Vol. 5 & Issue 4 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2015


Evaluation of the Emulsifying Activity and Stability Effect of Biosurfactants, Kanwa, and Nikih in Yellow Achu Soup.

Mbawala Augustin, Fopa Kue Roméo Elysé and Mouafo Tene Hippolyte

  • Abstract

    Yellow achu soup consumed in the town of Ngaoundere has a problem of stability due to the absence of an effective emulsifying agent during cooking and storage, leading to a limited shelf life. In order to ameliorate some nutritional characteristics of this soup, the extraction of a biopreservative known as biosurfactants from pendidam (locally fermented milk) and the study of its emulsifying effect on this soup constituted the objectives of this research work. The emulsification index (E24) of biosurfactants was tested on this soup and compared to that of kanwa and nikih with biosurfactants recording the  highest E24 (50.40±0.88%) followed by nikih (35.93±4.45%) and lastly by kanwa (34.00±1.22%) after 48hrs. The stability of these emulsifying agents in relation to temperature was equally  etermined .Thus at 40oC, biosurfactants had the maximum stability with an E24 of 51.0±1.00 while nikih had  6.00±1.73bCD at a maximum stability temperature of 35oC and Kanwa on its part had an E24 of 42.00±2.00aC at a maximum stability temperature of 30oC. The in vitro test of biosurfactants recorded a higher E24 (58.53±0.99aB) when compared to that of the yellow achu soup  50.40± 0.88aA) after 48hrs. These results indicate that biosurfactants have a greater potential of being used as an emulsifying agent in yellow achu soup and finally as biopreservatives of this soup  since they increase its shelf life.

Awareness status of breast cancer in Pakistan society amongaffected women with breast cancer and control men and women: a cross-sectional study

Maria Ayub, Kainat Firdous, Huma Rizwan, Safeena Siddique, Sumiya Khan, Ushna Maryam

  • Abstract

    Breast cancer among all the cancers is the most common type of cancer worldwide. By the day passing it is getting common in most of the Asian countries, especially in Pakistan the incidence of breast cancer among all Asian countries is the highest In Pakistan. From the different studies, it has been shown that the yearly death rate of breast cancer in Pakistan is 40,000 women, but male breast cancer cases are rare in Pakistan too as that of other countries. In male incidence of breast cancer is seen in older ages. Risk of breast cancer is the influence of certain factors such as hormonal factors, medication in use, and genetic factors. The objective of the study is to evaluate awareness status of breast cancer in men and women affected with breast cancer and in normal population. For this purpose A cross sectional study conducted and collected data from a control group of male and female and from patients, particularly and after careful consideration it has been concluded that the awareness status of the Pakistani population, including patients and control population of women are about 46 % aware of breast cancer while awareness in patients is seen to be 37% while awareness in men is just about 28%. The overall awareness status among all groups is below than 50%, which means very little population is aware of breast cancer. Hence awareness programs to control risk factors related to breast cancer are needed to be organized in Pakistan as it is at a higher incidence to develop breast cancer among all Asian countries. 

Studies on Conservation Measures of Certain Avian Fauna of Betul District of Madhya Pradesh

Anil Ghodki and P.K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Betul district of Madhya Pradesh is situated at longitude 77.98 east and latitude 21.88 north. It has a rich fauna and flora. In the present study, survey of certain avian fauna of Betul district was done for the conservation of bird. Avian fauna include certain endangered and least concern species, i.e. Spotted owlet, Black Drongo, Paradise Flycatcher, Grey Horn Bill, Great Horn Owl, Crow Pheasant Caucal, Black ibis, Vulture, Eagle, Bee eater. Conservation of birds is required due to a number of reasons, i.e. loss of herbs, shrubs and trees by humans, deforestation by humans to make houses, increase in populated areas of humans, loss of tall trees due to construction of road and bridges in forest areas, human colonization and restriction of forest, deforestation due to railway line track, fewer plantations of bamboo trees in forest and use of insecticides by humans on the plants and their use by cattle. Hence, the conservation of these habitats is
    mandatory in the present day context. 

Extraction and Evaluation of Sapindus emargintus Seed Against the Housefly, Musca domestica Linn.

M. Rajaand M. Suresh

  • Abstract

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a common vector of several bacteria, protozoan, and viral diseases. The botanical pesticides seem to be effective in controlling the domestic insect pest Musca domestica. The seed extract of soapnut disrupts the activity of enzymes of larvae & pupae and inhibits the growth.The mortality was counted up today 6. Hexane seed extract of Sapindus emarginatus effective controlling the M. domestica. The percentage mortality rate of
    M. domestica larva when treated with different concentrations of hexane seed extract shows highest mortality 96.25 % was recorded in 2.0μl/100ml. The chloroform seed extract shows the highest mortality was recorded in 1.0μl/100ml, 1.5μl/100ml and 2.0μl/100ml at 5th day and 100% mortality found in 5th day and 6th day. The crude extract S.emarginatus will be a good alternative controlling of house fly larvae. 

Personality Factor Associated with Premenstrual Syndromein Employed Women at Reproductive Age, Iran

Salimeh Kord Firoozjaei, Mouloud Agajani Delavar, Ali Asghar Bayani

  • Abstract

    Despite many studies published concerning the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) but the relationship between certain personality traits and PMS is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PMS among employed women and to examine the association between personality and PMS. The research design this study was a cross-sectional study and the Delany’s Premenstrual Checklist was used to classify subjects with PMS. Meanwhile, their personality status was defined using the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) Questionnaire during the follicular phase. A total of 241 individuals, aged 20-40 years randomly selected from employing women. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were used for analysing data. Among the Babolian employed women at reproductive aged, the prevalence of PMS was found to be 60.2%., 72 (29.9%) as borderline and 96 (39.8%) as non-affected PMS. The neuroticism-stability personality was positively correlated with PMS scores (r= 0.389, p= 0.0001). Furthermore, positive and the most significant correlation was found between PMS and three personality types; neuroticism (r= 0.201, p= 0.017), emotional-stability (r= 0.267, P= 0.007), and introvert (r= 0.197, p= 0.065). No significant findings for the extravert personality was observed. The findings of the present study indicated that neuroticism changes can cover about 15% of the changes in severity of PMS. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize on the benefits of the supportive family system on the disease course of PMS.

Comparative study of the biochemical parameters in two fish species as indicators of aquatic pollution from the Red Sea coast, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Esam O. Al-Wesabi, Osama A. Abu Zinadah, Talal A. Zari and Zaki M. Al-Hasawi

  • Abstract

    In the present study, we investigated the biochemical constitutes of blood serum of two fish Lerthinus harak and Terapon jarbua from two stations (Al-Kumrah and Al-Shoaibah) in the Jeddah District along Saudi Arabia Red Sea Coast at summer season 2014. The biochemical constitutes were found to be altered in Al-Kumrah area with a decrease in glucose, total protein and triglyceride concentrations, indicating a possible case of losing blood to the tissues or inefficiency in liver function, While an increase in urea concentration in fish collected from Al-Kumrah area indicating a possible case of inefficiency in kidney function, and this location were significantly different (p ≤ 0.01) with Al-Shoaibah site. The serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) activities, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ammaglutamyltransferase (GGT)showed a significant increase in fish, collected from Al- Kumrah site, indicating to the hepatocellular damage, and this location was significantly different (p ≤ 0.01) with Al-Shoaibah site. These results suggest that the fish collected from Al-Kumrah site might be considered relatively polluted with heavy metals. Thus, we may conclude that the altered activities of biochemical parameters could be useful biomarkers of water pollution.

In vitro cultures of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.)affecting by laser irradiation

Rania, A. Taha, Lobna, S. Taha and Samy, A. Metwally

  • Abstract

    Nowadays, jojoba shrub (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider) has a vigor interest in Egypt. Its liquid wax has a great demand because of its benefits. Improving tissue culture technique to propagate jojoba plant is an important target. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of laser radiation on the micropropagation capability of in vitro shootlets and proliferation of callus cultures of jojoba plant. Results showed that exposing in vitro jojoba shootlets to various periods of red [Helium neon (He-Ne)] and green [Argon ion] laser radiation resulted in significant differences in shoot length, leaf number, percentage of adventitious bud and explant the show callus. Since, exposing shootlets to red laser for 15 min enhanced shoot length, leaf number and percentage of adventitious buds, followed by 3 min treatment. Similar results had been obtained from exposing shootlets to green laser for 7 min. Three months later, the multiplication rate illustrated in number, length of shootlets as well as number of leaves per shootlet increased, in red laser exposed shoots, as compared to control and shoots exposed to green laser. Red laser light treatment for 3 min significantly increased chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll as well as carotenoids to the highest values as compared to the control and exposure to (green) irradiation. Laser irradiation, generally, increased total phenolics.

DNA Sequencing of Regenerated Lens under the Influence of Vitamin-A in Young Swiss Albino Mice

Vikram Singh Bhati, Dr Digvijay Singh Shekhawat, Manish Nagal, Dr O.P Jangir

  • Abstract

    The present study supports and prove previous finding that Vitamin A can induce and accelerates lens regeneration in pigmented epithelial cells (PECs) of the dorsal iris in Swiss albino mice. In Lens regeneration, many scientists shown that Vitamin A induces the mitogenic activity which causes functional impairment of retinoid receptors and thereby inhibits the lens regeneration. The purpose of the present study of understanding the DNA base pair difference between normal lens and regenerated lens DNA. The work was mainly based on histological and molecular aspects of lens regeneration. The study concludes that the base pairs of regenerated lens DNA and normal lens DNA were almost similar except these SNPs. There may be some mutation or aberration of DNA base pair alignment present in regenerated DNA base pair compare to a normal DNA base pair.

Histological, Histochemical, Ultra structural and Enzymological Studies on Stomach and Intestine of Oreochromis niloticus L. and Glossogobius sp. of Sewage-fed East Kolkata Wetland (EKWL), West Bengal

Subinoy Mondal and Apurba Ratan Ghosh

  • Abstract

    Histopathological and enzymological studies are the important devices for the field monitoring programmes like sewage-fed fisheries in regard to fish health and production. The stomach and intestine of the fishes are providing large internal surface area and are very sensitive to chemical and physical changes in the aquatic ecosystem. Present study on histopathological and nzymological alterations in the stomach and intestine of Oreochromis niloticus L., and Glossogobius sp. has been able to establish a correlation between the degree of alterations and the quality of sewage water. The prominent changes in the intestine and stomach are monocrotophos, oedema, necrosis, atrophy of epithelial cells, alterations in the villosities, detachment of the intestinal layers flattening and degeneration of the villi in both the fishes. The combined PAS–AB stain depicts the changes in the intensity of localization of acid and neutral mucopolysaccharides in the epithelial and mucous cell content in both the tissues. Micro anatomical study reveals the disarrangement of gastric folds, degeneration of the epithelial cells, blunt and scattered microvilli in the stomach. Intestinal topology shows disorganization of intestinal folds, thin and ill-structured microvilli, and excessive secretion of mucus. Different degrees of inhibition of digestive enzyme activities (viz., protease, amylase and lipase) are exhibited in both the fishes in stomach and intestine may be due to contamination of heavy metals like Cd, Pb and Cu which is proved statistically through correlation and regression equations. Intestine shows higheraccumulation than stomach in order of Pb> Cu > Cd. Different modes of inhibition of digestive enzymes activities by these metals are plotted in stomach and intestine through regression lines. The present investigation tried to make an introspection on the extent of accumulation of different metals in stomach and intestine of commonly cultured Oreochromis niloticus L. and endangered fish Glossogobius sp. in the sewage-fed fish ponds (Bheris) in East Calcutta Wetlands (EKWL), a Ramsar site in India.

Comparative assessment of some heavy metals in some fish tissue from the Red Sea coast, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Esam O. Al-Wesabi , Osama A. Abu Zinadah, Talal A. Zari and Zaki M.Al-Hasawi

  • Abstract

    Comparison was made of the [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co)] content of two tissues of fish Lerthinus harak Black-spot emperor L. and Terapon jarbua Jarbua terapon L. from two stations (Al-Kumrah and Al-Shoaibah) in Jeddah District along Saudi Arabia Red Sea Coast at summer season 2014. The higher concentration of heavy metals studied in muscles, gill and liver were recorded in both fish samples collected from Al-Kumrah site and this location was significantly different (p ≤ 0.01) with Al-Shoaibah site. These results suggest that the fish collected from Al-Kumrah site might be considered relatively polluted with heavy metals. In general, the metals determined in various body parts of two species of fish collected from Al-Kumrah site was higher than the maximum permissible; however, there is the need for regular monitoring of the heavy metal load in this water body and the aquatic organisms in there because of the long term effects. The present results approved the necessity for the permanent pollution monitoring program in Jeddah coast, the Red Sea is using water quality criteria and fish response as indicators. 

Studies on Genetic Variability, Correlation and Path Analysis of Yield Attributes in Maize Genotypes (Zea Mays L.)

Md. Waliur Rahman, Md. Aminul Islam Talukder, Md. Abdullah Al Mamun,Md. Abu Hanif, Md. Jalil Uddin

  • Abstract

    Through the use of proper character association, the knowledge of interrelationships between grain yield & its contributing components will improve the efficiency of breeding programs. An experiment was conducted to evaluate correlation between some traits and yield components of ten maize genotypes and also to determine the most effective factors on its yield. The xperiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. Analysis of variability parameters revealed that the phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters studied. The magnitude of phenotypic and genotypic variability was high for ear height; 1000 grain weight and no. of grain per cob. The correlation analysis showed that in most cases the genotypic correlation between traits were greater than phenotypic values. The highest value of coefficient ofcorrelations was found between grain yield per plant and 1000 GW, but the relationship was negative.

Limnological Studies on River Bhavani for a Period of Six Months (Sep-2013 to Feb-2014) at Mettupalayam, Coimbator District, Tamil Nadu, India

S. Binu Kumari, K. Satheesh Kumar, R. Prakash and D. Logeshkumar

  • Abstract

    Water is the most essential commodity for all living creatures. Organisms cannot survive without water. The global environment is changing continuously due to unfavourable alteration of surroundings caused by common types of pollution and pollutants discharged in the water resources. The objective of this endeavour was to assess the water quality parameters of some selected Physico-chemical parameters like Temperature, Colour, Total Solids, Electrical conductivity, pH, Dissolved O2, BOD, Total Alkalinity and some Nutrient parameters of River
    Bhavani for a period of six Months ( Sep-2013 to Feb-2014) at its source from Mettupalayam, Coimbatore District , Tamil Nadu , India. The results obtained in this investigations revealed that the discharge of untreated domestic sewage drains into the river and it may lead to excessive pollution and makes it unsafe for human consumption, use and it needs a preventive action.

Haematological and Biochemical Studies on Women Bidi Rollers Occupationally Exposed to Tobacco Dust

K. Rudrama Devi and P. Minny Jael

  • Abstract

    Exposure to tobacco dust is widely prevalent in Telangana in the form of bidi rolling which plays an important role in the household economy. Majority of them are women who roll 350-800 bidis per day. To study the role of working conditions in occupational hazards among bidi rollers occupationally exposed to tobacco dust biomonitoring was conducted by estimating urinary cotinine and thioether and are related to the haematological parameters to detect the extent of xenobiotic exposure to biditobacco dust. Results showed a significant increase in urinary cotinine and thioether level in urine samples of exposed workers as compared to the controls which indicated exposure of bidirollers to xenobiotic compounds

In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Alfalfa, Horsegram,Soyabean and Wheatgrass as Affected by Sprouting

Kavitha G. Singh, Ashika P.H. and Myrene R D’Souza

  • Abstract

    Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that protect and repair cells from damage caused by free radicals. Many experts believe this damage plays a part in a number of chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, and arthritis. Free radicals can also interfere with the immune system. Therefore, fighting off the damage that is caused to the body tissues with antioxidants helps keep the immune system strong, making it better able to ward off colds, flu, and other infections. Antioxidants such as proline, phytic acid, reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibit the chain reactions that are responsible for free radical formation and helps in reducing the oxidative stress. The study of sprouted samples of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum), wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max) showed higher activity of antioxidants that helps to reduce the oxidative stress. 

Evaluation of antifungal activity of Emlica officinalis, Aloe vera and Vitex negundo extracts

Darshan Dharajiya, Tarun Khatrani, Payal Patel, Nupur Moitra

  • Abstract

    Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Aloe vera L. and Vitex negundo L. are medicinal plants commonly found throughout India and used in traditional medicine. The present study was undertaken to screen potential antifungal activity of extracts of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruits, Aloe vera L. leaves and Vitex negundo L. leaves. The plant extracts were prepared by sequential cold  aceration method using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water as a solvent. Extracts were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma viridae by using agar well diffusion method. All the plants showed maximum antifungal activity against Trichoderma viridae. While Penicillium chrysogenum was most resistant fungal strain against plant extracts used in the study. Aqueous extracts of all the plants showed maximum inhibitory action as compared to other extracts. Presence of various phytochemicals in the extract will lead to contribution in the antifungal activity. The knowledge of extent and mode of action for antifungal activity of specific compounds, present in the plant extracts, may lead to the successful utilization of such natural compounds for treatment of infections caused by pathogenic fungi.

Malaria and the Use of Insecticide Treated Nets by Pregnant Women in Ijebu-North East Local
Government, Southwest Nigeria

Akindele S. T., Abimbola W.A., Agbolade O.M., Sam-Wobo S.H.

  • Abstract

    Malaria remains one of the most important diseases of the tropics despite several years of concerted effort towards its control, of which children and pregnant women are more susceptible. World Health Organization’s (WHO) strategic framework for malaria prevention and control during pregnancy in areas of stable malaria transmission recommends insecticide-treated nets (ITN) amongst others. The study evaluates the knowledge of pregnant women on malaria and their behavior towards the use of insecticide net as a method for malaria control. A structured questionnaire was used in the study. Out of the 140 respondents, 68.7% were petty traders, only 31.3% had post secondary education and 53.3% of the pregnant women were found to be in the age bracket of 25-30 years old. It also shows that 73.3% of the respondents know the cause of malaria and 59.3% agree that it could cause miscarriage, 20% say it causes still birth while 20.7% say it causes low birth weight. However, 96.7% correctly identified ITN and 63.3% got informed on the use of ITN through T.V and radio program, 33.3% from community health program while 16.3% ascribed reasons for not use to lack of awareness. About 33.3% prefer mosquito coil /spray while 13.3% opined that children can get entangled and 26.7% say it causes body irritation. The study shows that correct knowledge of malaria and its effect on mother and child is a significant factor in the use of ITN in achieving the goal of the Roll Back Malaria Program. 

Isolation and simultaneous quantification of adenosine, narcissin and roseoside in Anoectochilus
roxburghii (Wall.) Wall ex Lindl.

Pham Huong Son, Nguyen Thi Lai, Phan Xuan Binh Minh, Nguyen Tien Dat.

  • Abstract

    A phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Anoectochilus roxburghii led to the isolation of adenosine (1), narcissin (2) and roseoside (3). Compound 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from this plant. Furthermore, a simple, high selectivity and accuracy method for simultaneous quantitative determination of these three metabolites was developed on an HPLC-DAD system. The chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column using a gradient of methanol and water as mobile phase. The calibration curves were linear with a good correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.9999) and the limit of the detections were in the range of 2.36-9.42 μg/ml 

A study of distribution patterns of wild mammals for their conservation planning in Madhya Pradesh

Satish Kumar Shriwastava and M.K.S. Kushwah

  • Abstract

    The challenges facing the Indian conservationists include potential species extinctions, issues of effective protection and scientific management of The protected areas and resolution of human-wildlife conflicts. Madhya Pradesh is renowned for its erotic sculptures, pilgrimages, forts and palaces. But one more factor that adds a feather to the Madhya Pradesh cap is the bursary of lush, thick forests, stupendous mountain ranges and rambling streams of flowing rivers. This large plateau has presence of wildlife attractions in abundance. Census of 2001 gives a data as the key fauna includes large carnivores like the Tiger, Panthera tigris, Leopard , Panthera pardus, Grey Wolf Canis lupus and Dhole cuon alpinus. The rare Caracal Caracal caracal has also been reported from some parts of the State. The ungulates are represented by Spotted Deer, Axis axis, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus, Gaur Bos frontalis, Chinkara Gazella bennettii, Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis, Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra, Wild Buffalo Bubalus arnee (bubalis) and Wild Boar Sus scrofa. Apart from these, a small population of Barasingha Cervus duvaucelii branderi, which is also the State Animal of Madhya Pradesh, resides in the Kanha National Park. The Population structure of wildlife of the state is also quite encouraging. The study, based on available census report also reveals an increasing trend in population structure of most of the animals, except tigers and barking year.

Phenological Studies on the flowering pattern of Woody species in Derived Savanna, Kogi State, Nigeria

Hemen, T. J., 2Usman, S. S., Ayodele, S. M. and Soom, S.T.

  • Abstract

    The phenological study of the woody species was conducted at Egume Derived Savanna in Kogi State, Nigeria to determine the flowering pattern of the woody of the area using the random distribution technique. Twenty-two (22) woody species of the vegetation were sampled during the study and their number of flowering periods in the year were recorded .Two(2) species ,Marathes polyandra and Sarcocephalus litifolius were found to flower thrice, Ten(10) flower twice and the other Ten(10) once a year. Most flowering activities were recorded in the months of April and November. Meanwhile, the months of May and July have recorded least flowering activity during the study. Most interestingly, the flowering activities were recorded in all the twelve calendar months of the year. Thus, it is one of the main features of biological (ecological) interest of the vegetation. The flowering patterns of the woody species in the study area showed how food is produced throughout the year in Savanna, hence regarding it as the food basket of the Nation.

Microbial Studies on Currency, Door Handles and Staircases in Selected areas of Gboko, Benue State,  Nigeria

S. T. Soom, B. O. Atu

  • Abstract

    The study of bacteria and fungi population on the contact surfaces of selected places within Gboko metropolis was undertaken. The study, which spanned from May to August 2013 was carried out at the University of Mkar, United Bank for Africa (UBA) and General Hospital Gboko. The bacteria isolated were Klebsiella spp, Ecoli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp, Candidas albicans, Candida tropicalis, Cladosporium spp, Microsporum spp and Pencillium spp. The result shows that Klebsiella spp and Pseudomonas spp have the highest frequency percentage with 66.7 % and 55.6 % respectively. This revealed that the Nigerian currency at the University of Mkar, had more bacteria contamination as compared to UBA and General Hospital Gboko, which the percentage showed 66.7 % of Ecoli spp. The result also showed that the highest percentage Fungi were Aspergillus spp (66.7 %) and Cladosporum spp (45.5 %) at UBA. This indicated that all swabbed on the three contact surfaces at those three places may increase the population of fungi infections. Nigerian currency at United Bank for Africa (UBA), had more fungi contaminations as compared to University of Mkar and General Hospital. The study on staircases showed that both Cladosporium and Microsporum spp had the highest percentage of 62.5 % each. Therefore, contact surfaces under this study are contaminated with microbes and could serve as a vehicle for disease transmission of infectious agents.

Comparative Studies on The Rearing Performances of Normal and Delayed Mother Moth Laid Eggs and their Cocoon Assessment.

Kamaraj, S., Shabnam, N.K., Madhusudhan, K.N., Malliga, C., Tiwari, M.D., Serani, N., Sharma, S.P. and Alok Sahay

  • Abstract

    Tasar silkworm is widely distributed in both deciduous and semi- deciduousforest, mainly in central India. The Jharkhand state with 23,605 sq. kms of forest area and sixty lakh tribal populations is one of the largest producers of Tasar silk, with vastly available naturally grown Tasar food plants in tropical moist deciduous forests. The total 30 mother moths were collected, in three replication wise R1, R2 and R3 moths kept in an earthen cup for oviposition. The replication numbers are tagged kept in the earthen cup. In this Study rearing performance and disease occurrence in 4th and 5th (delayed) day laid eggs during first and second grainage was also observed. The results of the present study shows, delayed egg laying from fertilized tasar moth yield 16% more fecundity apart from normal ovipositioned female moths. The utilization of the delayed egg laying after normal ovipositioned moths will increase the productivity and revenue of the grainages involved in tasar culture.

Growing Challenge against Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae with Evaluation of Effective Antimicrobial Treatment Option

Maria Ayub, Hina Liaquat & Dr. Munawerah Fahad

  • Abstract

    On the back of the, increasing multidrug resistance, synthetic polymeric antimicrobial has  eceived extensive attention. In every aspect of life pathogen virtually present everywhere and reached. Antimicrobial resistance has been increased against K.pneumoniae. A wide variety of diseases in humans have shown by the result of strains of klebsiella. In nosocomial infection, these bacteria have become important pathogen. The objective of the study is to determine and evaluate the possible and effective treatment against K.pneumoniae and ESBL because there is a diminish in sensitivity patterns of antimicrobials against this bacterium, reflects the  nappropriate use of antibiotics. More than 100 isolates were obtained from antibiograms of hospitals in order to study the susceptibility and resistance pattern to the most harmful pathogen klebsiella pneumonia. Gradual decline in sensitivity pattern has been observed by polymixin B [51%], sulzone [73%], imipenem [79%] and [80%] natidixic acid and meropenem. After careful considerations, it has been concluded that there is a limited treatment option to treat this pathogen due to gradually decreased in the sensitivity pattern of antimicrobials and furthermore investigations are required to evaluate and for the development of irrational as well as cost effective therapy.  

Fracture Management in Animals: A Review

Tanvi Mahajan1, Subha Ganguly and Parveez Ahmad Para

  • Abstract

    Bones fracture frequently and often result in significant impairments, functional limitations, and disabilities, especially when the hand is involved. When fractures occur, there is a disruption of the skeletal tissue organization and a loss of mechanical integrity. The goal of fracture healing is to regenerate mineralized tissue in the fracture area and restore mechanical strength to the bone. Of equal importance is the reconstitution of the normal soft tissue gliding and movement about the fracture site. 

Comparative Study of Action of Ozone and Singlet Oxygen on Blood Oxidative Metabolism in Vitro

Andrew K. Martusevich, Anastasia A. Martusevich, Anna V. Derugina, Lida K. Kovaleva

  • Abstract

    The aim of this work was comparative estimation of ozone and singlet oxygen action on balance of pro- and antioxidant systems in human blood samples in vitro. Material and methods: blood samples of healthy peoples (n=10) were divided into five vials equally. The first one in each  tudy was controlled (without any manipulations). The second sample was processed with molecular oxygen (100 ml during 3 min). The third sample was spared with ozone-oxygen gas mixture (ozone concentration – 500 mcg/l, 100 ml, sparging time – 3 min). The fourth and fifth samples were processed with singlet oxygen-containing gas mixture (generator power – 50 and 100%, respectively; processing time – 3 min). In the blood plasma intensity of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity was estimated by Fe-induced biochemiluminescense analysis with special device “BHL-06” (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). This technique also allowed to register erythrocyte peroxide resistance. In addition, we studied malonic dialdehyde level in blood plasma and in erythrocytes. The results: it was stated that the molecular action of ozone and singlet oxygen on oxidative metabolism in blood samples in vitro is clearly different. The ozone initiates lipid peroxidation with a predominant elevation of antioxidant reserves. The singlet oxygen effect includes significant activation of plasma antioxidant potential without intensification of lipid peroxidation processes. It is important that the effect of singlet oxygen in dose-dependent. In our opinion, these results are useful for technologies of correction of oxidative stress or imbalance of blood and tissue pro- and antioxidant systems (with the use of inhalations of singlet oxygencontaining gas mixture) and for pretransfusional processing of blood and its main components. 

Survey of Freshwater Snails in Malabar, Kerala and an Account on the Prevalence of Infection by Digenean (Platyhelminth) Parasites

Ramitha U.C. & Vasandakumar M.V.

  • Abstract

    Snails from different freshwater habitats of Malabar region in Kerala were collected for 51 months and a study on the digenetic trematodes infecting the snails were carried out. A total of twelve species of freshwater snails was recorded and Bulinus indicus SubhaRao et al. 1994 forms a new geographic record in the Malabar region of this state. Snails acts as intermediate host of digenetic trematodes and in the present study prevalence of infection was 10.6%. The  iodiversity of digenea in snail populations was high. Among the five different digenean larval forms recovered, furcocercous cercaria or the forked tailed cercaria were dominant during the study indicating diversity in bird population around the habitats under study Comparative study of habitats with respect to number of snails collected and infection showed that ponds harboured the maximum number of snails while snails collected from swamps and ditches were the most infected.  

Development of a Laboratory Method for Rapid and Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Liver Pathology During
Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Faisal A. Bughdadi , Samy O. Sannan , Talib M. Banasir,Gamal Shiha , Abdelfattah M. Attallah, Hisham Ismail 

  • Abstract

    Precise definition of the hepatic fibrosis stage, particularly for individuals with viral hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV), is the most important parameter to assess the risk of disease progression and to decide for an appropriate antiviral therapy. Liver biopsy, the gold standard for evaluating the liver pathology is invasive, stressful for patients, costly, and difficult to standardize. Therefore, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of identifying and  scribing liver status by using noninvasive, surrogate laboratory biomarkers measured in blood. The HCV and HBV diagnostic markers, a panel of routine blood biochemical and hematological markers and serum fibronectin (FN) by using ELISA were performed for two groups of chronic hepatitis   patients with different liver fibrosis stages; estimation group (72 Saudis aged 32-71 yr) and validation group (92 Egyptians aged 28-68 yr) with different Metavir fibrosis stages (F0-F4). The absolute values of the investigated biomarkers were statistically analysed using SPSS program. The stepwise multivariate linear discriminant analysis and areas under ROC curves (AUC) selected laboratory biomarkers-based index, named Fibro-Test and include APRI, prothrombin-INR and FN. The developed test enabled the correct identification of significant fibrosis (F2-F4) stages with an AUC of 0.91 and also allows the sensitive, specific, and efficient (> 85%) prediction of this stage at the optimal cutoff point. The Fibro-Test results reproduced with no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the Egyptian patients of validation group. We have developed a non-invasive laboratory test that can be simply and efficiently classified each HCV-infected individual into nonsignificant fibrosis (F0-F1) or significant fibrosis (F2-F4) patient. However, further validations of the developed test are required to draw the final conclusion. 

Pros and Cons of e-cigarettes- A brief note

Ayesha Sameera, Rajesh Kumar Patel, Kushik Bharadwaj, Mohammed Murtaza Ali Mir and Syed Talmeez Ahmed

  • Abstract

    The harmful effects of tobacco smoking are well known. Smoking causes ninety percent of all lung cancer cases. Smokers are four times more likely to develop oral and pharyngeal cancer than non-smokers. An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is an alternative to tobacco smoking. It gives pleasure and experience of smoking without or least adverse effects on health which are usually associated with tobacco smoking. The device uses heat (or in some cases, ultrasonic’s) to vaporize a propylene glycol- or glycerin based liquid solution into an aerosol mist. The pros and cons of using e-cigarettes, components and function of e-cigarettes are discussed in brief.

Characterization and Quantification of Polyphenols in Callus and Cells Suspension of Embryogenic and Non Embryogenic Cultivars of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)

Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire, Ayolié Koutoua, Yapo Sopie Edwige S., Kouakou Kouakou Laurent, Mérillon Jean-Michel

  • Abstract

    Polyphenols were identified in calli and cells suspension of embryogenic and non embryogenic cotton cultivar. Polyphenols were separated by HPLC methods. Coker 312 developed better callogenesis and produced embryogenic structures contrarily to R405-2000 which was found to be a non embryogenic cultivar. We demonstrate relationship between different polyphenols synthesis, their level and the induction of callus and embryogenic structures. Coker 312 was highly linked respectively to a higher content of caffeic, ferulic and salicylic acids and the appearance presence of p-coumaric, benzoic acids, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and catechin. On the other hand, the presence of trans-cinnamic, trans and cismethoxycinnamic acids in calli, genistein, trans and cis-methoxycinnamic acids in cell suspensions of cultivar R405-2000 is an indicator of formation of non embryogenic structures in this cultivar. Polyphenols can be considered as markers of the somatic embryogenesis induction in cotton.

Network Inference for Gene Regulation during Flowering Intitiation in Arabidopsis Thaliana using
Time-Series Data

Pui Shan Wong and Sachiyo Aburatani

  • Abstract

    Time-series gene expression is very useful for tracking changes in expression during environmental changes or experimental conditions. As the majority of gene interactions has a many-to-many relationship with each other, a network can be used to model and analyse such data. We create and use a method that maps, gene interactions onto a network using their time-series expression data. The model relies on coding the differences in gene expression through the time into numerical patterns. The patterns form the vertices of the network and are linked together by edges that are decided by comparing two patterns. The edge weights are calculated using the expression of two connected patterns and represents the degree of expression difference between the two connected patterns. We apply our method to transcription factors in apical meristem time-series data from Arabidopsis thaliana and show that the inferred network identifies and clusters transcription factors involved in floral transition. The network consists of 17 subnetworks of varying sizes with the largest containing 36 vertices. The subnetworks are distinguished by gene ontology enrichment terms. We identify the pivotal time period of transition from vegetative growth to flowering to 12 and 13 hours after germination by examining the expression patterns. 

Efficacy of Methanolic Extract of a Marine Ascidian, Lissoclinum bistratum for Antimicrobial Activity

Sudhandra Karthi, Beena Somanath and Abdul Jaffar Ali H

  • Abstract

    Globally, ascidians is proven to have significant novel lead molecules with varying bioactivities, but have remained poorly studied in this context in India. In vitro antibacterial screening of a colonial ascidian Lissoclinum bistratum collected from Hare Island, Thoothukudi coast of India, against selected clinical isolates of bacteria was carried out in this study. The methanol extracts of L. bistratum exhibited broad antibacterial activity. The highest activity was shown against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibitory zone of 11mm in DIA).GC-MS study revealed the presence of 14 hemical constituents. Of these different ompounds, Phenol, 2,5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl), Benzoic acid, 4-ethoxy- ethyl ester, decanoicacid, Acetic acid, octadecyl ester, Oleyl Alcohol, 1-Eicosanol, Ethanol, and 2 octadecyloxy)- are known for antimicrobial activity. It is concluded that there is a great scope for finding further novel antimicrobial compounds in the ascidian.

The Nutritional Superiority of the Lipid Composition of the Brain of Turkey over the Brain of Domestic Duck

Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye, Pius Amoka Aye

  • Abstract

    The lipid composition of the brains of turkey and duck was investigated. The crude fat had levels (g/100g) of 9.21 (turkey) and 8.84 (duck). The total fatty acid values were (g/100g): 5.17 (turkey) and 4.96 (duck) leading to the following percentage distributions: SFA, 41.4 (turkey) and 43.3 (duck); MUFA, 40.4 (turkey) and 45.4 (duck); PUFA, 18.2 (turkey) and 11.3 (duck). Out of the 34 parameters considered in the fatty acid profiles 26/34 (76.47%) had values in the turkey brain more concentrated than the duck brain; such more favourable values come from PUFA. These quality parameters were more favoured in the turkey brain than the duck brain: PUFA/SFA, EPSI, LA/ALA, EPA/DHA and AA/DGLA. Also, when the fatty acids serve as a food source, the following would be observed (source in g/100g): SFA (2.14 – 2.15), MUFA (2.09 – 2.26) and PUFA (0.561 – 0.941). The calculated energy from the fatty acids was (kJ/100g): 191 turkey brain) and 184 (duck brain). These values resulted into the following distribution  [kJ/100g (percentage value)]: SFA, 79.3 (41.4%) – 79.5 (43.2%); MUFA, 77.5 (40.5%) –83.4 (45.3%) and PUFA, 20.8 (11.3%) – 34.9 (18.2%). The phospholipids were generally high except in lysophosphatidylcholine; general level was 1207 – 2145 mg/100g with turkey brain generally predominating the only sterol of significance was cholesterol which formed 99.9982 – 99.9985% of the total sterols. However, duck brain had higher concentration of cholesterol than the turkey brine. Statistical analysis showed that significant differences existed between the fatty acids as well as in the sterol levels between the two brain samples at r = 0.01. For nutritional quality, turkey brain has better advantage than the duck brain in crude fat, PUFA, phospholipids, less SFA and less cholesterol.

Simultaneous detection of “Rickettsia mongolotimonae” in the patient and in ticks in Tunisia

Sfar N. and Raoult D.

  • Abstract

    The only pathogenic rickettsia prevalent in Tunisia is a Rickettsia conorii,a spotted fever group rickettsia which is transmitted by Rhipicephalus sp. complex ticks. Here, we report the presence of “Rickettsia mongolotimonae” detected simultaneously in a patient and in a Hyalomma detritum ticks.

Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Immature Kernel of Maize Inbred Lines

Mohammad Abul Kalam Azad, Md. Waliur Rahman, Md. Arifuzzaman, Md.Hasanuzzaman, Md. Aminul Islam Talukder, Rony kumar Saha

  • Abstract

    Callus induction and regeneration ability of six maize inbred lines, ML01,ML02, ML05, ML15, ML25 and ML29 were investigated using 15 day-old immature embryos as explants. Genotype, medium, source of auxin and their concentrations influenced induction of callus. Explants grown on  urashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at 1 mg l-1 showed the highest frequency of callusing among all the media tested. Among the six genotypes tested, ML01 and ML05 gave the highest callus on both MS and N6 media. Explants of both ML01 and ML05 incubated on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg l-1 benzyladenine and 0.5 mg l-1 indole acetic acid promoted the highest frequency of shoot induction. ML05 induced higher percentage of shoot formation than ML01. The highest frequency of root formation was observed when the shoots were grown on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg l-1 naphathalene acetic acid. Percentage of regenerated plants ranged from 3.34 to 12.32.

Pilot Survey: The Use of Wood Soot (Amorphous Carbon)as Alternative Management for Postpartum

Rufai Y, Isah Y.  & Isyaka M. S

  • Abstract

    Traditional medicine occupies a prominent position in the delivery of health care in Nigeria. The majority of people in the rural areas as well as a substantial proportion of the urban dwellers relies on traditional medicine for a solution to their health problems. The potential of soot powder (wood soot) under study here, as used in traditional medicine for the management of postpartum haemorrhage has proven to be a promising alternative. The soot powder collected were homogeneously mixed together, each 10g, 5-15 drops of local red oil were gently added to form a paste (called soot sample). Five patients involved in this study were saved from excessive bleeding after child birth / miscarriage within 5-20mins of soot sample administration orally

Studies Of The Chemical, Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Activities Of Viscum Album (Mistletoe) On
Five Different Host Plants

Francis Jide Faleye, Adebowale Toba Odeyemi, Sulaiman Adeoye Olagboye

  • Abstract

    Viscum album (mistletoe) is a parasitic plant and its extracts have been widely used in diabetes and cancer therapies. Chemical, phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Viscum album from five different host plants were determined. Evaluation of timicrobial activity was done by agar diffusion methods against seven microorganisms while the minerals determination was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done by standard procedures. The methanol extracts of Theobroma cacao, Citrus paradisi, Spondis mombin, Tectona grandisand Hevea brasiliensis showed antimicrobial activities with zone of inhibition ranged from 3.0 to 24.0 for the different concentrations. The greatest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by the extract from T. cacao and the least activity was exhibited by C. paradisi. T. cacao has the highest mineral contents of 12.57mg/100g K, 5.82mg/100g Na, 5.94mg/100g Ca, 6.34mg/100g P and 8.35mg/100g Mn and S. mombin has the least mineral contents of 4.93mg/100g K, 4.95mg/100g Na, 3.82mg/100g Ca, 2.22mg/100g Mg, and 2.65mg/100g P in the major elements. Cadmium was in traces in the samples. The phytochemical constituents were reported for T. cacao which ranged from 1.42mg/100g alkaloid to 0.017mg/100g flavonoid while the least phytochemical constituents were observed in S. mombin which ranged from 0.477mg/100g alkaloid to 0.001mg/100g flavonoid. T. cacao has the highest value of 25.2mg/100g with S. mombin having the least value of 0.006mg/100g riboflavin.

Assesment of gamma rays and Ems induced mitotic chromosomal aberratios in Withania somnifera (L.) Dun

T. Bharathi, S, D. Dhanavel, M. Ariraman

  • Abstract

    Dry and well matured seeds of Withania somnifera (L.) Dun var. Jawahar 20 was subjected to different concentrations of gamma rays and EMS. The effects of different mutagenic treatments on mitosis have been studied in M1 and M2 generation. Various types of mitotic aberrations such as, stickiness, bridge, laggards, precocious moment of chromosomes, etc., were observed in all the treatments. However, the gamma ray treatment proved to be more effective in inducing mitotic aberrations as compared to EMS. Moreover, the frequency of mitotic aberrations was high at metaphase followed by anaphase and telophase stages. As the dosage/ concentration increases, the cytological abnormalities were also increases in all the higher dosages/ concentration of gamma rays and EMS. 

Impact of UV Laser on Embryonic Brain Protein Profile of a Lizard, Calotes versicolor (Daud.)

Robertraj S. Nindi, Bharati S. Khodnapur, Shivakumar M.A., Sanjeev R.Inamdar, Gopal M. Advi Rao and Laxmi S. Inamdar

  • Abstract

    The present investigation is to study the impact of ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation on the embryos of Calotes versicolor in terms of its effects on the protein profile of the brain, incubation period and embryonic development. The eggs of C. versicolor, during thermosensitive period (TSP), were exposed to third harmonic laser pulses at 355 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for 3 minutes. Subsequent to the exposure they were incubated at the male-producing temperature (MPT) of 25.5±0.5°C. The brain of one-day-old male hatchlings was subjected to protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). SDS-PAGE of the brain of a one-day-old hatchlings of control reveals variation in the expression of the protein banding pattern. A total of 14 protein bands in the brain of control hatchlings was
    observed while it is interesting to note the expression of 17 protein bands in the brain of UV laser irradiated embryos. The observed results suggest the expression of 9 additional new protein bands in UV laser irradiated embryos. Apparently exposure to UV laser radiation did not affect the normal developmental sequence of the embryos and no morphological anomalies were noticed. The expression banding pattern of additional These extra proteins may be involved in  rowth and metabolic activities. The observed result suggests that UVA has a beneficiary effect on the development in this species. Hence, it is inferred that 355 nm UV laser radiation during TSP induces changes in the expression of new proteins as well as their secretions.

Biofertilizer (Oscillatoria sp.) Increases Growth and Yield of Rice (BR-29)

Sabrina Naz, Sharmin Aktar, Shah Md. Golam Gousul Azam

  • Abstract

    Nitrogen (N2) -fixing cyanobacteria comprise a dominant group in rice fields and now a day it is being used sporadically as a supplement to chemical nitrogen fertilizers for rice cultivation in rice-growing countries. A comparative study was done to assess the influence of Oscillatoria sp. as biofertilizer for the growth and yield of rice (BR 29). Chemical fertilizers at the rate of fertilizer recommendation dose of BARC have been used, alone or in combination to know the growth and yield of rice (BR-29) in pot experiment. Rice plants grown in the Oscillatoria sp. with the combination of chemical fertilizers excluding nitrogenous fertilizer treated pots showed better and healthier growth and higher yield than that of rice plants grown with chemical fertilizers and biofertilizer only. Thus, Oscillatoria sp. can be introduced as biofertilizer for rice (BR 29) cultivation in the northern region of Bangladesh which is economical too.

Preliminary Chemical Screening and IR Spectral Studies of a Colonial Ascidian Ecteinascidia Venui
Meenakshi, 2000

S. Sankaravadivu,  R. Jothibai Margret and  V.K. Meenakshi

  • Abstract

    Hundreds of new compounds have been isolated from ascidians, the majority of which are amino acid derivatives. It is the biological activity associated with many of these natural products that are responsible for research focus on these marine organisms. Ascidians are rich source of bioactive compounds.Ecteinascidia venui is a colonial ascidian belonging to the family Perophoridae. It has been found in plenty throughout the year in the Tuticorin harbour area. Ecteinascidia venui was extracted using different solvents such as petroleum ether, benzene, methylene chloride, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and water. The extracts were screened for the presence of chemical compounds like alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, coumarins, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, quinones, anthraquinone, phenols, aromatic acids, catechins, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Terpenoids, steroids, quinones, carbohydrates and lipids were the predominant compounds observed. IR Spectral studies indicate the presence of carbonyl group, hydroxyl group and aromatic ring. 

Morphological characterization of three varieties of prickly pear Opuntia ficus indica in Tunisia

El Adib Seif eddin, Slim Slim, Hamdeni Emtinen

  • Abstract

    The prickly pear cactus is a plant of the arid and semi-arid which is adaptable to poor soils and high temperatures. The cactus has interesting properties that lead to developing the culture and enhance its sub products. This study was conducted on three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica are that of Zelféne , Sbeïtla and Kairouan . The study was made in order to carry out a description and comparison between cultivars. Morphologic and physicochemical characterization was made for cladodes , fruits and seeds . The study of cladodes dimensions has shown that there is a significant difference in the average length between Kairouan and Zelféne cultivar. On the other hand, The Zelféne cultivar has a higher moisture cultivars Sbeïtla and Kairouan in the order of 93.96 %. The average total number of areolas by cladode presents a statistically significant variation between regions. It varies between 61 and 67. The Kairouan cultivar has the highest content pips (6.38 %) in comparison with Sbeïtla Zelféne and cultivars. The prickly pear fruit is rich in soluble sugars with a content of 14.73 ° Brix for Zelféne cultivar and an acidity of around 0,055g citric acid / 100ml juice. For the protein content of seeds, cultivar Sbeïtla showed the highest percentage of the other two cultivars (8.04%) .

Structural Chromosome Mosaicism in Peripheral Blood Cells of Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

Rajesh Kumar Patel, Rosaiah Kotikalapudi, Hemanth Medidi, Nagaraju Naik Sugali and Lakshmi Siva Sankar Vallabhaneni

  • Abstract

    Two Murrah buffalo young bulls were investigated for possiblechromosomal aberrations before inducting in breeding programmes. Whole bloodcultures were set, incubated for 72 hours, harvested and G-banded the metaphasechromosomes to detect possible chromosomal abnormalities. The variations in thelength of some of the chromosomes were observed during screening and karyotyping.The present study describes a possible phenomenon of structural chromosome mosaicism in most of submetacentric chromosomes at low level. The present  structural abnormalities could not be correlated with fertility performance of the bulls as they were not under semen production.

Nutritional Potential of Cassava Peels Ensiled with Moringa, Gliricidia and Leucaena Leaves

Aye P. A.

  • Abstract

    The experiment was conducted to assess the proximate composition,mineral content, gross energy and anti-nutrients of cassava peels ensiled with Moringa, Gliricidia and Leucaena leaves. The crude protein for cassava peels ensiled with Moringa oleifera (CMO) was 20.32g100g-1, cassava peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocepphala(CLL) was 23.17g100g-1 and cassava peels ensiled with Gliricidia sepium (CGS) was 22.23g100g-1. Ether extract values were 4.02g100g, 3.56g100g-1 and 3.20g100g-1 for CMO, CLL and CGS respectively. Ash content for cassava peels ensiled with Moringa, Leucaena and Gliricidia were 4.26g100g-1,3.80g100g-1 and 4.20g100g-1 respectively. The crude fibre ranged from 12.03g100g-1 in CLL to 12.56g100g-1 in CGS. In cassava peels ensiled with Moringa, Leucaena and Gliricidia leaves Na, K, Ca, Zn were the most abundant minerals in all the treatments. The tannin content varied from 0.20g100g-1 in CMO to 0.45g100g-1 in CGS. The phytic acid ranged from 10.12g100g-1 in CMO to 14.76g100g-1 in CGS.the phytic-phosphorus ranged from 2.85g100g-1 in CMO to 4.16gg100g-1 in CGS. The oxalate contents were 2.85g100g-1, 3.52g100g-1 and 4.16g100g-1 in CMO, CLL and CGS respectively. It is evident that cassava peels ensiled with Moringa, Leucaena and Gliricidia have great potentials for livestock animals and could be utilized as a source of supplementary feed for ruminant animals.

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