Vol. 5 & Issue 3 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : May to July 2015

 

Is Mouse Hair Morphology Consistent throughout the Suborders Myomorpha and Castorimorpha?

Britten Sessions, Wilford M. Hess, Michael Rice, Jared Donaldson, and Brad Carmack

  • Abstract

    Surface scale patterns of 18 Utah mouse species from the families Cricetidae, Dipodidae, Heteromyidea, and Muridae were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hair width, scale length, patterns, and positions in relation to the longitudinal direction of hair were used to characterize differences and similarities in hair morphology between species within the families studied. Previous mouse hair studies have provided data about distinct mammalian underfur and guard hair characteristics; our results confirm that mouse hair morphology consists of distinct guard hair and underfur which were identified by width size and pattern. Statistical analysis was used to characterize hair morphology for the species studied.

Comparative Study of Bioremediation of Crude Oil by Bacillus Subtilis and Organic Substances

S. Jabeen, M.A.S. Khan, Q.M. Hassan,  M.S. Ahmed,N. Nishat and  H. Zain

  • Abstract

    Crude oil serves as a basic component of energy resources of any country or nation, therefore its pollution is no new dilemma over the past few decades. Crude oil contains various compounds which are toxic and set-off contagious effects onto the soil surfaces, even to the areas where it is transported to or utilized. However the oil spill or transportation accidents can raise major threats to flora and fauna of that particular soil, therefore various techniques have been used and implied for the treatment of oil contamination. Amongst all organic ways of remediation processes, introduction of compost, banana peel, Hibiscus plant and adapted Bacillus subtilis culture has been found notably effective in the bioremediation process of degrading crude oil. Compost’s active micro-flora enhance the soil’s own natural biodegradation process which is a gradual process in general, whereas the biosorption process modulated by the addition of banana peel reacts with the charged particles present in the crude oil in the form of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Compost gave highest degradation of crude oil that is 47%. Phytoremediation through Hibiscus Plant is one of the methods, which removes the oil contamination from the soil commonly proposed by a process known as Rhizodegration (i.e. reaction of microorganisms present at the rhizophore of the plant whose activity is might be enhanced by the root exudates) and Bacillus is one of the good degrader already a part of soil-flora which embellishes its efficiency due to the excess load of bacteria with the oil-consuming adaptation. By applying all the above bioremedial processes, acomparative analysis was done which showed that after compost consumption of crude oil by Bacillus subtilis was 44.86%, then Banana peel gave 37.25 % degradation and Hibiscus plant has shown negligible result that is o

Leaf composition of cashew (Anacardium occidentale. L): A case study from the Jajpur district, Odisha

Abhijit Mitra, Prosenjit Pramanick, U.S. Parkhi, Subratta Debnath, Nabonita Pal, Pardis Fazli and Sufia Zaman

  • Abstract

    Researches on composition of floral extract have increased in recent times. Various herbal products are recognized for their antimicrobial activities. The present work is an attempt to evaluate the macro-, secondary- and micro- nutrients in the leaves of cashew (Anacardium occidentale. L) collected from the Pankpal area (20°58′27.5′′N and 86°01′58.4′′E) in the Jajpur district of Odisha. Considerable levels of macro-nutrients and secondary-nutrients indicate the efficacy of the cashew leaves as the ingredients of organic fertilizer. The soil parameters of the ambient environment were also analyzed simultaneously to understand the quality of the soil. It is observed that cashew can withstand adverse environmental condition where the soil pH is acidic with extremely low organic carbon percentage and high concentrations of biologically available heavy metals.

Optimization and spectroscopic characterization of the biosynthesized Silver/Chitosan  Nanocomposite  from Aspergillus deflectus and Penicillium pinophilum

Osman M.E., Eid M.M., Khattab O.H. , Abd-El All S.M., El-Hallouty S.M., Mahmoud D.A.

  • Abstract

    Twenty seven of fungal species were isolated and screened from Egyptian soil samples during a previous study. Among all isolates, two species were selected for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Aspergillus deflectus filtrate and Penicillium pinopholium mycelia isolated from Abu Qir and Helwan sites respectively showed the best surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and stability. In the present study the SPR of silver AgNPs synthesized by the two fungal sp., were optimized via pH and salt concentration. Shape, size, molecular structure of the capping molecule and crystalinity have been investigated by UV/Vis, HRTEM, and FTIR. The effect of exposure to ionizing radiation during synthesis on the physical properties of the AgNPs has been considered. 

Study of Thyroidal Activity in Thiourea Treated Young Toad of Bufostomaticus

Rekha Rajput

  • Abstract

    Young toads of Bufostomaticus were collected from a small pond in Ramniwas garden at Jaipur. The experiment were conducted at room temperature (28ºC-32ºC) for 15 days. They were exposed to five different doses of Thio-urea i.e. 0.04%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% of the solution. Young toads of each group were morphologically examined under stereoscopic binocular microscope to find out the changes in size of thyroid gland. The results were statistically analyzed and significant changes were  observed in some groups.

Dependence of Pepper and Tomato Seeds Germination on Fruit Ripening

M. Valšíková, L. Plathyová, and  I. Mezeyová

  • Abstract

    The seeds germination of six pepper and tomato varieties were evaluated during the years of 2012 and 2013 in three stages of ripening, in four intervals after harvest. When watching the seeds germination of tomatoes and peppers in green maturity, it was found zero germination in all varieties. In case when pepper fruits were in transition maturity, the average germination of varieties was 38% in one month after harvesting. The highest average germination (68%) was determined after nine months of harvest. The highest pepper seeds average germination (89%) was reached after nine months of harvest in botanical ripeness. The highest final germination was found in the botanical maturity of variety Barkol (97%) and lowest in varieties Amy (82%) and Alma (84%). Providing tomato seeds collected in the transitional maturity, the highest germination was in one month after harvest (89%) in a variety Darinka and lowest germination was found in the variety Šejk (71%). In a variant of seeds collected in the botanical maturity the highest germination was in a variety Darinka and Denár (100%) and lowest in variety Kecskeméti (82%). 

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria from the Faecal Samples of Diarrhoeic Calf and Their Antibiogram Study

Tanvir Ahmed, A. T. M. Mahbub-E-Elahi, Md. Jakirul Islam, Md. Kamrul Hasan

  • Abstract

    The research work was conducted with 100 faecal samples collected directly from the rectum of diarrhoeic calves during the period of January/2013 to June/2013 of Sylhet govt. dairy farm, Sylhet; Home fresh dairy farm, Baluchar, Sylhet; Rahman dairy farm, Baluchar, Sylhet; Dream dairy farm, Al-islah, Sylhet, Boro-Rani dairy farm, Jonaki, Sylhet, Bangladesh to find out the causal agents of calf diarrhea and antibiotic sensitivity test against the calf diarrhea. Isolation and identification of bacteria were confirmed on the basis of their morphology, staining, cultural and biochemical properties. Antibiotic sensitivity test was studied by Disc diffusion method of Kirby-Bauer technique. Out of 100 faecal samples examined, 76 samples (76%) were found positive for Escherichia coli, 80 samples (80%) for Salmonella spp., 59 samples (59%) for Shigella spp. and 41 samples (41%) for Staphylococcus spp. Sensitivity test was conducted by 11 commonly used antibiotics with the test faecal samples. The results showed that out of 11 antibiotics, 5 antibiotics (Penicillin-G, Erythromycin, Amoxycillin, Bacitracin and Cefalexin) were resistant as these didnot show any inhibition zone. Remaining 6 antibiotics were sensitive in which Ceftriaxone showed highest inhibitory zone about 35.6 mm in average of 5 samples. Cotrimozazole showed 2nd highest inhibitory zone about 34.4 mm in average of 5 samples. Gentamycin showed 3rd highest inhibitory zone about 30 mm in average of 5 samples. The findings of the experiment speculate that the use of Ceftriaxone, Cotrimozazole and Gentamycin might have the preference in clinical control of calf diarrhea.

Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Slaughtered Goat in Bengal Meat Abattoir House and its Economic Impact on Business

Mazedul Islam Ripatun Nahar Ripa

  • Abstract

    A total 26443 goat were slaughtered during the 12 months study period in Bengal Meat Processing Industries abattoir house, of which 1010 were found to be affected with Fascioliasis under post mortem examination. The overall prevalence of Fasciola infection among slaughtered goat was 3.82%. The highest prevalence (5.6%) was found in July, 2014. Among the seasons there was no significant variation (P>0.05) in the prevalence of Fascioliasis where the prevalence was 4.01%, 3.8% and 3.65% in winter, summer and rainy season respectively. Regarding sex, prevalence in male and female goat is 3.79% and 3.85% respectively (P>0.05). Among the two regions, Region B had the significantly (P<0.01) higher prevalence of Fascioliasis (19.19%) than region A (3.009%). On economic basis, during the study year it was estimated that there was 3.82% liver loss due to condemnation which amounted BDT 184981.5 or US$ 2374.9 economical loss per year. On basis of the result it can be said that Fasciola in goat in thestudy area is prevalent regardless of sex and seasons, although the infection rate is higher in some months of the year and it causes reasonable economic loss in meat business.

Improvement of the Performance of Poly (3-Hydroxy Butyrate-Co-3-Hydroxyvalerate) Microparticles Entrapping Ceftiofur Designed for Controlled Drug Release. An In Vitro Study

César Saldías, Paula Solar, Andrea Aravena, Luis Velásquez, Angel Leiva, Sebastián Bonardd, Soledad Saldías, Caterina Quezada  and Deodato Radic

  • Abstract

    Progresses in microstructure materials have developed original strategies that allow the creation of new specific devices aimed at the field of research for controlled drug release. The use of micro structured polymers could facilitate the process of controlled release for different type of drugs over time. It is well-known that these processes depend mainly on the chemical structure and properties of the polymer. In this work, the preparation and characterization of empty polymeric micro particles (MPs) based on Poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) are reported. Moreover, PHBV micro particles (PHBV MPs) loaded with Ceftiofur, an antibiotic drug, are also studied. The Characterization techniques used were Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Zeta Potential, UV–Visible, FT-IR and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry). The morphology and size distribution of polymeric microparticles were analysed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), respectively. The morphology analysis and size distribution showed that microparticles have spherical shape as core-shell type and their average diameter was approximately 250 nm. In addition, the measures of Zeta Potential showed that empty polymeric microparticles are more stable than the loaded ones in a phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.4). The entrapment efficiency (E.E. %) was determined to be 72% w/w. Furthermore, it was found that polymer matrix degradation is the predominant mechanism on the stage of drug release. These results point out that PHBV MPs are suitable to be used as potential carriers of the drug having both biodegradable and biocompatible properties.Unlike previously reported study about PHBV-Ceftiofur microparticles, we prepared the microparticles using a simple emulsion (W/O). The application of this methodology allowed the reduction in size as well as an improvement of the entrapment efficiency, in vitro per

A New Rumen Ciliate Protozoa from Indian Cattle (BosIndicus) udiplodiniumTrilobatumN.Sp.

Sanghai P.K., and Kshirsagar H.S.

  • Abstract

    In a survey of rumen contents from 814 adult Indian cattle (Bosindicus) an unusual new form of Eudiplodiniumwas observed. This form was established as a new species and this study is concerned with its classification into a species, Eudiplodiniumtrilobatumn.sp. The body dimensions and variations of characters recorded from the specimens taken (n=50) at random from different slides and critical comments are made on their specific identity.

Comparative Study of Different Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

Neelesh Kapoor and Veena Pande

  • Abstract

    The present study was undertaken in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), one of the most important medical and spice plants in the world to explore the best DNA isolation protocol. Presence of abundant quantity of secondary metabolites in fenugreek resulted in poor quality and quantity of isolated genomic DNA. Thus, four DNA extraction protocols namely Phenol-Chloroform Method, GeNeiTM Genomic DNA extraction (Bangalore GeNei) Kit method, CTAB modified method and Dellaporta modified method were evaluated for extraction of DNA. The quantity and quality of the DNA extracted was compared using UV-spectrophotometer and agarose gel electrophoresis. CTAB modified method was found to exhibit consistently positive results in terms of both quality and quantity of DNA (A260/280, 1.82 and 2621ng) as compared to other three methods. The isolated DNA was highly intact and devoid of shearing. As compared to samples taken from adult plant, samples from young plant produced high yield of DNA. Further, this method was explored to different varieties of fenugreek, giving significant DNA yield. Thus, conclude wide applicability of this method.

A comparison of the nutrient contents of fresh (non-refrigerating) and refrigerating snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina var anguina L.)
Md. Ziaul Amin, Raju Ahmed, Md. Ashrafuzzaman Zahid, A. M. Swaraz and Mohammed A. Satter
  • Abstract

    Snake gourd is one of the most popular vegetable in Bangladesh and has very short shelf life. Generally refrigeration technologies have been utilized for these perishable vegetable into safe condition for long time before utilized. The study was designed to investigate the effect on the nutrient contents of snake gourd (Trichasanthes angunia L) for long time refrigeration. To perform this investigation, in this study the snake gourd were subjected to storage for 3, 7 and 15 days refrigeration at 4°C. Samples of the snake gourd were analyzed to the measurement of moisture, ash, protein, fat and minerals by AOAC standard procedures. The moisture, ash and carbohydrate contents of snake gourd that were analyzed under fresh condition,3 days, 7 days and 15 days refrigeration were 93.83%, 93.82%, 93.68% and 93.60% ; 0.38% ,0.40%, 0.42% and 0.50% ; 4.52%, 4.52%, 4.51% and 4.50% respectively. The protein, fat and fiber contents were 0.49%, 0.48%, 0.47% and 0.42%; 0.30%, 0.30%, 0.28% and 0.25%; 0.48%, 0.48%, 0.48% and 0.48% respectively. The Na, K and Ca contents of snake gourd in fresh, 3days, 7 days and 15 days refrigeration were 162 mg%, 159 mg%, 154 mg% and 144 mg% ; 123 mg%, 122 mg%, 119 mg% and 114 mg% ; 3.72 mg%, 3.44 mg%, 3.44 mg% and 3.15 mg% respectively. The protein, fat, moisture and minerals (Na, K ,Ca ) contents were decreased due to increasing the duration of refrigeration time of snake gourd, whereas the protein, fat, moisture and minerals (Na, K ,Ca ) contents of the 3 days or 7 days refrigerated snake gourds were not changed significantly. On the other hand, ash contents were increased due to increasing the duration of refrigeration time of snake gourd but the protein, fat, moisture and minerals (Na, K, Ca) contents were decrease significantly when snake gourds were refrigerated for 15 days. Whereas carbohy

Molecular Characterization of P.aeruginosa isolated from Patients with URTI

Dr. Hawraa A. A. Al-Dahhan

  • Abstract

    This study provides genotypic data on 70 isolates of P.aeruginosa recovered from respiratory tract infections. The recovered P.aeruginosa isolates were genotyped for the appearance oprI and porL genes by using multiplex-PCR assay coupled with RAPD analysis for disparity of these isolates.Multiplex-PCR assay indicated that all isolates of P. aeruginosa appeared oprI andoprL gene,respectively. RAPD analysis for genotyping of P. aeruginosa yield 22 patterns out of 35 isolates composed of 1-8 fragments with primer P6 and 30 patterns composed of 1-7 fragments with primer B-11.The RAPD –analysis revealed some level of clonally diversity and virulence among these isolates.

Reduction of aflatoxin M1 by Some Lactic Acid Bacteria and the Effect of pH and Temperature in Phosphate Buffer Saline Solution

Farzad Ahmadzadeh, Maryam Mirlohi and Golnoush madani

  • Abstract

    Aflatoxins are toxic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds. The purpose of this work was to studythe capability of three lactobacillusstrains (Lactobacillus bulgaricus,L. rhamnosus GG and L. plantarumA7) to remove Aflatoxin M1 from liquid media also to access the factors which may influence the removal process. Comparing three examined strains, AFM1 at the concentrations of 500 and 1000 ng/l in phosohate buffer saline solutionwas significantly (p> 0.003) reduced by L.rhamnosus GG. However all the tested strains displayed Aflaoxin removal activity since at the primary concentrations of 500ng/l and1000ng/l , reduction rates of78%, 72% , 73% and 83%, 80%, 78% were revealed by L.rhamnosus GG ,Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus plantarumA7, respectively. Studying the effect of pH and temperature on the AFM1 reduction capability of the lacto bacillusstrains showed that for all the tested strains more AFM1 removal occurred at pH 6.5 and 5°C.The results of this study on the association between AFM1 removal, pH of the medium and temperature of incubation presents a possible enzymatic reaction which is involved in the removal of Aflatoxin M1.

Boric acid induced oxidative stress response in American cockroach: Periplaneta Americana

Rukhsar Mansoori, Shalaka Sadekarpawar, Pragna Parikh

  • Abstract

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana is an offensive pestandhasbecome a public health problem. Various insecticide formulations have been used to control the cockroach and most of them are environmentally harmful. Boric acid is least damaging to the environment being noxious to cockroach. Aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of boric acid on cockroach in terms of oxidative stress. Different anti-oxidants: catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), super-oxide dismutase (SOD), and GSH as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were estimated upon boric acid treatment to the cockroach, using standard methods. In addition, acetyl-choline esterase activity was also measured in boric acid treated cockroach. Values obtained were compared with untreated control cockroaches and t-test was applied to analyze the statistical significance of results. Our results revealed that boric acid treated P. americana showed significantly increased SOD activity as well as LPO levels, significantly decreased CAT, GPx, and GSH compared to controls (p<0.05) was obtained , suggesting increased oxidative stress over boric acid treatment. Boric acid exposure also resulted in a decrease in AchE activities. From the present studies it can be concluded that boric acid exposure resulted into oxidative stress toP. americana giving credence to boric acid as an efficient as well as secure insecticide for controlling American cockroach.

Copper Complex Anchored on SBA-15 matrix: An Efficient Catalyst in Green Synthesis of Pyran-Annulated Spirooxindoles in Aqueous Medium

SayedHosein Ghorbani, Mohammad Mahmoodi Hashemi and Ayoob Bazgir

  • Abstract

    Copper Complex grafted on SBA-15 has been found to be efficient reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the green three-component synthesis of biologically active functionalized spirooxindoles in an aqueous medium. These products were isolated ingood to excellent yields, demonstrating the versatility of the protocol. These processes provide further advantages such as recoverable catalyst, mild reaction conditions, and operational simplicity.

The physiological effect of Cryptococcus neoformans infection on laboratory mice

Inaam Mahmood Al- Rubayae and Sanaa Jameel Thamer

  • Abstract

    Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the opportunistic yeast that found naturally in the soil, plants and food industrial products. The study represents the effect of this yeast species on immunocompetent laboratory mice. Balb/c mice (2-4 months age, 20-25 gm weight) in three groups A,B,C (6 each: F & M) were intra peritoneal injection with 0.1 ml of identified yeast suspension in three concentrations (1×10 4 , 1× 106 and 1 ×108 cell/ ml3 respectively) for two weeks (once/ week), while the fourth group D was control (injected with 0.1 ml Distilled water). All groups monitored for 70 days, after that period animals were sacrificed. During the experimental period the infected animals showed unstable behavior with necrosis in their front limbs after 7 and 17 days of injection. The blood tests showed significant decreasing in the Hb concentration especially in group B (3.033 mg/100ml). The total leukocytes were increased insignificantly especially in group B while the percentage of neutrophils and basophiles were increased significantly in this group (44% and 2% respectively). The group C showed significant increasing in monocytes percentage (21.8%). The biochemical parameters showed significant increasing in AST in group C (139.67 IU/L) and ALT levels in group B (60.33 IU/L) which are indicator of liverdamage.

A preliminary study on zooplankton diversity of Ramnagar Anua, Srikona Beel and Tapang Haor of Cachar district, Assam, India: A Project Report.

Anita Narzary, Satyajit Das, Biplab Kumar Das , Ng. Romen Singh, Sulata Kar, Papia Das, Binku Dutta and Devashish Kar

  • Abstract

    Diversity of Zooplankton is one of the most important ecological parameters as these are the intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish and plays a key role in cycling of organic material in an aquatic ecosystem. These are one most important biotic component influencing all the functional aspects of an aquatic ecosystem such as food chains, food web and cycling of matter. The study conducted with an aim to study the zooplankton diversity including few physico-chemical parameters. The study was carried out in three different wetlands of Cachar district viz., Ramnagar annua (24o 49ʹ 57.3” N and 92o 45ʹ 23.7” E), Srikona beel (24o 50ʹ 18.9” N, 92o 43ʹ 11.5” E) and Tapang Haor (24o 49ʹ 24.6” N and 92o 42ʹ 6.8” E) from December, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 20 genera of zooplankton species found from the three groups such as Cladocera, Copepoda, and Rotifera. Moreover limnology has a great impact on aquatic environment; hence some physico-chemical parameters such as Dissolved Oxygen, Free Carbon Di-oxide, pH, Alkalinity, Water temperature also have been studied thoroughly in the all three study areas.

Chromosomal Aberration and Micronucleus Assay Studies Caused by 60Cobalt Gamma Radiation on Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

Akanksha Singh Tiwari, Shridevi Balakrishnan, S. D. Sharma

  • Abstract

    In the present investigation, we worked on 60cobalt gamma radiation effects on mammalian lymphocytes especially at chromosomal and nuclear level. Environmental exposures can result in increased mutation rate, and the increased is the mutation rate in the target cells the higher is the cancer risk. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers 5–10 min before, and at 1 and 2 h after a single oral dose of 300 mg of melatonin. At each time point: 1 the concentration of melatonin in the serum and in the leukocytes was determined; and 2 the whole blood was exposed in-vitro from 2 Gy to 12 Gy of gamma radiation. Immediately after exposure to the radiation, the lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of primary DNA damage. We found thechromosomal damage at metaphase stage of which fragmented parts has been observed.Similarly, in the micronucleus assays, the frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher in observed. The results show that the assay can be employed for the evaluation and the assessment of lymphocyte cultures.

Alternative Therapies for Trichomoniasis in the Postpartum Period

A.V. Semeniak, O.V.Bakun

  • Abstract

    We have treated 60 women with trichomoniasis in the postpartum period using three days’ intravenous injections of metronidazole 100 ml (0.5 grams) three times a day, (ornigil 100 ml (0.5 g) twice daily) and fluoroquinolones (100 ml 0,2 grams) twice daily as well as intramuscular injection of cephalosporins 1,0 grams twice a day. The parturients were divided into 2 subgroups: the first group included 40 women who didn’t breastfeed while beeing treated with all above mentioned drugs in strict compliance with drug administration interval: the treatment was effective. The second group included 20 women with partial breast feeding and we didn’t use fluoroquinolones for them, while ornigil was injected every 12-14 hours: the treatment was effective in 15 cases (75%) which is not significantly different from the first subgroup.

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates from Tonsillitis Patients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Akinnibosun, F. I and Osamwonyi, V. E

  • Abstract

    Tonsillitis is one of the commonest infections encountered by clinicians and despite the widespread availability of antimicrobial agents, tonsillitis has become difficult to treat due to the appearance of pathogens with increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents. The aims of this study were to determine the etiological bacterial pathogens of tonsillitis and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of pathogens isolated as well as determining the prevalence among age groups and gender in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Throat swabs from tonsillitis patients in University of Benin teaching hospital, Benin City were analyzed for isolates using standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The bacteria isolated were Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella sp, Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp and Escherichia coli. The most prevalent was Salmonella typhimurium. In assessing the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates, all the isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic, hence they were multi-drug resistant. Salmonella sp. was susceptible to 3 (23.1%) and resistant to 10 (76.9%) of 13 antibiotics used. E. coli was susceptible to 5(38.5%) and resistant to 8 (61.5%). Streptococcus sp.was susceptible to 6 (46.2%) and resistant to 7 (53.8%). Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to 10 (76.9%) and resistant to 3 (23.1%) while Klebsiella sp. was susceptible to 8 (61.5%) and resistant to 6 (38.5%). It was also observed that the disease was more prevalent in children than in adults and was suffered more by males than females. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin reported in this study was 100%, while ampiclox, augmentin and gentamicin were observed to possess the lowest sensitivity of 20%. Treatment with this ciprofloxacin is therefore recommended.

Development of Methods for Detection of Intra- and Extra-Cellular Intra-Molecular Interactions, Underlining the Direction of Cell Differentiation.A Pilot Study

Iskra V Sainova, Bistra Alexieva, Elena B Nikolova, Angel Baldzhiev, Angel Alishev, Marin Nenchev

  • Abstract

    Different methods for investigation on the mechanisms of participation of cell proteins in direct and/or indirect intra- and extra-cellular inter-molecular (protein-lipid, protein-protein, protein-RNA, protein-DNA interactions, etc.), by cascade regulatory pathways, underlining the processes of cell differentiation in one or another direction, were developed and tested. Furthermore, these bio-molecules have been found as parts from different complex structures from the nuclear, cytoskeleton and membrane cell fractions, as mitotic spindle, endocytosis vesicles, cell organelles, membrane structures, which are important for basic cell functions, which could explain the influence of cell differentiation direction, depending of the types of other cells, molecules, produces from different cells, as well as the influence and interactions between them. The results obtained reveal the importance of different intra- and extra-cellular interactions among different bio-molecules, as well as between different cell structures, underlining the processes as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and maturation, as well as their directions. Besides that, the current data suggested the eventual influence of extra-cellular matrix components in the directions of cell differentiation, as well as of any influence of the cryo-protector Dymethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a stimulator of the intra-cellular fusion in the formation of osteoclast-like cells, which, on the other hand, and proposed the eventual usability of the applied technique for fusion procedures between separated cells as well as of cells with other structures, as, for example, viral particles, in biotechnological and gene-engineering manipulations

     

A preliminary study on zooplankton diversity of Ramnagar Anua, Srikona Beel and Tapang Haor of Cachar district, Assam, India: A Project Report.

Anita Narzary, Satyajit Das, Biplab Kumar Das, Ng. Romen Singh, Sulata Kar, Papia Das, Binku Dutta and Devashish Kar

  • Abstract

    Diversity of Zooplankton is one of the most important ecological parameters as these are the intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish and plays a key role in cycling of organic material in an aquatic ecosystem. These are one most important biotic component influencing all the functional aspects of an aquatic ecosystem such as food chains, food web and cycling of matter. The study conducted with an aim to study the zooplankton diversity including few physico-chemical parameters. The study was carried out in three different wetlands of Cachar district viz., Ramnagar annua (24o 49ʹ57.3” N and 92o 45ʹ23.7” E), Srikona beel (24o 50ʹ18.9” N, 92o 43ʹ11.5” E) and Tapang Haor (24o 49ʹ24.6” N and 92o 42ʹ6.8” E) from December, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 20 genera of zooplankton species found from the three groups such as Cladocera, Copepoda, and Rotifera. Moreover limnology has a great impact on aquatic environment; hence some physico-chemical parameters such as Dissolved Oxygen, Free Carbon Di-oxide, pH, Alkalinity, Water temperature also have been studied thoroughly in the all three study areas

Molecular Detection of 16srrna of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae,Chlamydia Pneumoniae and Legionella Pneumophila in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Dr. Mohammed Abdul- Imam Almazini

  • Abstract

    Approximately one third of community- acquired pneumonia cases are causedby atypical pneumonia agents. These agents are Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumoniae. The laboratory diagnosis of these organisms is difficult and time-consuming by conventional microbiological techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the important tools which can resolve this problem. Among 45 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens taken from patients presented clinically with community-acquired pneumonia. PCR results that 10 cases (22.2%) gave positivefor Mycoplasma pneumoniae , 8 cases (17.7%) gave positive for Chlamydia pneumoniae and 3 (6.6% ) cases gave positive results for Legionella pneumonphila . The PCR method is a rapid, sensitive and specific technique that has been applied to the detection of many infectious pathogens.

Transplantation of Edible Oysters: A Review

Ganapathi Naik, M and Gangadhara Gowda

  • Abstract

    Oysters have been introduced worldwide to 73 countries. Introductions of oysters in new waters or transplantation from an oyster bed with non-oyster bed area of the same water can greatly enhance the oyster population abundance and production as well as populations of associated native species. Introduced oysters composed a majority of oyster harvests in many areas in the USA and Europe. Oysters may also be transplanted for the restoration of native oysters or other native species. The transplanted oyster species may be good bio indicators of metals. Ecosystem level consequences of oyster transplantation are not well understood. 

Antioxidant properties of leaves and seeds hydromethanolic extracts from Celtis australis

Najoie Filali-Ansari, Ahmed El Abbouyi and Said El Khyari

  • Abstract

    The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extracts of leaves and seeds from Celtis Australis. The antioxidant property of both plant extracts was assessed by in vitro measurement of DPPH (1,1’-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazil) radical scavenging activity and conjugated Dienes (CD), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibition during linoleic acid peroxidation. At the acid concentrations (2, 10 and 20mg/ml), the radical scavenging activities were 46, 59 and 88% and 44, 57 and 86% respectively for leaves and seed extracts. In the same conditions the rates of conjugated Dienes inhibition were 64, 85 and 92% and 58, 82 and 91% respectively with leaves and seed extracts. In the same way, the rates of TBARS inhibition were 57, 78 and 87% and 55, 78 and 81% respectively with leaves and seed extracts. Both extracts induced a diminution of MDA generation. All the obtained results were significant (P < 0.05) and concentration-dependent. Similar results were exhibited by standard antioxidant BHT, used in 15, 20 and 25μg/ml. The plant extracts yielded higher polyphenolics content followed by phenols, flavaonoids and condensed tannins. A positive linear correlation was established between these compounds and the antioxidant activity of plant extracts. The results obtained from this study indicate that C. Australis is a potent source of antioxidants and thus could prevent many radical related diseases. 

Applying Statistical Design of Experiment for Developing a Co-Culture Technique and Exploring the Interaction between Marine Bacteria

Ahmed Abd elrazak

  • Abstract

    Recently co-culturing gained more interest as a tool to enhance a number of industrial microbial processes. To develop a successful co-culture process, the interaction between the isolates is crucial, where the negative interaction will eliminate the possibility of having a successful process while positive interaction is desirable. Testing the interaction among microbes in the same environment is challenging, but vital to understand and plan for any co-culturing process. In this research, an easy and robust method to explore the interaction between different marine microbes and reveal the influence of such interaction on their growth was reported using the conventional statistical Design of Experiment (DOE). DOE is a commonly used methodology to screen the effect of different variables on a biological process, in this research the tested microbes replaced the variables and the statistical analysis was used to screen the main effect of each isolate and their possible interaction on their growth. The growth parameter used in this study was the dry cell weight  where the positive effect represented by an increase in the amount of biomass produced, while the negative effect represented by a decrease in the amount of biomass produced. A multi-way ANOVA was used to explore the significance of the effect of each microbe on the growth of the others and Minitab 16 software was used to generate a graphical representative of such analysis. This research is trying to develop a robust and easy way to understand the interaction between marine bacterial isolates and how the presence or absence of any isolate(s) could affect the growth of the others. Due to the fact that most of the previously co-culture experimental studies were reported an increase in biological activity without study the interaction among the tested isolates; this methodology can b

Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Biochemical Parameters in Maize (Zea maize L.) Growen under Salinity Conditions

K. Ramakrishnan, G. Bhuvaneswari

  • Abstract

    Salt stress is an important environmental stress. High soil salinity is a serious problem for crop production because most of the cultivated plants are salt sensitive, which is also the case for the globally important crop plant maize. The present investigation was aimed at determining the effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal on productive, growth and yield of Maize plants grown under salinity condition. Zae maize L. cultivars Seeds of were grown in sand beds in size 5×1m2 under shade net condition at Botanical Garden, Department of Botany, Annamalai University. Forty days old seedlings (DAS) were transplanted into pots (one seedling per pot). After transplanting, seedlings of maize were treated with AM fungi, 20 mM NaCl, and AM fungi with 20mM NaCl, 40 mM NaCl and AM fungi with 40 mM NaCl. Observations showed that whole plant dry weight (g plant-1), plant height (cm), no. of leaf per plant, grain yield (kg plant-1) and root colonization (%)decreased with increasing dose of salinity. Soil salinity decreased plant productivity, membrane stability index, photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, the concentrations of N, K+, nitrate, chlorophyll, carbohydrates, and protein, the relative water content, and the activities of nitrate reeducates and carbonic anhydrase. Mycorrhizal symbiosis protected wheat against the detrimental effect of salinity and significantly improved the above parameters, especially in under saline conditions, maize plants colonized by AMF had higher gas exchange capacity (increased net CO2 assimilation rate and stomata conductance, and decreased intercellular CO2 concentration), compared with control.Among these treatments, AM fungi treated plants shows maximum yield when compared to control and others

Is Stomatal Density an Ideal Tool to Explain Drought Effect on Photosynthesis in Tunisian Barley Varieties?

Sonia Mansouri and Leila Radhouane

  • Abstract

    The need to develop new cultivars that cope with abiotic stress is vital in breeding cereal grain crops. One solution among other methods to ensure food security is to recourse of genetic diversity. To achieve this challenge a better understanding of phenotyping and its relationship with physiological responses of plants is required. This study describes how stomatal size and density of four barley genotypes respond to different water stresses, and their relationships with photosynthesis. Results revealed that drought stress in all genotypes had decreased stomata length with a parallel increase of the stomata density accompanied by a reduction in photosynthesis. These changes were more characteristic in Ardhaoui and Manel genotypes.

Isolation and identification of Cryptococcus neoformansfrom pigeon excreta with physiological study of melanin production on different modification media

Inaam M. N. Alrubayae, Aseel A. A. Almusa

  • Abstract

    This study was aimed to the isolation and identification of Cryptococcus neoformans  from pigeon excreta to compare their growth and pigment production on different natural modified media. Twenty samples were collected from pigeon excreta in Basra province, ten species of yeasts and saprophytic fungi were isolated and identified. C. neoformans revealed in 66.7% of the examined samples, followed by Trichosporon cutaneum in 11%.At current study, nine different natural modified media which contain phenolic compounds were used for pigment production test of C. neoformans. The growth of C. neoformans was observed on all media. Ten isolates showed growth on the third day on SDA (4 % glucose) supplemented pigeon excreta with five isolates revealed pigment production on the fourth day on the same medium, whereas eight isolates revealed pigment production on the fourth day on pigeon excreta agar. Pigeon excreta agar is a more suitable medium for the pigment production.

Studies on biocontrol of wilt of cotton caused by Fusarium oxysporum with the help of Trichoderma viride

Rucha R. Mali and P. V. Ramaiah

  • Abstract

    In the present study, Tricoderma viride is used against Fusarium oxysporum which causes cotton wilt. Both greenhouse studies and field trials conducted revealed that, Tricoderma viride reduces the wilt disease by 40%.

Standardization of common and simple protocol for DNA isolation from raw meat of various animal
and bird species

Hemanth Medidi, Nagaraju Naik Sugali, Rosaiah Kotikalapudi, Rajesh Kumar Patel, Valli Nagalakshmi Undamatla and Tirumala Devi Tadi

  • Abstract

    The objective of this study was to standardize a protocol of DNA extraction from meat, tissues of various animal and bird species. A tiny piece of meat weighing 2- 5 grams were collected from poultry, liver of poultry, buffalo, sheep, goat and swine were collected from local meat vendor. DNA extracted from these meat, tissues by using single, simple and quick protocol. DNA quantity and quality were estimated by using NanoDrop, PicoGreen and gel electrophoresis. The quality and the quantity of DNA were found to be excellent as the concentration of DNA ranged between 75.05 to 192.02 ng/μl. The present protocol is common and simple to extract genomic DNA from various meat tissues. The extracted DNA may be used for Polymerase Chain
    Reaction based application like detection of meat adulteration. 

Antimicrobial peptides – New weapons against enteric pathogens

Preeti G. Dharmik and Ashok V. Gomashe

  • Abstract

    Enteric pathogens are the gastrointestinal organisms spread by the contamination of food. These are gram negative, rod shaped facultative anaerobes causing health problems like UTI and abdominal infections etc in an individual. Some organisms produced antimicrobial compounds which has broad spectrum of inhibition against pathogens and food spoilage organisms.LAB possess wide range of antimicrobial activity inhibiting FBP. LAB constitutes the diverse group of gram positive bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are basically categorized into two types’ viz., homofermenters and heterofermenters. They ferment glucose and produce lactic acid as a major product. It basically includes the genera Lactocococcus, Streptococus,Pedicococcus. Heterofermenter produce no. of products like lactic acid, CO2 and ethanol from glucose including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus etc. he most LAB were used effectively against A.hydrophila, B.cereus, S.aureus and Proteus sp. Commercial Nisin exhibits diverse mode of action towards sensitive organisms. 

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