Vol. 5 & Issue 1 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Nov.2014 to Jan.2015


Effects of Climatic Factors on Prevalence of Developmental Stages of Fasciola gigantica Infection in Lymnaea Snails (Lymnaea auricularia var rufescens) in Bangladesh

Kazi Mehetazul Islam, Md. Siddiqul Islam, Shah Md. Abdur Rauf, Alam Khan, Mohammed Kawser Hossain, Gitaindro Nath Adhikary, Sonjoy Sarkar and Moizur Rahman

  • Abstract

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of different developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica infection in Lymnaea snails and their population in Sylhet region of Bangladesh. A total of 1865 Lymnaea snails were collected and examined, of which 56 (3%) were infected with developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica. Among 515 snails collected from Biswanath Upazilla, only 4.08% were infected which was followed by 3.16% of 443 from Beanibazar, 2.53% of 396 from Balaganj, 2.40% of 292 from Jaintapur and the lowest 1.83% of 219 from Sylhet Sadar Upazilla. Based on month-wise data, the prevalence of snail infection was the highest in May (5.06%) and August (5.61%) and the lowest in March (0.74%) and February (0.68%). However, there was no infection observed through November to January. Studies on seasonal prevalence of the developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica infection in Lymnaea snails showed that the highest prevalence (4.63%) was in rainy season and lowest prevalence (0.76%) was during winter. There was significant correlation between infection in snail, meteorological factors and snail population. Taken together, this study might be valuable regarding development of an effective control strategy against fascioliosis in domesticated animals and man in Bangladesh.

Effect of methanolic root extract of napoleona imperialis on some haematological parameters in albino rats.

Okon Effiom ETIM, Remy Ukachukwu DURU, A.A. MARIE, and Gladys Ozisiaka OMETERE

  • Abstract

    Napoleona imperial is is an evergreen non-timber plant that has wound healing and antihypertensive effect. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of methanolic root extract of napoleona imperialis on some heamatological parameters of albino rats. The experimental animals were grouped into five groups with 6 animals each. Group 1(control)received 0.9% normal saline while group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received 400mg/kg, 800mg/kg, 1000mg/kg, 1200mg/kg of methanolic root extract of napoleona imperialis respectively for 21days. White blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), packed cell volume (PCV), Lymphocyte count, Neutrophil count, Mean cell volume (MCV), Mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were determined using standard methods. The result shows a significant difference (p<0.05) in HGB of Group 5 (13.36 ± 1.00mg/dl) compared to control (9.43 ± 0.40mg/dl). PCV also showed statistically significant difference in Group 2 (42.3 ± 5.03mg/dl) that received 400mg/kg body weight compared to control (35.6 ± 0.88mg/dl) and other groups. MCV and MCH of rats of Group 2 experimental animals (76.1 ± 3.94mg/dl) and Group 5(22.2 ± 1.66mg/dl) respectively had higher mean values but were not statistically significant compared to control and other groups. There were no significant difference (p>0.05) in TWBC, LYM, NEU and MCHC of groups 3, 4 and 5 when compared to control and other groups. This result therefore suggests that methanolic extract of Napoleona imperialis at certain concentration boost haematological parameters like haemoglobin level and packed cell volume.

Production of L-glutaminase by Aspergillus wentii MTCC 1901 using mixed agro residues tea dust and green gram under solid state fermentation

Y. Amulya and K. Jaya Raju,

  • Abstract

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the feasibility of mixed agro residues as a substrate for production of extracellular L-glutaminase using Aspergillus wentii MTCC 1901 under solid state fermentation and to determine the optimum physicochemical parameters to enhance the production of the enzyme. Among the various agro residues screened, tea dust (Camellia sinensis) and green gram (Vigna radiata) were selected and these two were mixed in different ratios for obtaining maximum enzyme activity. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in the fermentation medium consisting of tea dust and green gram in the ratio of 1:2. The enzyme production was found associated with the growth of the fungal culture. Aspergillus wentii produced high levels of glutaminase (581.2 U/gds) under optimized culture conditions on the 3rd day of incubation at an optimum pH 8.0, temperature 30°C and moisture content 60% ,in a medium supplemented with maltose (3.0%), ammonium sulphate (2%), and Sodium chloride (0.1%) using 2ml of 3 day old culture under Solid state fermentation. The yield of L-glutaminase showed an increase of nearly 2 fold after the optimization process using a mixture of substrates when compared to the yield of the enzyme with single substrates. The result shows that the mixtures of agro residues are the potential substrates for the production of L-glutaminase.

Histometric observations of pubertal testes of indigenous bulls (Bos indicus) of Bangladesh

Gitaindro Nath Adhikary,* Mst. Ismat Ara Begum, Muhammad Nazrul Islam¹, Kazi Mehetazul Islam, Bashudeb Paul1and Shah Md. Abdur Rauf

  • Abstract

    The experiment was conducted to elucidate the histomorphology of testes of pubertal indigenous bulls (Bos indicus) using Haematoxylin and Eosin stains during July 2012 to June 2014. Twenty four bulls of three age groups namely group A or pubertal (1.5 to 2 years, n=8), group B or early adult (2 to 3 years, n=8) and group C or late adult (above 3 years, n=8) were selected. Bulls of three age groups were slaughtered and testis samples were collected for histological techniques. Among three layered testicular covering, the thickness of tunica albuginea varied among different age groups. In the same animal it was found thicker in the left testis than the right. The parenchyma of testis was divided into lobes and lobules by connective tissue septa originating from tunica albugenia. The parenchyma consisted of seminiferous tubules containing complex stratified epithelium, the spermatogenic cells and sustentacular or Sertoli cells. Present study revealed that, the seminiferous tubules become more convoluted and intertubular space decreases with the advancement of age of the animals. The cross sectional lengths / breadths of the seminiferous tubules were higher in the late adult followed by early adult and puberty, whereas diameter / breadth of the tubules was higher at early adult. Among the spermatogenic cells, the spermatogonium, primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes had more staining affinity than the spermatids and spermatozoa in the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining techniques. The interstitial tissues consisted of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, fibroblasts / fibrocytes, free mononuclear cells and the interstitial endocrine cells of Leydig lodged in the collagenfibrous network in between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial cells of Leydig were large polymorphs, ovoid to polygonal in shape with spherical nuclei and granular cytoplasm remained singly or in groups. The thicknesses of tunica albuginea wer

Induced chlorophyll mutation in pearl millet (pennisetum typhoides) (burn.) Stapf. Var. Co (cu) -9.

Mullainathan.L and Ambli. K

  • Abstract

    Chlorophyll Plays crucial role in productivity of crops through photosynthesis. Pennisetum typhoides variety CO (cu)9 were treated with Gamma rays and EMS. The seeds were treated with different concentration of gamma rays such as 10, 20 and 30kR and 20, 30 and 40mM of EMS. A progressive increase in mutation frequency of chlorophyll mutations was observed with increasing doses of 30kR gamma rays and 40mM of EMS. Three different types of chlorophyll mutants, such as, Albino, Xantha, Viridis were identified with the effect of mutagens. EMS was found to be more efficient than gamma rays to induce chlorophyll mutants. The spectrum of chlorophyll mutants in both gamma rays and EMS indicated the dominance of viridis mutants as compared to albino and xantha.

Studies on effect of induced mutagenesis on Capsicum Annuum (L). Var- K1 in M1 generation

T.Aruldoss and L.Mullainathan

  • Abstract

    The interest in the consumption of chilli (capsicum annum L.) is to a large extent, due to its content of bioactive nutrients and their importance as dietary antioxidants. The present study was carried out to induce mutations through physical and chemical mutagens in chilli. The seed were subjected to different treatment level of both gamma rays and EMS. The parameters in M1generation like plant height (cm), number of primary and secondary branches per plant, number of leaves, days to first flowering, total number of fruits per plant, fruit length (cm), fruit girth (cm), average dry fruit weight (g) and hundred seed weight (g, were observed that, all the parameters except days to first flowering show a dose dependent decrease in both treatments. The LD-50 was obtained in 40-kR Gamma rays and 30-mM of EMS.

Effect of Circadian Photothermal cycles on Spawning and Serum Sex Steroid hormones in Female Goldfish: Carassiusauratus

Bhavna Upadhyay and Amita Sarkar

  • Abstract

    In this Experiment we investigate the effect of two photoperiod regimes on advancement of reproduction and Serum steroid profiles in the female Goldfish (Carassiusauratus).Three aquariums were used,two aquariums were used for the experiments and 1 for the Control group under natural conditions. The photoperiods applied in first aquarium/group treatment 1 were, 12L/12D (1Dec 2011 to 15 Jan 2012) followed by 19L/5D (from 16 Jan 2012 to Until Spawning) 22 0C.While, in Second aquarium/group treatment 2,the photoperiods applied were 12L/12D (1Dec 2011 to 15 Jan 2012), then 14L/10D (From 16 Jan 2012 Until Spawning) at 22 0C. 5 females out of 10 in 1 aquarium exposed to 19L/5D photoperiod spawned between 1 to 14 March,in contrast no female in the second group and in the control photoperiod spawned at this time. The first group showed 3 and half months advancement on spawning and gonadal maturation in goldfish.Estradiol 17 β and 17–α-OH Progesterone levels were also as peak in March in First Treatment Group than Treatment 2 and Control.12L/12D followed by 19L/5D Photoperiod treatment 1 was concluded to enhance the reproduction in goldfish in more effective manner. In this experimental regime serum steroid levels were also high in comparison with control and treatment 2.

Production of L-asparaginase by Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 under solid state fermentation using pearl millet and finger millet as mixed substrate

B.Vijay and K. Jaya Raju

  • Abstract

    L-asparaginase (L-asparagine amido hydrolase, E.C. is an extra cellular enzyme that has received considerable attention since it is used as an anticancer agent. In this present work, the production of L-asparaginase under solid state fermentation was carried out by Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 using agricultural products. Among different agricultural materials (pearl millet, soya bean, finger millet, barley and rice bran) screened, pearl millet and finger millet were selected and these two were mixed in different ratios for obtaining maximum enzyme activity. Out of the nine combinations tested the ratio of 4:1 of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) seed flour and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) seed flour supported maximum L-asparaginase production. The maximum yield (306.13 U/gds) of L-asparaginase by A.terreus was obtained using pearl millet and finger millet mixture of 60% initial moisture content, initial pH 7.0, supplemented with glucose (1.0%), ammonium sulphate (1.5%), and magnesium sulphate (0.1%), inoculated with 1 ml of 4 day old fungal culture and incubated at 30°C for 96 h. Both physico-chemical and nutritional parameters had played a significant role in the production of the enzyme L-asparaginase. The medium mixed substrates with optimized condition and supplements gave a maximum L-asparaginase activity as 306.13 U/gds which is 2 times and 2.5 times increase in the yield when compare to medium of pearl millet (153.06 U/gds) and finger millet (125.73 U/gds) alone. The study indicates that the mixed substrate of agricultural products are supporting the best growth of Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 and maximum yield of L-asparaginase enzyme under solid state fermentation.

A study on the relationship between calcium, oxidative stress and immune response in pulmonary tuberculosis patients

Rohini K, Srikumar P S, Mahesh Kumar A

  • Abstract

    Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis can induce reactive oxygen species production which promotes tissue injury and inflammation leading to immunosuppression predisposing to infections. Reports have shown that malnutrition and poor immunity causes severe oxidative stress in tuberculosis. Since the role of micronutrients on immune response has gained much importance during recent years, the present investigation was designed to assess the influence of calcium and micronutrients on oxidative stress and immunity status in tuberculosis patients. The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of calcium and micronutrients on oxidative stress and immunity status in tuberculosis patients. The study subjects involves forty tuberculosis diagnosed patients recruited from The Institute of Thoracic Medicine and compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n=40). Copper, iron, zinc, vitamins A, C, E, calcium, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant status, soluble immune complex, and immunoglobulins A, M, E, C-reactive protein, C3, C4, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin levels in serum and myeloperoxidase in neutrophils were determined. Levels of calcium, copper, zinc, iron, vitamins A, C, E, and total antioxidant status were significantly low (p<0.001) and the concentration of malondialdehyde was significantly high (p<0.001) in tuberculosis patients. Serum soluble immune complex and myeloperoxidase in neutrophils were significantly low (p<0.001); C3 and C4 were slightly increased (p<0.05); IgA, IgM, IgE, CRP, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin were increased significantly (p<0.001) compared to healthy volunteers. Our findings support the relationship between calcium, micronutrients, oxidative stress and immune response in tuberculosis. A novel approach to nutritional supplementation along with the regular treatment protocol may be recommended after proper pre-clinical trials.

Effect of Chemically Synthesized CeO2 Nanoparticles on Growth parameters of (Cajanus cajan. L) Red gram Seeds

N.Jayarambabu, B. Siva Kumari, K.Venkateswara Rao, Y.T. Prabhu

  • Abstract

    The synthesis, characterization and application of chemically synthesized nanomaterial have become an important branch of nanotechnology. In this paper, we report CeO2 Nanoparticles were characterizations with different techniques like XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, PSA and SEM etc. In present investigation, different concentration (0.0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 mg) of CeO2 NPs were prepared in distilled water and used for the treatment in red gram seeds to study the effect on seed germination and early seedling growth. We observed in 70, 80 and 90 mg treatments of CeO2 Nanoparticles, as shown root length, shoot length, germination percentage, vigor index, seed germination increased. When compare to other concentrations and control.

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Acacia catechu Plant

Sneh Lataand Geetika Sharma

  • Abstract

    The present study involves the checking of Antioxidant properties and antimicrobial properties of Acacia catechu against bacterial and fungal species. Extracts of Acacia catechu like methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone and water were prepared by using respective chemical .In measuring the total phenolic content, Gallic acid was used as standard and its absorbance was compared with Acacia catechu sample. For reducing power assay of methanol extract of sample, absorbance of BHA & Acacia catechu was checked before & after incubation. DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of standard and test sample was calculated using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Antibacterial activity against some strains of bacteria & antifungal activity was checked.

Evaluation on Edible Oil Quality Parameters As well As Nutritional Value of Flaxseed (Linseed) Oil in Bangladesh

Krishna Chowdhury, Monira Obaid, Sharmin Akter Lisa and Rezaul Karim

  • Abstract

    Flaxseed oil, also known as Linseed oil, is incredibly nutritionally rich with omega-3 fatty acid like alpha linolenic acid. Flaxseed oil was extracted from flaxseed collected from three locations of Bangladesh- Local Market, Pabna and Bangladesh Rich Research Institute (BRRI) to investigate the edible oil characteristic parameters and nutritional value of the extracted oil. The key quality parameters-Acid value, Peroxide value and Moisture% increased extensively over 12 month period. Acid value increased 48%, 73% and 132% whereas Peroxide value increased 9333%, 1020% and 2833% for the three samples respectively. There were no such remarkable changes in Iodine value, Saponification value, Ether Insoluble Matter, Refractive Index and Relative Density over 12 month period. Color, Unsaponifiable matter and Heavy metal content (Fe, Cu, Pb) were found according to the standards of raw linseed oil. 0.059, 0.076 and 0.079 mg/kg Fe; 0.001, 0.015 and 0.018 mg/kg Cu and 0.059, 0.048 and 0.069 mg/kg Pb were found in the three samples respectively. Alpha linolenic acid, the core nutritional parameter, was obtained 46.3%, 52.1% and 49.6% for Market, Pabna and BRRI oil respectively. However, flaxseed oil from all locations has been found to be nutritionally rich and thus this study conveys awareness about the edible use of flaxseed oil in Bangladesh.

Multiple time scale EEG synchronization in Alzheimer’s disease and age-matched control population

M. Bindu Krishna, Premananda Indic, Murali Krishna Menon, Usha Nair,Ramavarma Pratap

  • Abstract

    A method for analyzing the dynamics of cortical coordination at multiple time scales is proposed. This method is applied for investigating the cortical interactions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) subjects compared to age matched control subjects. Phase synchronization between the dynamics of EEG at multiple time scales is quantified and the collective effect of synchronization of different regions is studied. Eigen values of phase synchronization index matrices of the EEG are used as a characterizing parameter for studying the predominant interactions at each time scale. These eigen values are estimated for short term memory task as well as resting condition to understand the cortical interactions in AD subjects. During task condition, a significant increase in the synchronization is observed in the primary as well as secondary time scales of control subjects compared to AD. In addition there exists a strong correlation between these eigen values for control EEG which is found to be absent in the case of AD EEG. The results indicate that the lack of coordination at multiple time scales observed in the EEG of AD subjects can be a plausible reason for the cognitive impairment in AD subjects.Eigen values of synchronization indices at multiple time scales can be used as a parameter for investigating cortical dynamics leading to cognitive deficit conditions

Histomorphological Effect of Chronic Oral Consumption of Ethanolic Extract of Picralima Nitida (Akuamma) Seed on the Caudal Epidydimis of Adult Wistar Rats

I.P. Solomon, Oyebadejo. S.A, Idiong Jr. J.U, Edet.I.Eand Etukudo. E.M

  • Abstract

    Histomorphological effect of chronic consumption of ethanolic extract of Picralima nitida seed on the caudal Epididymis of adult albino wistar male rats was investigated using 20 male albino wistar rats; they were distributed into 5 rats in each group. Group 1 was the control group while groups 2 to group 4 were the experimental groups. Group 1 was given distilled water and normal rat feed, Group 2 was given 250mg/kg serving as low dose, group 3 was given 350mg/kg as middle dose and group 4 was given 450mg/kg as High dose of Picralima nitida seeds extract orally for 21 days. At the end of administration, the rats were sacrificed and Caudal Epididymis from all the groups were carefully dissected out, fixed immediately in Bouin’s fluid and sent to Laboratory for histopathological analysis. 2-3mm in thickness were section out, and re-fixed in neutral buffered formalin solution, processed to paraffin sections and cut at 5micron using Rotary microtome and evaluated under digital microscope. Result of histopathology showed normal cellular architecture of seminiferous tubules containing distinct Basal and Principal cell, distinct area of interstitium, the tubules were lined with Pseudo-stratified squamous epithelial cell with goblet cells enclosed in it are the spermatocytes stocked in the seminal fluid, there is no evidence of cellular abnormality seen. While in group 2 and 3 with Low and middle dose revealed no obvious cellular abnormality despite the slight area of interstitial and tubular constriction as compared to control group and in group 4 (High dose), revealed cellular abnormality with evidence of cellular proliferation, abnormalities in the seminiferous tubules, interstitium and epithelial linings compared to control group. In conclusion, Picralima nitida seeds does not pose cellular abnormality at low dose level when it is consumed with cautions, however prolong intake at high co

Histomorphological Study of the Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Nauclea latifolia on Neonatal Kidney

I.P. Solomon, Bassey E.I, Oyebadejo S.A , Aquiasia A.N and Udoh I.E

  • Abstract

    Histomorphological study of the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia on neonatal kidney was investigated. 72 albino wistar rats consisting of 60 females and 12 males weighing between 100-273g were used for this study. This study was divided into 3 phases, each phase consisting of 4 groups (one control group and three experimental groups). LD50 was carried out to determine the doses represented as low dose (500mg/kg), middle dose (1000mg/kg) and high dose (1500mg/kg) of Nauclea latifolia leaf extract. In all the 3 phases, the control groups (1A, 2A and 3A) received 10% Tween 80. In phase 1, the experimental animals designated (1B, 1C and 1D) received, 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg of Nauclea latifolia respectively for 21 days before pregnancy. In phase 2, the experimental group animals designated (2B, 2C and 2D) received, 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg of Nauclea latifolia respectively for 21 days before pregnancy and 7th to 13th day of gestation. In phase 3, the experimental group animals designated (3B, 3C and 3D) received 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg of Nauclea latifolia respectively from 7th to 13th day of gestation and the litters were sacrificed within 48 hrs and tissues were processed using haematoxylin and eosin (H & E). The result showed that the extract affects the ytoarchitecture of the neonatal kidney. In phase 1 and the sub-groups, there was an abnormal cellular pattern with area of inflammation in the experimental animals. Phase 2 revealed abnormal cellular patterns with numerous area of necrosis in the entire treated sub - groups while in Phase 3 there was an abnormal cellular pattern with numerous areas of necrosis and vascular degeneration in the experimental animals compared to the control groups. It is evident that Naulea latifolia at low doses, showed mild toxic effect on neonatal kidney and the effect increases ta

Screening of Rhizobacterium, Burkholderia for Biocontrol of Bacterial Pathogens of Tropical Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea Mylitta D. And Induction of Growth in Silkworm Host Plant, Terminalia Arjuna

Madhusudhan, K.N., Minz, Prerana, Sinha, A.K., Deka, M., Yadav, H., Kiran Kumar, K.P., Gargi, Gupta, V.P., Naqvi, A.H. and Alok Sahay

  • Abstract

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia species was isolated from the soil of tropical tasar silkworm rearing plots by using serial dilution method. The isolated bacterium was characterized by using different biochemical test. Burkholderia species was tested against bacterial pathogens of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The seedlings of tasar host plant, Terminalia arjuna treated with Burkholderia species during nursery plantation showed enhanced shoot and root length in comparison with untreated seedlings. Thus, Burkholderia species can be used for the induction and enhancement of growth in T. arjuna and also for the control of bacterial diseases of tropical tasar silkworm.

Recent Survey of Diabetes, Blood Pressure, Hypo Thyroidism and Osteoporosis

B.Swathi, G.Venkateshwarlu, Sharada.N, P.Laxmi, S.Swathi.S, Kasireddy.Swapna

  • Abstract

    Recently we conduct a survey in a nearby government hospital regarding various ailments like BP, diabetes, thyroid and so on. Now a days due to the stress conditions, food habits & lack of exercise people are suffering with diseases such as diabetes, GIT disturbances and thyroid disturbances. For every 100 persons 32 persons are suffering from BP, 20 persons with diabetes, 8 persons with hypothyroidism, & 5 persons are suffering with osteoporosis. This whole assessment was done in Government Hospital, Gollaguda, Nalgonda urban areas, AP. By comparing the ratios of urban with remote areas where people are suffering with these diseases, we found that highest ratio of people in urban areas are suffering with diabetes along with BP when compared to remote areas.

Traditional and Folklore Medicine Used as Acalypha Indica (L) in Ayurveda System

Goli Venkateshwarlu, N.L.Gowrishankar

  • Abstract

    Ancient days peoples are purely depends on herbal drugs. Why because at that time allopathic drugs are not available for peoples. Now a day’s both Ayurveda and allopathic drugs are used. Some chronic diseases are completely not eradicated by allopathic drugs. For this reason Ayurveda drugs are more preferred than allopathic drugs. In India 3000 plants used for the medicinal value. In general 6000 medicinal plants in India are in use in traditional, folklore and used as an herbal medicine. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review in Ayurveda in the pharmacological aspects of hepatoprotective activity, anticancer ,antibacterial ,anthelminthic, jaundice ,scorpion bite,paralysis,tuberculosis,bronchitis,cough,mad,ringworm infection, allergy, iching, purified tooth ache, ant diabetic activity.etc

Wound Healing Activities of Cassia tora (Linn.) Leaves Extract on Excision Wound Model of Wistar Albino Rats

Rajesh Bakoriya, Kapil K. Soni and Tessy Thomas

  • Abstract

    Present study describes wound healing activities of Cassia tora (Linn.) leaves extract on excision wound model of Wistar albino rats. During the study, fresh plant materials after shade drying was used for the isolation of extract using soxhlet apparatus and percentage yield was obtained (3.22% in ethanol). Then, preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was done and certain secondary metabolites viz. alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, triterpenes and phytosterol, tannin, flavonoid were confirmed in the Cassia tora extract. Then thin layer and column chromatography of the extract was done and Rf value viz. 0.91, 0.96 and 1.00% were calculated and obtained fractions (CT1 to CT5) were tested on Wistar albino rats for wound healing activities. In the results of the present study, healing patterns of complete wound was found to be maximum 84.36% on day 17th on treatment with standard drug mupirocin 5% ointment. Similarly, complete wound healing was found 79.26% on day 20, by applying ethanolic extract of Cassia tora as compared to the control group i.e. 62.22% (24 days).

Morphological and Genitalic Studies of Ochropleura Leucogaster (Freyer)

Harkanwal Singh, and Shipali

  • Abstract

    Genitalia plays very important function in species identification. In the present manuscript, external male and female genitalia of Ochropleura Leucogaster (Freyer) have been studied in detail and incorporated to species diagnosis for the first time.

Evaluation of efficacy of khaya senegalensis and cassia occidentalis leaf powder on sitophilus zeamais in stored grain maize (zea mays)

R.O. Oyewale,  L.Y. Bello, G.A. Idowu, H. Umar

  • Abstract

    The possibility of controlling maize weevil, S. zeamais using Mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) and cassia (Cassia occidentalis) leaf powders were evaluated under laboratory condition in the Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna. The leaf powders were mixed with the maize grains, stored in bowls and covered with muslin cloth for 28days using complete Randomized Design (CRD). Data on anti-oviposition and adult mortality were collected and analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the least significant difference (LSD) to separate the means. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the adult mortality in all the treatments of Khaya senegalensis and antioviposition at 14, 21, 28days. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in the efficacy of Cassia occidentalis on adult mortality at 21days and anti-oviposition at 7, 14, 21days was recorded .However, the mixed leaf powder of both treatments (Khaya senegalensis and Cassia occidentalis) had no significant difference (p<0.05) at 7,21days for adult mortality and anti- oviposition.

Variation of Chromosome Number Causes Developmentment of Cancer in Human Beings

K.Susmitha, B.Swathi, Goli Venkateshwarlu, N.Sharada,A.Santosh and G.Karthikaredd

  • Abstract

    In ancient days human beings were using food materials like indigenous breeder hen, sheep, goat and these animals have their normal chromosome number. In case of hybrid animals like sheep, goat having either high chromosome number or less genetic number cell not coincide each other thus causes of various diseases like cancer, diabetes and other genetic disorders. Pigeon having 80 chromosome number and human chromosome number 46 present in nucleus. This variation not coincide with pigeon cell genetic number and human cell genetic number for this reason may be chances to come 90% cancer this is the root causes for any cancer related diseases in human beings. Nicotine itself having genetic number 49. In case of human genetic number 46 of this variation of genetic number causes cancer in human due to the chromosome variation.

Isolation, Characterization and Purification of Lipase and Its Gene from Pseudomonas Sp. Ras-4

M. B. Sulochana, Arunashree, R., Mohan Reddy K., Parameshwar, A. B. and Jayachandra, S. Y.

  • Abstract

    Ghanis are the ancient rich oil extracting units and their soil is contaminated during extraction process. They use stoned crushing unit which will be tied with bull to rotate and extract oil, during this process oil spills are said to be contaminated. The soil samples were collected from oil ghanas of 3 districts - Gulbarga, Raichur and Bellary were screened for the lipase production. The isolated strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa RAS-4 was identified by 16S rRNA sequence and was screened for the production of lipase by Rhodamine B-Olive oil Agar. This exhibited a clear zone of hydrolysis indicating higher lipase activity. In the present study lipase enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation. 30% ammonium sulphate showed higher activity of the enzyme than 80% in which the enzyme activity was decreased. Effect of various physicochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, metal ions and inhibitors were studied for the lipase production by RAS-4. The optimized conditions were 35o C, pH 7.0 and the production was enhanced in the presence of Ca++ and Na+.

Recharacterization of genus Ochrotrigona Hampson (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)

Jagbir Singh Kirti, Harkanwal Singhand Navneet Singh

  • Abstract

    A monotypic genus, Ochrotrigona Hampson is recharacterized by incorporating external female genital attributes in its diagnosis.

Toxic potential of A. niger metabolites on germination and seedling growth of maize grains

Shirurkar Deepavali D and Wahegaonkar Nilima K.

  • Abstract

    A. niger is a one of the major seed borne fungi of maize grains that produce hazardous mycotoxins. Crude toxin was recovered from culture filtrate of A. niger and artificially infested seeds of maize and identified by TLC as ochratoxin. Maize grains were soaked in crude mycotoxin for 5 hours. The treated seeds were subjected to seed germination test in laboratory and allowed to grow in pots containing sterilized soil for 14 days. Percent germination and seedling growth in terms of root - shoot length and chlorophyll content in leaf was found to be reduced in treated maize grains. Ochratoxin, the mycotoxin identified from culture filtrate of A. niger in the study adversely affected the seed health and is unsafe for agricultural and is known to be dangerous to human and animal health if consumed.

A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in South Indian population

Mithra N Hegde and Foram Mehta

  • Abstract

    The aim and objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and risk factors associated with those lesions in Mangalore, Karnataka State, India. 2000 patients were selected randomly from the out-patient department of A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences and its rural centres. A standardized questionnaire was prepared according to WHO health assessment form 2013 and recorded. The data was subjected to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16) and statistically analyzed using Pearson Chi- square test. The results showed the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions to be 7.1% in the studied population. The most frequent observation was the presence of leukoplakia (2.1%) followed by oral submucous fibrosis (1.6%), aphthous ulcer (1.4%), lichen planus (1.2%) and candidiasis (0.8%). Habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol were found to be associated with prevalence of oral mucosal lesions. Among the location of lesions recorded, highest prevalence of lesions were seen in buccal mucosa (52%). Although there has been change in lifestyle and standard of living among the people, use of gutka and practice of other deleterious habits have not been reduced. Thus it is necessary to create public awareness by conducting intervention programmes and spreading knowledge regarding harmful effects of these habits and diseases caused by them.

Morphological Characteristics Effects of Soybean and Maize Seeds on Dry-Kinetic Process

Alfredo Socorro García, Michely Vega León and Susana Calderón Piñar

  • Abstract

    Two different models to analyze the water diffusion process through plant tissue are proposed in this paper from a mathematical point of view. From a spherical geometric form applied to soybean seeds (Glycine max (L) Merrill), the equations for seed moisture content variation regarding the temperature are obtained. The cylindrical geometric form was performed in a similar way using maize (Zea mays L.) seeds as model. The values of seed size and the drying curve in four varieties for each species were obtained from the experiment. The drying process measurements were made by the seed moisture evaluation each 15 minutes for different temperatures values. The mathematical process carried up using both models allowed to calculate the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy in each one. The results showed that the seed geometric form impact on the diffusion values obtained through the experiment. This relationship could be kept in mind for the designing of optimal seed drying methods according to the seed characteristics.

Ashwgandha -An Important Medicinal Plant: A Review on Its Folklore and Traditional Uses

B.Swathi`, Goli.Venkateshwarlu, N.Sharada, RagyaEslavath, Anasuri.Santhosh, K.Swapnareddy

  • Abstract

    Ancient day’s rushis and maharshis΄s explore the ayurvedic medicine for various kinds of ailments. They search and written the various books like Charaka Samhita, Astangahrudayam etc. Why because at that time allopathic drugs are not available for peoples. Now a day’s both ayurveda and allopathic drugs are used. Some chronic diseases are completely not eradicated by allopathic drugs. For this reason ayurvedic drugs are more preffered than allopathic drugs. In India 3000 plants are used for the medicinal value. In general 6000 medicinal plants in India are in use in traditional, folklore and used as a herbal medicine. This article aims to provide a comprehensive reviewof ashwagandha in varoius pharmacological aspects. This plant had various physiological activities like treats vatha diseases, tuberculosis, bronchitis, joint pains, scorpion bite, skin diseases, knee pain, and it also remove toxins from the body and improve strength of the body, it prevent loss of semen, it reduce ageing effect, controls hysteria, antitumor activity, for health and beautification purpose, fertilizing agent, wound healing activity completely eradicated by ashwagandha.

Further Studies on Taxonomy of Genus AEGOCERA Latreille from Western Ghats of India

Jagbir Singh and Charan Kamal Sekhon

  • Abstract

    Male and female genitalic attributes of two species of genus Aegocera Latreille i.e., venulia Cramer and bimacula Walker have been studied and illustrated in detail. A key to both the species has also been formulated by incorporating external genitalic attributes.

Cuticle Scale Patterns, Medulla and Pigment in Hairs of Some Carnivores

Gharu J and Trivedi S

  • Abstract

    Hair morphology analysis can be one of the methods for overcoming difficulties of studying carnivore species from family Felidae or Canidae for the purpose of species identification, population monitoring or molecular genetics studies. Identification of animals can be done by hair cuticle scale, medulla and pigment analysis. Here we present characteristics and comparisons of cuticle scale patterns, medulla and pigmentation in dorsal guard hairs of domestic cat (Felis domesticus), tiger cub (Panther tigris), leopard cub (Panthera pardus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) from Rajasthan.

Growth and antimicrobial activity of different mushroom strains grown in submerged culture

Mohamed Osman, Hassan, F.R.H., W.A. Ahmed, Soad Nady, Heba El-sayed.

  • Abstract

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of aqueous extract of mycelia from five mushroom strains on selected bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and five fungal strains Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium and Rhizocotonia sp. As well as the activity against Candida spp.Mycelial extracts from submerged cultures of mushrooms showed potential antimicrobial activities against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. Flammulina velutipes 6 showed a broad effect against most of tested bacteria and inhibited the growth of Aspergilus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Lentinula edodes LC2141, Lentinula edodes LC202 extract showed antifungal activity against all tested fungal strains. Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were inhibited by Lentinula edodes LC2141 and Flammulina velutipes 13.Tested mushrooms showed higher levels of endopolysaccharides (IPS) than exopolysaccharides(EPS).

The Biological World Inspired Artificial Intelligence Paraphrased With New Directions

Ashish Pandey

  • Abstract

    In engineering design the biological world plays a major inspiration providing innumerable cases for analogy. During design being just started, particularly during concept generation when several variants are created, biological systems can be used to inspire innovative solutions to a design problem just as in improvising on colour representation, the basic bio-inspired algorithms and the real time study of the biological world to play the action in the virtual Artificial designs. However, identifying and presenting the valuable knowledge from the biological domain to an engineering designer during concept generation is currently a somewhat disorganized process or requires extensive knowledge of the biological system. This research defines and formalizes the direction for bio-inspired artificial intelligence. 

Comparison of cuticle scale patterns, medulla and pigment in hairs of domestic goat, sheep, cow and buffalo from Rajasthan (India)

Jitendra Gharu, Seema Trivedi

  • Abstract

    Hair morphology study is useful to distinguish species, families or orders of class Mammalia. In this study we present analysis of the cuticle scales and medulla patterns besides pigments in dorsal guard hairs of domestic goat (Capra hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), cow (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Rajasthan (India).

Phytohormonal Effect on Morphological Studies and Photosynthetic Activity of Phyllanthus amarus in Light and Shade

J. Lalitha and Haseena Rafath

  • Abstract

    The experiment was undertaken with an objective to determine the morphological and photosynthetic activity can be influenced by various concentrations of growth regulators i.e. GA3, IAA and ABA in Phyllanthus. Initially seeds were sown in groups and allowed for germination. After 15 days seedlings were transferred to polythene packets in on order of two seedlings/packet and allowed to grow. Thirty days old plants were treated with GA3, IAA, and ABA at two different conc. viz., 2.0mg and2.5mg/L. All the treated plants were immediately transferred to seed chamber, where 50 packets were kept in continuous light and remaining 50 packets were kept in shade net to provide 50 per cent of light. T2 (IAA 2.0 mg) showed highest morphological characters as well as the shoot, root length, fresh weight and dry weight in contrast to other treatments. Photosynthetic activity is highest in T2 treated plants