Vol. 5 & Issue 2 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Feb. 2015 to April 2015


Antibacterial and antifungal activities of seeds and leaves extracts from Celtis australis

Najoie Filali-Ansari, Ahmed El Abbouyi, Said El Khyari and Rabia Eddoha

  • Abstract

    Celtis australis is commonly used in Morocco in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastro-intestinal ailments. The present study aims to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from the aerial parts of C. australis. Powder of leaves and seeds of plant were extracted with hydromethanolic mixture by maceration. The crude preparations were then filtered and concentrated. An aliquot of each concentrated extract was partitioned successively with hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, by disc diffusion method, against seven bacteria strains. (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sp, Listeria ivanovii, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella sp) and three fungi (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus niger). All values are expressed as mean ± SD. The obtained results showed that ethyl acetate and hydromethanolic extracts exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activities respectively against all microorganisms used. The present study reveals that aerial parts of C. australis exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Therefore, this plant may be harnessed as drug formulation and as source for antibacterial and antifungal new compounds.

Comparative Nutritional Evaluation of three plant modifications, Cladode, Phyllode and Phylloclade

Ayona Jayadev and Sajitha Rajan

  • Abstract

    The study was conducted to find the suitability of three plant modifications, a cladode, a phyllode and a phylloclade which are xerophytic adaptations of the plants selected ie., species of Opuntia, Acacia and Asparagus to be used as an alternative food source. These plants were selected because developing countries face shortage of nutrition. The changing climate has also caused a decline in the cultivation of conventional crops. This may lead to a situation when plants which can tolerate drier conditions have to be depended for food. The plant materials were analyzed for the content of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds and moisture content.

Genetic variation of Pinus dalatensis Ferre’(Pinaceae) populations - endemic species in Vietnam revealed by ISSR markers

Dinh Thi Phong, Vu Thi Thu Hien, Tran Thi Lieu

  • Abstract

    Pinus dalatensis Ferre’(Family: Pinaceae) is an endemic plant with restricted habitats at higher altitudes in Vietnam highland. Due to over-exploitation and habitat destruction, the species is now near threatened. The genetic variation within and among populations of P. dalatensis was investigated on the basis of 26 ISSR (Inter Single Sequence Repeat) markers. In all, 70 sampled trees from six populations in Vietnam highland were analyzed in this study, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. Among 95 bands amplified, 48 were polymorphic. The mean number of total bands, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) and genetic diversity (Hi) over all markers in six populations was 3.65, 0.09 and 0.115, respectively. The genetic diversity parameters for P. dalatensis revealed higher in Da Chay (Lam Dong) population (I = 0.130, h = 0.077 and PPB = 25.26%) and the lowest in Xa Hieu (Kon Tum) population (I = 0.060, h = 0.037 and PPB = 11.58%). Analysis of molecular variance showed that most genetic variation was within populations of 58.01% and among population of 41.99 %. The population pairwise differentiations indicated that most of the populations were significantly differentiatedp < 0.001 with Fst values ranged from 0.195 to 0.418. This study highlights the importance of conserving the genetic resources of P. dalatensis species.

Discrimination of two freshwater crabs Spiralothelphusa hydrodroma and Barytelphusa jacquemontii and one mangrove crab Neosarmatium asiaticum by DNA barcoding of MT-COI gene

P. Saravana Bhavan, S. Umamaheswari, R. Udayasuriyan, G. Rajkumar,H. Amritha and K. Saranya

  • Abstract

    Three crab species, two freshwater crabs belongs to the family, Gecarcinucidae (Spiralothelphusa hydrodroma and Barytelphusa jacquemontii) and one mangrove crab belongs to the family, Sesarmidae (Neosarmatium asiaticum) were morphologically described and identified based on the colour, shape of the carapace, shape and length of the telson and chelate legs. The genomic DNA was isolated from the aductor muscle of the chelate legs and resolved on 1% AGE, which revealed >10kb In order to screen the best primer for crab species, four set of primers (LCO1490 & HCO2198; COIa & COIf; CrustF1 & HCO2198; CrustF2 & HCO2198) were used for the amplification of COI gene. Among these primer sets, LCO1490 & HCO2198 was worked well in all species (2% AGE revealed ~700 bp), COIa & COIf was worked in only one species (S. hydrodroma) and the remaining primers (CrustF1 & HCO2198, and CrustF2 & HCO2198) were not successfully worked in any of the crab species tested. So, the sequences generated with LCO1490 & HCO2198 were subjected for further analysis. The sequenced DNA of crab species were submitted to the BLAST for performing similarity search in the NCBI database. In the analyzed sequences there were 478 identical amino acids residues and 35 similar amino acids residues, and 226 variations in amino acids sites observed between the freshwater and mangrove crab species. In the case, between freshwater crabs, there were 620 identical amino acid residues and 7 similar amino acid residues, and 86 variable amino acid sites observed. The divergent rate was found to be low (0.09%) between the freshwater crabs, S. hydrodroma and B. jacquemontii. The divergent rate of mangrove crab, N. asiaticum was 0.497% against the two freshwater crab species. The phylogenetic analysis (ML, NJ and ME methods) revealed that the freshwater crabs appeared as sister taxon and the mang

Hair Cuticle Scale Patterns, Medulla and Pigment in Equidae

Gharu J and Trivedi S

  • Abstract

    The present study describes hair cuticle scale patterns and characteristics of hair medulla and pigmentation in two members of family Equidae namely domestic horse (Equus caballus) and domestic donkey (Equus asinus) from Rajasthan (India). Comparisons of hair characteristics of horse and donkey hairs from state of Rajasthan (India) were also done with mule or hinnies (Equus caballus x Equus asinus or Equus asinus x Equus caballus) from Rishikesh (Uttarakhand, India). The present study shows that though there are characteristic differences in cuticle scale patterns, differences in medulla are significant enough to be useful for species or breed characterization in family Equidae.

Mice as a model organism for the study of human diseases

Ragini Sharma, Amrita Jaitawat*, Neelam Jain, Deepika Rani and S. M. Kantwa

  • Abstract

    There are many diseases which are studied and cured using mice as a model organism for that disease. The reason for using mice as a model organism is that they have important characteristics which make them a good model for study and is used for successful treatment of many diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, diabetes and many more. In the present review along with these diseases developmental diseases such as anencephaly, cell palate and may-hegglin disease which can be cured using mice as a model organism has given emphasis. The three important techniques by which desired gene of interest is transferred are pronuclear microinjection, embryonic stem cell mediated gene transfer, and vector mediated gene transfer. The vectors used in vector mediated gene transfer are retroviral vector, lentiviral vector, adenoviral vector, adeno-associated virus vector and Epstein barr virus vector. The study of all these methods will give us new ideas for curing diseases which may occur due to exposure of toxic compounds which leads to gene manipulation.

Chemical Characteristics of Honey of Indigenous Giant Bee Apis Dorsata F. And Hive Bee Apis Cerana Indica from Western Ghats of Karnataka

M.V Balasubramanyam

  • Abstract

    Multifloral honey of indigenous giant honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected and its chemical characteristics of total reducing sugars (TRS), non-reducing sugars (NRS), ash, acidity and pH in raw, processed and stored honey were determined during February 2011 to March 2012. The TRS of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 73.01% and 72.45% while NRS of processed honey of A. cerana and A.dorsata was 4.15% and 4.32% respectively. The ash content of A. dorsata and A.cerana stored honey was 1.53% and 1.47%, while acidity of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 0.471 and 0.452 respectively. Similarly, pH of A. dorsata and A.cerana processed honey was 4.12 and 3.92 respectively. The TRS, NRS and pH of raw honey was more than that of stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana. The ash and acidity of raw honey was less in stored honey than raw honey of both wild and apiary honeybee species. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of TRS and ash content of raw, processed and stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana was significant at p<0.01% levels while NRS, acidity and pH of raw, processed and stored was not significant at p<0.01%. All the five chemical characteristics tested in three grades of honey samples from wild and apiary honeybee species displayed quantitative fluctuations which are discussed in ensuing paper.

Epidemiological Study on the Prevalence of Self-Medication in District Kullu of Himachal Pradesh

Brijesh Duvey, Virendra Yadav, Monika, Parul, Pushplata

  • Abstract

    Self-medication is very common by patient in Indian health system. But these patients frequently need assistance from intermediate personnel to assure the correct usage of self-medicated drug. The present study is based upon survey from different medical store in KULLU district of Himachal Pradesh. The points which was considered during this survey, reasons for requesting the medicine, economic condition, source of information about the drug purchased, type of disease or symptom for self-medication, frequency of visit of pharmacy, % of prescribed & non-prescribed drugs used for self-medication. The results showed that patient or consumers use various sources of information about the drug when purchasing it and taken their won responsibility for their health. The study shows that maximum self-medicated drugs use are based on symptoms like pain, fever, cough and cold, and the consumer trusted on the pharmacist knowledge. This shows the role of pharmacist in Indian health care system. It also assure the continues educational program and public awareness program in pharmacotherapy of drug in rural as well as urban area. State and National pharmacy organization should also play the vital role in bringing a vital change in the pharmacy profession, from product oriented to patient oriented profession

Role of esophagogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic classification in predicting outcome of caustic ingestion in adults

Andon Chibishev

  • Abstract

    The purpose of the study is to present our extensive experience acquired through many years of clinical practice in the treatment of caustic ingestion and to study the role of EGD in treatment management and predicting outcome of this type of poisoning in adult patients. Poisoning with corrosive chemicals may cause an extensive spectrum of injuries to the aero digestive tract. The injuries usually include either superficial destruction or extensive necrosis and perforation of the esophagus and stomach which may be lethal. The most of caustic ingestions are accidental in children or suicidal more frequent in adults We have analyzed retrospectively the medical records of 415 patients admitted and treated at the University Clinic of Toxicology in Skopje with diagnosis of caustic ingestion poisoning. Collected medical records were from 2007 to 2011 and patient’s age range was form 14 to 90 years. In total 213 patients with acute caustic ingestion were included in the study, and from them 51 (23.94%) men and 162 (76.06%) women. From the total number of patients, 204 (98.12%) ingested the substance intentionally, while only 4 (1.8%) ingested the corrosive substance accidently.  It has been reported by the American Center for Poison Control that in 2011 the total number of poisonings by corrosive chemicals were 202 056. While diagnosis of acute caustic ingestion and managing the therapy plan, performing urgent EGD has a crucialrole and gives necessary information regarding the post-corrosive changes. These information’s are useful for the development of protocol and course of treatment. Unlike other authors, we think that all symptomatic patients should undergo a necessary upper endoscopy, while for asymptomatic patients this procedure can be elective. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is an efficient and reliable procedure for making acc

Antimicrobial activity of Gallic acid isolated from the leaves of Terminaliachebula Retz

S.SreeGayathri, Rachel Regi Daniel1 and Shenbagaradhai

  • Abstract

    Terminaliachebula is a popular medicinal plant according to Ayurveda for its broad spectrum medicinal value in the treatment of enteric disorders.Terminaliachebula contained 32% of tannin. Terminaliachebula was of pyrogallol (hydrolysable) type, on hydrolysis of tannic acid resulted in the release of glucose andgallic acid. Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-hydroxy benzoic acid) possessed wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, analgesic and anti-apoptotic activities.Because of several unique biological properties and commercial applications, gallic acidis a compound of great interest to both pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Gallic acid obtained from ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Terminaliachebula was analyzed to testify its antibacterial activities against wo different bacteria causing enteric disorders,viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas fluorescens and antifungal activities against two different fungi, viz. Aspergillusniger and  spergillusflavus invitro. The analysis were carried out by taking the Gallic acid extracts at a oncentration of 62.5 μg/ml, 125 μg/ml and their activities were recorded by estimating zones of inhibition as produced by disc-diffusion method on Luria Bertani and Potato Dextrose agar media.When compared with traditional antibiotics, this activity was especially competent against  pseudomonas fluroscens and Aspergillusniger followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillusflavus.

Purification, characterization and cloning of alkaliphilic cellulase – encoding gene (cel12A) from Bacillus licheniformis strain MK7

Mohamed A. Abdella and Atef M. Ibrahim

  • Abstract

    Alkaliphilic cellulase producing bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis strain MK7 which considered the most potent cellulolytic isolate among 24 bacterial isolates was identified according to the methods in Bergey are Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and confirmed by sequence of its 16S rRNA gene. The sequence of 16S rRNA was deposited to the GenBank under accession number (KP322016) which has 99 % identity with B. licheniformis strain KA5 (KF424264) and B. licheniformis strain YAK4 (JX203250). Bacillus licheniformis strain MK7 was aerobic, mesophilic, Alkaliphilic, spore-forming, gram-positive, motile, and rod-shaped organism. Two degenerative primers were designated from the closest Bacillus, Bacillus licheniformis strain DSM13 (ATCC 14580) endoglucanase which has complete genome to get cel12A gene from Bacillus licheniformis strain MK7 by PCR. We got about 786 bp PCR product and cloned into TA-cloning vector.Recombinant Alkaliphilic cellulase activity was detected on the basis of the clearing of halos around Escherichia coli colonies harboring pcel12A grown on a substrate containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and ampicillin. The sequence analysis revealed that the alkaliphilic cellulase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 12A which has 100 % identity to glycoside hydrolase from Bacillus sp. (WP009329478) and has 99 % identity to family 12 xyloglucanase from Bacillus licheniformis (2JEMIA). The nucleotide sequence of the alkaliphilic cellulase gene (cel12A) was deposited to the GenBank under accession number (KP322015). The cel12A gene from B. licheniformis strain MK7 has open reading frame of 786 bp that codes for a 261 amino acid which has a molecular weight of 29KDa protein. Theenzyme protein was further purified using affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The characterization of Cel12A protein showed that the enzyme has an optimum tempera

Treatment of Asthmatic Rats by the Extract of Treatment of Asthmatic Rats by the Extract of Tephrosia Purpura

Mahesh K. Ningwal, Rajendra Chauhan, Arif Wani and Sandhya Kshetre

  • Abstract

    Asthma affects 7% of the total population and approx 300 million worldwide. During attacks the smooth muscle cells in the bronchi constrict, and the airways become inflamed, swollen and breathing become difficult. Tephrosia purpurea occurs naturally in grassy fields, waste places. This plant was used for the antihistaminic activity. The air dried plant material was grinded to powder about 40 – 60 mesh size. The 50gm of the powdered material was loaded into soxhlet apparatus separately for extraction with the solvent of increasing order of polarity (n-Hexane, Chloroform and Methanol). Group I was served as control and have received water with ad-libitum but not treated and sacrificed for the observation of mast cells which were found 15.50± 2% intact and 88.20±2 % disrupted. When Tephrosia purpurea extract was given in the II and III groupS, the disruption of mast cells were found 29.80±2 % and intact mast cells were found 71.20±2 % at 50 mg/kg body weight. In the IV group 10 mg/kg b.w. standard drug Prednisolone was given intramuscularly, it was observed that the disruption of mast cells was 20.40±2 % and intact mast cells was found 84.50±2% which was quite similar to the maximum 100 mg/kg/b. w. of herbal extract.

In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Various Solvent Extracts of the Leaves of Thevetia neriifolia Juss

G.Savitha and S.Balamurugan

  • Abstract

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts of leaves of Thevetia neriifolia Juss. Petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts were examined for DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, and Superoxide anion scavenging activity with to reference to standards Rutin and Quercetin respectively through in vitro models and the total flavonoids was estimated. The methanolic extract of Thevetia neriifolia was found most active than that of other two extracts of Thevetia neriifolia in scavenging DPPH radicals. Both the method significantly showed the methanolic extract of Thevetia neriifolia was found to be most effective than that of petroleum ether and acetone extract. The methanolic extract of Thevetia neriifolia was found higher content of flavonoids than that of petroleum ether and acetone extract. It is concluded that the methanolic extract of Thevetia neriifolia showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals compared to that of all other extracts tested.

Genitalic studies of two species of Genus Daphnis Hübner (Sphingidae: Lepidoptera) from India

Amritpal Singh Kaleka, Devinder Singh and Parminder Kaur

  • Abstract

    The male and female genitalic features of both the known Indian species of genus Daphnis Hübner i.e., nerii Linnaeus (type species) and hypothous Cramer have been studied and illustrated in detail. The genus diagnosis has been updated and a key to the species has been formulated

Molecular Mechanism of Cadmium Toxicity through Oral Route

Preeti Singh,Sweety Gupta, Priya Mogra,Vandana Sankhala

  • Abstract

    In the present review as an effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanism of cadmium induced toxicity, ingressed through oral route. Molecular entrance of cadmium from gastrointestinal tract to blood circulation and from circulation to the various target organs and its excretion through the body has been described along with its competence with essential metals. It has been observed that uptake of cadmium by enterocytes of gastrointestinal tract, enhances the production of a protein named metallothionein (MT) that plays an important role in its transportation to various organs. Different channels related to cadmium absorption and various elements competing with it have been described in detail. Cadmium availability through food enters in the human body through food chain and magnifies at each level. Gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium is dependent on various forms i.e. chemical formula, quantity, exposure to cadmium contaminated environment. It induces various types of metal transporters and also interferes with essential metals such iron, calcium in the body. It possesses potential to modulate other metal receptors by modifying its binding site. After damaging the relevant organ it enters the blood circulation and damages the other target organ. Its excretion through the body is very slow which causes its accumulation in the target organs and induces toxicity.

Does flying squirrel hair morphology resemble bat hair morphology?

Britten D. Sessions, Wilford M. Hess, Kent Slack, Bradley A. Carmack

  • Abstract

    Hair surface scale patterns of five northern flying squirrels (Glaucomyssabrinus) from different locations throughout the United States were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Hair width, scale length, pattern, and position in relation to the longitudinal direction of hair were used to characterize hair morphology and evaluate samples for consistency. Results indicate that northern flying squirrels from different geographic locations have little morphological variation in hair. Guard hair patterns were identical to underfur hair patterns, and hair width and scale patterns were consistent across geographic locations. Hair samples collected during summer had little guard hair, but did have abundant underfur. Unlike bat hair morphology that aids in flight, flying squirrel hair morphology does not contribute to the animal’s ability to glide.

Cytotoxic effects and antimicrobial activity of Cuachalalate (Amphipterygium adstringens) extracts as used in a traditional way

Zaira López, Janette Villarruel-Muñoz, José Rico, Teresa Terrazas, Joel Salazar-Flores and Peter Knauth

  • Abstract

    Extracts from the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens, known as Cuachalalate, is in Mexico commonly used to treat several gastrointestinal disorders. The mayor active compounds of the extracts are triterpenes and anacardic acids. Methanolic or hexanic extracts from Cuachalalate, as mainly used in scientific studies, exhibited specially antimicrobial and gastroprotective effects. Cytotoxic studies, done only with purified anacardic acids, exhibited inconsistent results: inducing apoptosis or increasing proliferation. In order to reveal if the extracts used by the population still have the same effect as those revealed in scientific studies, we used aqueous and ethanolic extracts. For the first time we report antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis, confirming that Cuachalalate mainly inhibits Gram-positive bacteria. Additionally, we found only a low cytotoxicity, inhibiting the metabolic activity of HeLa at an EC50 = 202 μg/ml for the ethanolic and at an EC50 = 467 μg/ml for the watery extract, while an induction of apoptosis could not be detected. These results were confirmed by trypan blue staining and neutral red uptake. Thereby we observed that (only) with ethanolic extract at concentrations much higher than EC50 the cells looked swollen and rounded, like in osmotic imbalance.

The Forensic Medical Assessment of Psychological and Physical Violence Experienced by Children

Dainius Puras, Sigitas Laima, Algimantas Jasulaitis, Gerda Andriuskeviciute, Sigitas Chmieliauskas

  • Abstract

    The problem of violence against children is relevant in modern society. Acts of violence are committed by younger and younger children. In this article, it presents the analysis of the children who experienced violence in the Vilnius region, while paying attention to children's age, gender, their place of residence, places and time of the prevalence of violence and health impairment. The archival data of medical histories of Vilnius University Children's Hospital in 2000–2010 were analyzed. During the time of the research, the questions in the form of a questionnaire were used. 1463 acts of violence against children were established. The youngest child who experienced violence was 3 months old, the oldest – 18 years. 31 % were the children who suffered from violence. The most frequent cases of violence were in the age period of 13–16 years. 85 % of the children who experienced acts of violence live in the city, and 15 % – in the village or a district. 56 % cases of violence were at school, 39 % – from 12 to 16 o’clock. 75 % of cases the perpetrator was one person. 94 % were negligible health impairment, 5 % – non-severe health impairment and 1 % – severe health impairment. The child experiences physical, emotional (psychological), sexual violence – one of these violent forms or several at once. The physical injury may be from the scratch to bone fractures. Psychological violence is often a concurrent part of physical or sexual violence.

Production of brine shrimp, Artemia salina biomass and cyst in indoor tank using crude salt


M. Shafiqul Islam, M. Belal Hossain, M. H. Rahman Molla, M. Arifuzzaman Chowdhury, M. M. Morshed and M. M. Bhuiyan.

  • Abstract

    Live feed (e.g. Brine shrimp) culture is an integral component in successful fish and shellfish hatcheries. This contribution aims to develop the easiest and the cheapest technology for the production of Artemia salina biomass and cyst in indoor installations using crude salt where brine is unavailable. Collection of biomass of the cultured Artemia salina continued from their age of day 6 to day 30, and the cyst was collected from their age of day 20 to day 30. The highest rate of biomass production was observed at day 22 to 24 while the highest rate of cyst production was observed at their age of day 24 to 26. In the first observation (at day 6) 373.248 gm wet weight of Artemia salina were collected from the experimental tank and the average weight of each Artemia salina was found 0.00072 gm. At the end of the experiment (at day 30), 2964.218 gm wet weight of Artemia salina were collected from each replicate tank and the average weight of each Artemia salina was found .0074 gm. Average size of each Artemia salina was found 1.1cm at their age of 30. The highest density (800 ind. /L) but the lowest biomass (0.00072 gm/ind.) was recorded in the first observation. A sharp growth rate of Artemia salina was observed at day 14 and continued to day 22. Rate of cyst production was the highest at day 26 and then it decreasedgradually as the age of Artemia salina was increased. At the initial stage, salinity was maintained at 5 ppt while it was increased gradually at 120 ppt at the end of the experiment. Statistical analysis revealed that no significance differences were found between three replications in case of population density, biomass and cyst production of Artemia salina. The developed production method was found feasible and profitable which can be integrated in marine and shellfi

A Review on the Assessment of Amino Acids Used As Corrosion Inhibitor of Metals and Alloys

V.Prathipa, A.Sahaya Raja

  • Abstract

    Corrosion control of metals is an important activity of technical, economic, environmental, and aesthetical importance. The use of inhibitors is one of the best options of protecting metals and alloys against corrosion. The toxicity of organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors to the environment has prompted the search for safer corrosion inhibitors such as green corrosion inhibitors as other more environmental friendly corrosion inhibitors, most of which are biodegradable and do not contain heavy metals or other toxic compounds. Amino acids have the ability to control corrosion of various metals such as carbon steel, zinc, tin and copper. It behaves as an inhibitor in acid medium, neutral medium and in deaerated carbonated solution. Various techniques like weight loss method, polarization study and AC impedance spectra have been used to evaluate the corrosion inhibition efficiency of amino acids. The protective film has been analysed by IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and auger electron spectroscopy. Adsorption of amino acids on metal surface obeys Langmuir, Flory-Huggins or Temkin isotherm, depending on nature of metal and corrosive environment. Polarization study reveals that Amino acids can function as anodic or cathodic or mixed type of inhibitor depending on nature of metal and corrosive environment. The article enumerates several kinds of Amino acids which are suitable for use in combating corrosion, and several which have suitable strength characteristics as to serve in place of scarce expensive metals and alloys.


A Preliminary Study on Root Nodules of Selected Terrestrial Plants and Their Contribution to Soil Macronutrients

Rajani V and Srthi S Thampi

  • Abstract

    The biological nitrogen fixation is a way to eliminate the usage of chemical fertilizer and also to prevent the damage to the agricultural ecosystem. Three common terrestrial plants (Cow pea, Clitoria and Mimosa) were selected for comparing the root nodule formation in three different soil types (agricultural land soil, garden soil and abolished agricultural land soil).An effort was also there to estimate the total nitrogen fixing capacity of the selected plants. For plants in garden soil, it was Cow pea having colour pink, number was 26, for Mimosa, colour was pink and numbers were 30 and for Clitoria colour was pink and numbers were 24. In agricultural soil, for cow pea, number was 9 and colours were pink (4) and green (5). Mimosa showed 6 pink and 3 green and for Clitoria , pink 2 and green 2. In agricultural abolished land, all root nodules in all three species of plants were pink in colour and for cow pea it was 30, Mimosa 28 and for Clitoria it was 25 in number. The redder the nodule, the more active it is. When nodules are young and not yet fixing nitrogen they are white or grey inside. Legume nodules that are no longer fixing nitrogen turn green and may be discarded by the plant. Plant root nodules except those in agricultural land showed good nitrogen fixing capacity. The highest nitrogen fixing capacity was shown by Cow pea followed by Clitoria and Mimosa. The potassium and phosphorous in different soils as well as total nitrogen content in plants were also analysed.

Nutrient Content and In vivo Reduction of Anti-nutrients of Mung Bean (Vigna radiate L.) under Various Processing Methods

Singh Kavitha G, D’souza Myrene R, Yogitha R.

  • Abstract

    Removal of undesirable components is essential to improve the nutritional quality of legumes and effectively utilize their full potential as a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals. It is widely accepted that simple and inexpensive processing techniques are effective methods of achieving desirable changes in the composition of seeds. The domestic traditional processes include soaking, sprouting, boiling, autoclaving, roasting and microwaving. In many instances, usage of only one method may not affect the desired removal of anti-nutritional substances and a combination of two or more methods may be required. Sprouting caused significant (P < 0.05) decreases in crude lipid, carbohydrate, phytic acid and tannin contents; while it resulted in an increase in crude protein, ash and moisture contents. However, crude fiber retention was better in microwaved samples. Microwaving and autoclaving were the best methods to reduce α- amylase inhibitors.

Fish Community of Tigris River Before Al-Kut Barrier, Southern Baghdad, Iraq

L. M. Abbas, A. J. Abu- Elheni and A. G. Radhy

  • Abstract

    The current study deals with fish community of Tigris River before Al-Kut Barrier, southern Bagdad, Iraq and undertaken during the period from December- 2011 to November 2012. Some of water qualities were measured (values ranged from 14 to 37.5 °C for Water temp., from 6.8 to 7.6 for pH, from 0.5 to 0.9 g/l for Salinity and from 6.2 to 7.9 mg/l for Dissolved Oxygen). A total of 1366 fish specimens were catch belong to 8 species and 4 families. Among the collected species. Cyprinidae was most dominant with 59.1%, followed by Mugilidae, Bagridae and Siluridae of 31.1%, 8.9% and 0.7% respectively. The monthly occurrence of each species of fishes demonstrated that, Liza abu and Barbus lutues were resident species, while, B. belayewi, Cyprinus carpio, B. grypus and Mystus pelusius were seasonal occurrence species and Aspius vorax and Parasilurus triostegus were rare species. In conclusion, there is a reduction in the catch number of fish species and numbers in Tigris River before Al- Kut barrier.

Macrofungi in Multistorey Agroforestry Systems in Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

Maria Ellenita G. De Castro and Rich Milton R. Dulay

  • Abstract

    This paper highlighted the different macrofungi in multistorey agroforestry systems in Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Specimens were collected in August 2013 and identified and classified based on their micro- and macro-morphological characteristics. A total of 20 species belonged to 17 genera and 15 families were listed and described in the taxonomic checklist. These were Agaricus perfuscus, Auricularia auricula, Auricularia polytrica, Boletinellus sp., Cantharellus infundibuliformis, Coprinus sp., Corticum sp., Crepidotus herbarun, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Geastrum triplex, Marasmius scorodinius, Oudemansiella canarii, Lentinus tigrinus, Lentinus sajor-caju, Polystictus sp., Schizophyllum commune, Stereum sp., Tremella sp., and Termitomyces clypeatus. Among the 15 families, Polyporaceae and Ganodermataceae were recorded as the most abundant family. Most species were edible wood decaying fungi and some were non-edible and remain unexploited. Therefore, multistorey agroforestry system in Mt. Makiling is a natural habitat for a wide variety of valued macrofungi waiting to be harnessed for several bio-potentialities.

Effect of refrigeration and inulin supplementation on Lactobacilli fortified in grape juice

Seema Ahuja & Samandeep Kaur

  • Abstract

    Studies were conductedto observe the effect of refrigeration and supplementation with prebiotic inulin on the viability counts ooffthree isolates of probioticLactobacilli isolates (i.e. L. acidophilus, L. plantarumand L.casei) fortified in grape juice. All the flasks were t incubated (at 37°C). To estimate the effects of fortification, the juice samples from each treatment were tested for changes in cell viability counts (cfu/ml) periodically (10, 20, 30 days). It is revealed from the present studies thatduring refrigeration storage, the viable counts of L. acidophilus were found to decrease only slightly after 10, 20 and 30 days respectivelyas compare to L. plantarumand L.casei respectively.Thegeneration time was quite lower when inulin was added as compared to grape juice alone.It was also evident from the present investigation thatL.acidophilus, L. plantarum and L. casei utilized sugar for cell synthesis and grow better in less time as compared to the grape juice without inulin

Selection of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Camel Milk According to Production and Technological Criteria

Imen Fguiri , Samira Arroum , Touhami Khorchani, Manel Ziadi, Frederique Gancel, Pascal Dhulster 

  • Abstract

    The aim of this work was to study the technological properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from camel milk. Strains were tested for their acidification activity, proteolytic and lipolytic activity, and citrate utilization, biomass yield, growth rate, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and capacity to survive after lyophilization. Twenty-nine strains showed ability to use citrate. Ten strains were identified by molecular techniques as Enterococcus faecium. Strains have the ability to grow at different temperatures (10, 39 and 45 °C), at different salt concentrations (4%, 6.5%) and the ability to grow on MRS broth at pH 9.6. Eight strains present ΔpH ≥0.3U and then were considered as rapid acidifier strains. All strains have a significant proteolytic and lipolytic activity. All strains produced EPS and present a yield of biomass more than 0.5mg/ml at the end of fermentation. The strains E.faecium HM1624 present a higher survival percentage after lyophilization (87.50%).

Special Features in the Course of Postnatal Period in Women with Hypogalactia using Phytomedications

Bakun Oksana, Anjali Rathod, Deepica Sharma, Dipti Mehta, Medhavi Grajera

  • Abstract

    The course of postnatal period of women in childbirth with hypogalactia using phytomedications has been under study. The phytomedication “Shirafza”has been demonstrated to improve lactation and course of postnatal period signidicantly.

Genomic Advances in Potato Drought Tolerance

F. Mani and C. Hannachi

  • Abstract

    Drought is a feature of climate in all climate regimes. The climate change threat of global warming may further increase the frequency and severity of extreme climate events in the future. Drought stress, especially at critical growth period may drastically reduce productivity and quality of potato. It causes multiple physiological and biochemical changes during potato plant growth and development, consequently, plant adopt various defense mechanisms against drought stress at the physiological, molecular, cellular and genomic plant levels. Enhancement of drought tolerance in potato through conventional breeding and biotechnology should therefore receive high interest. Thus, the objectives of the present review are to clarify some genomics advances in potato tolerance to drought stress. Many promising research directions are presented, to assess drought tolerance related traits in potato, to improve the exploitation of stressful memory to enhance hardiness.

Modification of Wood by Grafting of Carboxylic Acid Functions Using Acrylic Acid

A. Kassale, K. Barouni, M. Bazzaoui, A. Albourine

  • Abstract

    The aim of this work is the preparation of other supports to replace traditional support used in the purification of effluent from textile industry. It’s in this context that we are interested in the preparation of sawdust grafted by carboxylic functions using acrylic acid (A.Ac).In this study we audited several parameters: the nature of the solvent, the acrylic acid volume, the solvent, concentration of KMnO4, contact time and temperature. To confirm the results obtained we have used the following analysis technique: the infrared spectroscopy (I.R), electron microscopy (SEM) and mass gain. 

Microbial Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Pop Corn Sold Along Benin-Sapele Expressway, Nigeria

F.I. Akinnibosun and  P. Airiohuodion

  • Abstract

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological and proximate analysis of pop corn sold in Benin City, during rainy and dry season. Microbiological analysis included isolation, enumeration and identification using standard methods and biochemical tests. Total bacteria, fungi and coliform counts were 3.23x105, 1.42 x105 and 2.87x105 cfu/g respectively in pop corn analyzed during rainy season and 1.42 x105, 0.39 x105 and 1.05 x105 respectively in pop corn analyzed during dry season. Escherichia coli, Micrococcus varians, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated during rainy season while the bacteria isolated during the dry season include S. aureus, M. varians, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Fungal species isolated during rainy season were Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. while Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp were isolated during the dry season. Proximate analysis of pop corn during rainy season revealed the presence of moisture, protein, lipid, fibre, ash and carbohydrate at concentrations (in %) of 3.76, 6.34, 7.34, 1.68, 4.19 and 76.69 respectively. However, there were variations in their concentrations during the dry season with concentrations (in %) of 2.48, 8.21, 5.19, 2.51, 5.73 and 75.88 respectively.

Prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle at matiranga upazilla in Khagrachhari district in Bangladesh

Real Datta, Md. Mazedul Islam, Md. Matiur Rahman, Md. Tarikul Islam, Md. Kamrul Hasan

  • Abstract

    The present study was conducted in the Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Matiranga, Khagrachhari during the period from August 2011 to January 2012 to observe the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle at Matiranga Upazilla in Khagrachhari. A total of 180 skin diseased cattle were examined in this study where 80 were males and 100 were females. The prevalence of FMD was 23.88% at Matiranga Upazilla. The effect of age, sex, breed, season and farming system on the incidence rate of the disease was discussed. The clinical prevalence of FMD was highest in the month of November (28.94%) and December (30.95%). The males (32.50%) were more susceptible than females (17.00%). The adult cattle (32.63%) were more susceptible compared to heifer (20%) and young cattle (8.89%). Moreover, FMD is more frequent among indigenous breeds (33.64%) than crossed breeds (9.58%).

Genetic divergence of native populations in Primary and secondary centres of origin and wild rice in India

A.Mahender, S. Rashmita, K.D. Amit, H.N. Subudhi, G.J.N. Rao

  • Abstract

    Plant genetic resources are the key components for any crop improvement programme. The two subspecies of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), japonica and indica, exhibit differences both at morphological and molecular levels and it was postulated that both these forms have originated from O. rufipogon. With an objective to study the differentiation tendency in the close wild relatives of rice in to japonica and indica, PCR analyses were performed on the populations of O. rufipogon (162) and O. nivara (157).PCR assays were also conducted on 440 native land race accessions collected from three different geographic locations of India that represent both primary [(Assam(142), Manipur(108)] and secondary [Jeypore-Koraput region(190)] centres of origin. The polymorphism present (presence/absence of a 69bp deletion) in the ORF 100 region of the chloroplast (cp) genome, was employed to classify the populations into japonica and indica. The results suggest that the proportion the indica allele varied from region to region and it is lower in the native land races of all the three regions while it was higher in the populations of both the wild forms. The presence of the japonica allele at a high frequency in the native land races cannot be fully explained with the introgressive hybridization hypothesis proposed earlier. The results of the study can help in identification of genotypes having japonica type nuclear genes which can be of great use in the hybrid rice development programs.

Effect of Fusarium Spp. and Cladosporium Spp. infection on Basella alba leaves.

Debarpan Dhar, Mrinalini Ghoshal, aDr. Arup Kr. Mitra

  • Abstract

    Two organisms namely Cladosporium spp. and Fusarium spp. were isolated from Basella alba leaf samples. The necrotic lesions developed on the leaf tissues were compared on the grounds of the reduction in chlorophyll and carotenoid content, the phenylalanine ammonia lyase(PAL) activity, polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) activity and the reduction of the cellulase activity of the plant. Upon infection, there was a marked reduction in the chlorophyll and the carotenoid content of the leaves. Cladosporium spp. exhibited greater virulence with a greater reduction in the pigment levels. The PAL and the PPO activity also showed an increase upon 5 days of infection when assayed at 270nm and 280 nm respectively with Cladosporium spp. being the more potent pathogen. Also the cellulase activity showed a marked decrease when both pathogens simultaneously infected the Basella alba. Cladosporium spp  was found to be more pathogenic than Fusarium spp. on Basella alba leaves and both the pathogenic species exhibited some kind of positive relationship during combined infection .Standard fungicides like Blitox and Bavistin had a good controlling effect on the growth of the germ tube lengths of the pathogens with Blitox being a more potent fungicide.