrhizea Fngi

G. Bhuvaneswari, S.Reetha R.Sivaranjani and K.Ramakrishnan

  • Abstract

    Techniques to extract spores from soil and quantify external hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonization in roots are essential tools in mycorrhizal research. Mycorrhizae are mutualistic associations between beneficial soil fungi and plant roots and are common in natural soils. These methods are primarily used to identify mycorrhizal associations and measure the degree of root colonization. Our review provides an overview on present techniques used to extract and quantify AM fungi in soil and roots. We hope that the present review will help the readers to choose an appropriate method to extract and quantify AM fungi in soil and roots for their specific experimental set-up. Endomycorrhizae the most widely distributed in nature, they are associated with turf grasses, vegetables, flowers, fruit trees, and many ornamental shrubs and trees. “Endo” refers to the fungi penetrating into the root. It cannot be seen except for some hyphae growing near feeder roots. These fungi clouded be the most importance and poorly understood resource for nutrient acquisition and plant growth in agriculture.

Evaluation of the pectin content and degree of esterification of various tropical fruit byproducts with the aim of utilizing them as possible sources of marketable pectins

Beda Marcel Yapoa, Grah Avit Maxwell Beugré, and Dago Gnakri

  • Abstract

    The pectin content and degree of esterification (DE) are two important parameters to be analyzed for agricultural byproducts intended for marketable pectins. In this study, several “new” tropical fruit byproducts were screened, in comparison with the benchmark citrus (lime, grapefruit and sweet orange) peel, for commercial-grade pectin possibility. The results showed that all the fruit byproducts analyzed contained relatively great amounts of pectic substances, as judged by the presence, in them, of more than 10% anhydrogalacturonic acid (GalUA), except for pineapple pomace and avocado rind. However, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among the different pectin-containing cell wall materials (CWM). In terms of the pectin content, the different fruit byproducts could be divided in four groups, viz. pectin-poor source (GalUA <5%; pineapple pomace and avocado rind), moderately rich-pectin source (GalUA ³10-15%; banana peel, cacao pod husks, cinnamon apple, mandarin rind, mango peel, plantain peel, papaw rind and sweet orange peel), highly-rich pectin s

Morphological analysis of testes in pubertal bulls (Bos indicus) in Bangladesh

Gitaindro Nath Adhikary, Shah Md. Abdur Rauf, Muhammad Nazrul Islam, Kazi Mehetazul Islam, Mst. Ismat Ara Begum and Nayan Bhowmik.

  • Abstract

    The present investigation was aimed to study different testicular parameters in indigenous bulls. Twenty four bulls of three age groups namely group A (1.5 to 2 years, n=8), group B (2 to 2.5 years, n=8) and group C (above 2.5 years, n=8) bearing 2, 4 and 6 permanent incisor teeth respectively, were selected. Body weight and scrotal circumference were recorded before slaughter and various testicular parameters were measured after slaughter. The average circumference of left and right testes were 12.75±0.55 cm and 11.82±0.46 cm in the group A,15.37±0.21 cm and 14.90±0.32 cm in the group B and 18.23±9.75 cm and 17.26±9.75 cm in the group C, respectively. The body weight was significantly correlated with testicular circumference of left testis (r=0.99, P<0.01), with testicular weight of left testis with (r=0.98, P<0.01) and without (r=0.94, P<0.05) epididymis, with testicular weight of right testis without epididymis (r=0.95, P<0.05), with testicular length of right testis with (r=0.94, P<0.05)  and without (r=0.98, P<0.01) epididymis and with testicular volume of left testis (r=0.96, P<0.05) in the group B. The scrotal circumference was significantly correlated with testicular circumference of left testis in the group A (r=0.99, P<0.01) and C (r=0.95, P<0.05). Body weight and scrotal circumference related with the testicular parameters in indigenous pubertal bulls.

Seasonal changes of biochemical constituents in the four finfish species represented in the trawl net by-catches off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

P. Yedukondala Rao, D. Naga Krishna Veni and Rukmini Sirisha

  • Abstract

    Seasonal changes in the biochemical constituents such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash besides moisture content in the muscle of Apogon quadrifasciatus, Photopectoralis bindus, Parachaeturichthys polynema and Uranoscopus archionema has been carried out during April 2006 to March 2007. The percentage composition of moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash contents showed variations in their abundance in different seasons in the four species. The protein content ranged from 5.78% to 19.80%; the lipid content ranged from 0.44% to 4.24%; ash content ranged from 1.01% to 3.44% in four fish species studied. Among the four fishes studied highest protein content (19.80%) was noticed in U. archionema, lipid content (4.24%) in P. polynema and ash content (3.44%) in U. archionema. Seasonally highest protein content (16.33%) was observed in post monsoon in P. polynema followed by U. archionema (16.22%) in monsoon, A. quadrifasciatus (15.14%) in monsoon and P. bindus (13.75%) in post-monsoon. 

Sclerotium rolfsii: its isolates variability, pathogenicity and an eco-friendly management option

Asish Mahato and Bholanath Mondal

  • Abstract

    Collar rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc was prevalent in varying percentage (0.12 to 6.14) in all the district of red and lateritic agro-climatic region of West Bengal (India), and has been recorded on groundnut, both cultivated and uncultivated wild elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson], tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L.], potato [Solanum tuberosum L.], brinjal [Solanum melongena L.] and mesta [Hibiscus subdariffa L.] during survey (2012-13). Disease incidence recorded from uncultivated wild elephant foot yam was maximum (50.22%). No much variation was recorded when characterization of four isolates of S. rolfsii from groundnut was done. Pathogenicity through cross inoculation technique did not show any host specificity. But the isolates showed different degrees of virulence. Highly virulent isolate from uncultivated wild elephant foot yam developed symptom rapidly on different crops. A field trial was also setup during 2012-13 against the pathogen causing collar rot of brinjal with some non-chemical agents.  The per cent disease control (PDC) after 65 days of observation was found highest (84.66%) in Plaster of Paris (CaSO4.1/2 H2O) treated plots followed by Azotobacter chroococcum Beijerinck (84.09%), Vermicompost (83.28%) and Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula (82.19%). FYM (74.10%) and Trichoderma viride Pers. (73.27%) was recorded effective than Neem cake (64.19%) as well. Lowest PDC (50.70%) was recorded in VAM [Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxt.) Gerdem. & Trappe] treated plot that was less effective.

Effect of Gamma rays and EMS on Seed germination and Seed Characters in Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) (Burn.)Stapf. Var. CO(Cu)-9.

Ambli.Nand Mullainathan.L

  • Abstract

    The most widely grown millet is pearl millet, which is an important crop in India and part of Africa. The Present investigation was carried out to find out the LD50 value and seedling characters of Gamma rays and EMS. LD50 value was calculated based on the 50 percent reduction of seed germination and growth of seedlings. The seeds were treated with different concentrations of Gamma rays such as 10, 20,30,40,50 and 60 kR and 10,20,30,40 and 50 mM of EMS along with control and observed germination percentage on 7th and 15th day of seedling characters like, shoot length and root length. The survival percentage and mean value of M1 generation were decreased increasing doses/ Concentrations of treatment. Mean performance of different quantitative traits were better in control when compared with the treated plant and LD50 was found at 20kR in gamma rays and 30mM in EMS.

Endopolysaccharides Production and Growth of Flammulina velutipes 6 under Submerged Conditions

Mohamed Osman, Wafaa Ahmed, Fathy Hussein, Heba El-sayed

  • Abstract

    This research deals with the production of water-soluble endopolysaccharides (IPS) and mycelial growth from edible Flammulina velutipes 6 (FV.6) under various cultural conditions. Firstly, type of media and the suitable level of glucose, magnesium, phosphate and C/N ratio were determined by single factor experiment. Also, environmental conditions like temperature and pH were tested. Subsequently, the optimum concentrations of medium components were investigated using the orthogonal matrix method. The results revealed that higher levels of IPS were correlated to the level of cell growth. The optimum medium for IPS yield and mycelial growth was found to be: 35 g/l glucose, 10 C/N ratio, 3g/l KH2PO4, 3 g/l MgSO4·7H2O. IPS yield increased markedly from 1.003 to 1.723 g/l in case of the basal medium and optimal one under static conditions respectively. Also, biomass formation was also markedly improved from 9.1 to 10.3 g d. wt/l in case of the basal  edium and optimal one under static conditions respectively. 

Prevalence of Alternaria bight of rapeseed-mustard in the Undulating Red and Lateritic zone of West Bengal

Anuj Mamgain, Mohan Kumar Biswas and Narottam Dey

  • Abstract

    Alternaria brassicae induced leaf blight has been found to have a drastic effect on members belonging to plant families such as Cucurbitaceae, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae which have nutritional as well as economic importance. In India oilseeds belonging to family  rassicaceae are second largest agricultural commodity next to cereals. Among oilseeds, rapeseed and mustard group comprise a major proportion of edible oilseeds. Losses up to more than 50 percent due to Alternaria blight have been reported by many workers in these crops. In West Bengal, the prevalence of Alternaria blight has also been reported in various locations. Since the disease severity was found to be maximum in the agro-climatic zone namely the undulating red and lateritic zone, so an experimental study was conducted at different locations of the aforesaid agro climatic zone to have a preliminary idea regarding the pattern of prevalence of the disease in the region. The study not only provided an elementary idea about the disease severity pattern in the zone but it also paved the path for seeking resistance sources under local conditions and recommendation of proper farming practices to combat the drastic effects of Alternaria leaf blight. 

Population Status of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in South Rajasthan, India

Mohammed Yaseen, Rashmi Saxena and Sunil Dubey

  • Abstract

    The current study was carried out during winter and summer season in 2010 to estimate number, population size, seasonal variation and demography of globally threatened Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in southern Rajasthan covering a total of six districts. A total of 458 adults and 90 Juveniles were counted during the winter survey while 687 adult and 111 juveniles were counted during the summer survey. The highest number of Sarus Crane was found in Chittaurgarh district and the lowest in Pratapgarh district during both surveys. The Sarus population had 20 juveniles for every 100 adults in the winter and 16 in the summer survey. During study 83.21% and 80.83% Sarus cranes were seen in the marshes and close to the wetlands whereas 16.79% and 19.17% were found in harvested and crop fields in the two surveys respectively the population of Sarus crane is showing a definite increase in all six districts during the study period. It is highly encouraging to record the successful increase in population of Sarus crane G. antigone antigone in Southern Rajasthan.

Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Tunisia.

Sfar N.

  • Abstract

    A total of 296 fleas were collected from 36 dogs and 6 cats in 6 widely distributed locations in center of Tunisia (M’saken, Bouchia, Kondar, Sidi Bou Ali, Sidi El Hani and Enfidha) in 2008 to 2010. Rickettsia species was found in 14 fleas collected in dogs and cats. Rickettsia felis was detected in 11 specimens of Ctenocephalides felis collected from dogs and cats. R. helvetica was detected in 3 Ctenocephalides canis collected from cats. PCR amplification of rickettsial DNA was performed by using previously described oligonucleotide primer pairs Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Study confirms that C. felis remains the most common flea species infesting cats and dogs in Tunisia.

Isolation and characterization of a chemolithotrophic, thiosulfate oxidizing Bacillus sp. from coal mine overburden spoil

Jitesh Kumar Maharana, Bhagyashree Naik and Amiya Kumar Patel

  • Abstract

    Pit scarred landscape of coal mine overburden spoil represents nutrient deficient situation due to the lack of biologically rich top soil, and represents a disequilibriated geomorphic system. The physico-chemical characterization of fresh coal mine overburden spoil was performed, which is pre-requisite for soil quality assessment. Besides, coal mine spoil with pyrite (FeS2) as major contaminant allowed proliferation of specific groups of microbial community (chemolithotrophs) as initial colonizers that have physiological adaptability to thrive in such hostile environment. The thiosulfate oxidizing bacterium was isolated from fresh coal mine overburden spoil, which was found to be gram-negative, rod shaped, obligately and facultatively chemolithotrophic strain. Optimum growth was observed at pH 4.0 at 37°C suggesting that the bacterium is acidophilic. Specific growth rate exhibited the bacterium was found to be 0.063 hr-1 (heterotrophic) and 0.101 hr-1 (chemolithotrophic) culture condition. Thermal death time in chemolithotrophic culture condition was estimated to be 3hr at 60ºC. Antibiotics sensitivity test was performed to estimate the potency of different antibiotics against the isolated bacterium.A culture-dependent approach based on polymerase chain reaction amplified partial small subunit 16S rDNA was used to characterize the thiosulfate oxidizing bacterium isolated from fresh coal mine overburden spoil. Molecular phylogeny analysis based on 16S rDNA gene sequence using neighbor-joining method suggested that the isolated strain belongs to the genus Bacillus with close affiliation with other Bacillus sp.

Effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the growth and biochemical content of black gram (vigna mungo L.)

A. Krishnan, P.S.Sharvanan, T. Ravimycin and M. Lenin

  • Abstract

    Heavy metal of soils due to intensive industrial activities and agricultural development is usually a source of environmental problems. Heavy metal phytotoxicity is considered to be main factor limiting plant growth when cultivate in acid soils. Moreover, these metals have strong impact on human health through the food chain. So the present investigations were carried out to explore the effect of Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2) on the growth of black gram (Vigna mungo L.). The experiment was conducted in the laboratory condition. The heavy metal solutions were freshly prepared at the time of experiment in different concentrations viz., (Control, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm) of (CdCl2). All results, when compared to  ontrolshow (CdCl2) adversely affecting the normal growth of plants by reducing themorphological parameters such as germination percentage, root length, shoot length,fresh weight, dry weight, root nodules, total leaf area and number of leaves wereanalysed in 7th day seedlings. The pigment content like viz., chlorophyll a, b, totalchlorophyll, carotinoid, and the biochemical parameters such as protein and sugars of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) seedlings was investigated in same day. The (CdCl2) treated plants caused reduction in all parameters of experimental plants. The sugar content increased in the (CdCl2) treated plants when compared to control plants. 

Simple quantitative analysis of α-mangostin in mangosteen rind extracts and their microparticle preparations using HPLC method

Panupon Khumsupan, Pongtip Sithisan, Chittima Managit and Wandee Gritsanapan

  • Abstract

     Method validation is a crucial process of quantitative analysis of active constituents to standardize medicinal herbs and their products. Garcinia mangostana or mangosteen has become a fruit of choice in various types of industries and therefore, standardization of this plant is of paramount. In this study, the HPLC validation method of α-mangostin has been proposed and validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The method was linear from the α-mangostin concentration ranges of 5-300 μg/ml with the correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The percent RSD, indicative of precision, was lower than 2%, which demonstrate the precision of the system. The average percent recovery was 100.04 ± 0.63%. The LOD and LOQ were 0.07 and 0.20 μg/ml, respectively. The validated method was then used to quantitatively analyze the content of α-mangostin in extracts and their respective microparticle preparations. Alpha-mangostin contents were 49.60 ± 0.21, 14.13 ± 0.07, and 13.17 ± 0.01 %w/w for dichloromethane, 95% ethanol and 50% ethanol extracts while the contents of α- mangostin in 100 g of microparticle preparations containing dichloromethane, 95% ethanol and 50% ethanol extracts were 118.49 ± 0.98, 45.13 ± 0.23 and 38.70 ± 0.15 mg, respectively. 

Effect of Nutrient Sources and Environmental Factors on the Biomass Production of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Ostreatus)

Mohamed F.M.Salem; Khaled F.M.Salem; Emily T.Hanna; and Noura E.Nouh

  • Abstract

     Studies were carried out on the growth condition for Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), an edible mushroom and the effect of nutrient Sources and Environmental factors on the biomass production. This organism was able to grow optimally at a temperature of 25 0C and pH of 6.5. It utilized various carbon sources such as glucose, fructose, maltose, Galactose, sucrose and lactose, with glucose the most utilized and this significantly enhanced mycelial growth closely followed by fructose, sucrose and Galactose. The least utilized carbon sources were lactose. The organism tested at different glucose concentration (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g/L),the maximum glucose concentration for mycelial biomass production was achieved at 30 g/L. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on different carbohydrate substrates (corn, rice and rye). Corn flour gave the highest mycelia yield while rye gave the lowest. 

Influence of salinity and its interaction with phosphorus on chilli (Capsicum annumm L.)

Indu Chaudharyand Yogesh Kumar Sharma

  • Abstract

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) application in mitigating the detrimental effects of salt stress on chilli (Capsicum annumm L. G-4) plants. A soil pot culture experiment was conducted in wire house. Plants were subjected to different electrical conductivity (EC) solutions viz. 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m prepared by mixing NaCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2. For remediation approach two salinity levels (EC 6 and 8 dS/m) were subjected with combination of 40 ppm phosphorus. Saline solution decreased plant height, biomass production. Photosynthetic pigments reduced at all salinity levels as compared to control plants. The most serious affect was at highest salinity level (8 dS/m)) as compared to the plants under moderate salinity levels 2, 4 and 6 dS/m. The content of MDA and proline were found to gradually increase with increased in salinity levels. Phosphorus application comparatively (salt treated plants) decreased the content of MDA and Proline in the leaf of plant treated with salt+P. Salinity influenced on antioxidative enzymes like catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. These enzymes increased at all EC levels except higher level (8EC) of salinity and then decreased with P supply. The observations indicated that supplementary phosphorus can overcome the negative influence of salinity on plant growth and physiological development.

Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial activity of plant parts of Ageratum conyzoides extracted using different solvents

*Diepreye Ere, Kemebradikumo Pondei, Queen Inaibo and Langley Orutugu

  • Abstract

    Ageratum Conyzoides (Goat Weed) an annual herbaceous plant of the family Astreracae, is locally used against a variety of illnesses. However, there is little scientific documentation of the potency of this long-life flowering plant. Pure cultures of clinical isolates of Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Psuedomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Ageratum conyzoides. Mueller Hinton agar diffusion method was used in determining the antimicrobial effects of the various extracts of the plant parts. Extracts of the stem and root showed significant sensitivity (P<0.5), while the leaf extract exhibited the weakest. The methanol extracts showed the highest degree of activity against the clinical isolates tested. The phytochemical screening of the plant under study revealed the presence of major metabolites such as cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids which were present in different proportions which may have been responsible for the plants antimicrobial activity.

Histomorphological Study of the Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Nauclea latifolia on Neonatal Liver

Isongesit Solomon, Eno-obong Bassey, Samson Oyebadejo, Christopher Mbadugha and  Rebecca Ekanem

  • Abstract

    Histomorphological study of the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia on neonatal liver was investigated. 72 albino wistar rats consisting of 60 females and 12 males weighing between 100-273g were used for this study. This study was divided into 3 phases, each phase consisting of 4 groups (one control group and three  xperimental groups). LD50 was carried out to determine the doses represented as low dose (500mg/kg), middle dose (1000mg/kg) and high dose (1500mg/kg) of Nauclea latifolia leaf extract. In all the 3 phases, the control groups 1A, 2A and 3A) received 10% Tween 80. In phase 1, the experimental animals designated (1B, 1C and 1D) received, 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg of Nauclea latifolia respectively for 21 days before pregnancy. In phase 2, the experimental group animals designated (2B, 2C and 2D) received, 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg of Nauclea latifolia respectively for 21 days before pregnancy and 7th to 13th day of gestation. In phase 3, the experimental group animals designated (3B, 3C and 3D) received 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg  and 1500mg/kg of Nauclea latifolia respectively from 7th to 13th day of gestation and the litters were sacrificed within 48 hrs and liver tissues were weighed and processed using haematoxylin and eosin technique. Result showed a marked significance (p<0.05) of the effect of Nauclea latifolia on the liver, while the histopathological result showed inflammation, vacuolation, vascular congestion and degenerative changes with pyknotic nuclei and hepatocytic hyperplasia in all the 3 phases and their subgroups of the experimental animals as compared to the control groups.. In conclusion, it is shown that the Nauclea latifolia extract posed a degree of pathological condition on the neonate liver, hence the consumption of the plants in pregnancy should be discouraged during  prenatal care. 

Anti-Arthritic Activity of Lawsonia Inermis Leaves by Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

Sharada Nalla, Likitha Reddy N, Soloman Sunder Raj, G. Venkateshwarlu, and Swathi. B

  • Abstract

    The ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Family: Lythraceae) leaves were evaluated for antiarthritic activity in adult male Wistar rats. Two doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis were administered to the Freund`s incomplete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats for 23 days. During the experimental Period, paw edema volume (primary lesion) was observed. Our results suggest that both the doses of ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis significantly reduced the paw edema volume as compared to diseased control animals. 

Antioxidant rich fruit fractions from Momordica spp. and their commercial potential in functional food industry

Shrawan Singh, D. R. Singh, L. K. Bharati and S. Dam Roy

  • Abstract

    The mining for lycopene rich natural sources and understanding the factors for variable expression level of this is trait in such sources is very interesting topic among the related researchers. This is due to high free radical quenching capacity of the lycopene and strong evidences that lycopene has anti-cancer property particularly against prostate cancer. Though, tomato is universal source of lycopene for different food items but Momordica cochinchinensis also emerged as richest source of lycopene for industrial use. It has been claimed that the aril fraction of M. cochinchinensis contains around 70 times higher lycopene than tomato. The present paper reviews the significant contributions in the field of biochemistry, health studies and industrial uses of lycopene from Momordica spp. and presents future strategies for utilization of other lesser known or under-utilized Momordica plants through research and industrial interventions.

Chronic Oral Consumption of Ethanolic Extract of Picralima Nitida (Akuamma) Seed Induced Gross morphological and Seminal Alterations on the Testes of Adult Wistar Rats


I.P. Solomon, Oyebadejo S.A, Edet.I.E, IdiongJr J.U and Ebong A.O

  • Abstract

    Gross morphological and Seminal fluid analysis on the effect of chronic consumption of ethanolic extract of Picralima nitida seed on the Testes of adult albino wistar male rats was investigated using 20 male albino wistar rats; they were distributed into 5 rats in each group. Group 1 was the control group while groups 2 to group 4 were the experimental groups. Group 1 was given distilled water and normal rat feed, Group 2 was given 250mg/kg serving as low dose, group 3 was given 350mg/kg as middle dose and group 4 was given 450mg/kg as High dose of Picralima nitida seeds extract orally for 21 days. At the end of administration, the rats were sacrificed and Testes from all the groups were carefully dissected out, weighed using digital weighing balance for Gross morphological evaluation, immediately after weighing, the testicular tissue were crushed into pieces using surgical blade in the petrish dish containing freshly prepared seminal fluid solution, the cut tissues were squeezed gently and spermatozoa were allowed to flow out. After 5 minutes, semen analysis was carried out at room temperature to evaluate sperm cell concentrations, sperm morphology, and sperm motility progressivity and live and death ratio. The other testes were immediately fixed in Bouin’s fluid and sent to Laboratory for histopathological analysis.Gross Morphological Analysis revealed non- significant value in the weight of the rats from the treated group 2 to 5 compared to control for the initial, final and organ/testicular weight at necropsy. While seminal fluid analysis results revealed a significant difference in sperm concentration between group 1, 2, 3 and group 4 .Sperm concentration in group 2 (65.00  5.00) was significantly lower than group 1 (82.40  3.29), group 3 was significantly lower than group 1 and 2 (p<0.05) and group 4 was significantly lower than group 1, 2 and 3. Significant differences in sperm morphology and sperm motility were

Study of L-asparaginase production in Nocardia spp. isolated from Mangroves

Chauhan B and Dhaliwal MK


  • Abstract

    L-asparaginases catalyze the conversion of L-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. The demand for this enzyme is increasing in the pharmaceutical market and thus researchers are in search of industrially important organisms having the ability to produce this enzyme. Various L-asparaginase producing isolates were obtained from the mangrove soil samples collected from Maharashtra. The enzyme was found to be produced by fungal isolates i.e. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Pichia, yeast and bacterial species. The highest yield of asparaginase was observed in Nocardia sp., as identified by morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Sand filtered through 0.9 mm mesh sized filter was utilized for mechanical disruption of cells and extraction of enzyme. The obtained crude enzyme extract was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis was carried out to remove the excess salt to yield The amount of enzyme obtained from isolate F was having specific activity of 92.4 U/ml. The enzyme was purified and had total activity of 454.66 U/ml, giving 5.254fold increase. Maximum enzyme activity was observed at room temperature within pH range 7-8. The enzyme also showed favorable stability at higher temperatures and pH. The presence of reagents such as EDTA, mercuric chloride and copper sulphate was found to increase enzyme activity significantly. The results obtained suggest that theisolated strain of actinomycete may act as potent producer of asparaginase, for future commercialization purpose.

Phytochemical composition and free radicals scavenging activities of methanolic root extract of napoleona imperialis

Okon Effiom ETIM , Remy Ukachukwu DURU Kingsley Okereafor IKECHUKWU, and Nsikan Malachy Udo

  • Abstract

    Napoleona imperialis is a wild plant found in south east of Nigeria and is commonly known as nkpodu among the Igbo’s. It has antihypertensive effect and is also used mostly for the treatment of wounds. In this study, methanol root extract of Napoleona imperialis was analysed for the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites and its ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazine (DPPH.) radical, superoxide anion radical (O2), and nitric oxide radical (NO.) Quantitative phytochemical analysis was done spectrophotometrically using standard methods. The result showed that the total phenol concentration was 0.059 ± 0.020 mg QUE and flavonoid was 0.615± 0.008 mg GAE. The extract showed a potent minimal DPPH radical scavenging activity by changing the extract spots from purple to yellow on the thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plate. At the concentration of 2500 μg/ml the extract had its maximum inhibition of 88.36 ± 4.72 % compared to 250μg/ml of ascorbate (84.68 ± 10.4 %).The extract also had a low superoxide (O2 -) anion radical scavenging ability with IC50 of 1472.65 μg/mL compared to quecertin (IC50 = 17.018 μg/mL). In the 5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP) only medium, the levels of nitrite and hence nitric oxide (NO.) was significantly higher (p<0.05) at every time interval compared to the observed levels in the presence of the Napoleonae root extract. This therefore suggests that the root extract could be a good source of antioxidants to ameliorate conditions in diseases whose pathogenesis implicatesoxidative stress probably by stimulating the immune system of patients hence mechanism involve for its wound healing capabilitys.

  • Abstract

  • Abstract