Vol. 6 & Issue 1 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Nov.2015 to Jan.2016


Gross and Histological Observations of Pre-Pubertal Testes of Indigenous Bulls (Bos indicus) of Bangladesh

Gitaindro Nath Adhikary , Mst. Ismat Ara Begum , Muhammad Nazrul Islam, K. M. Mozaffor Hossain and Shah Md. Abdur Rauf

  • Abstract

    The experiment was conducted to elucidate the gross and histomorphology of testes of pre-pubertal indigenous bulls (Bos indicus) using Hematoxyline and Eosin stains during July 2013 to June 2014. Four prepubertal indigenous bulls below 1 (one) year age (9 to ˂12 months) were selected. Bulls were slaughter and testis samples were collected for gross parameters and further histological observations. The left testicular size of prepubertal bulls was slightly larger than the right. The left and right testicular weight was 18.57±1.40gms and 16.10 ±1.64gms respectively. The average testicular circumference of left and right testicle was 8.78±0.44cm and 7.78±0.52cm respectively. The left and right testicular weights without epididymis were 0.022% and 0.019% of the body weight of the prepubertal indigenous bulls. The all testicular parameters were significant (p˂0.01) except in the width. The body weight and the weight of the left testis without epididymis was highly correlative (p˂0.01) and testicular circumference of the right testicle was highly correlative with the scrotal circumference (p˂0.01). The tunica albuginea contains mainly the collagenous connective tissue. The intertubular tissue was fibro cellular consisted of fibroblast, mesenchymal cells and differentiated Leydig cells arranged in large groups. The testicular parenchyma of prepubertal bulls consisted of solid nonluminated, coiled and straight tubular sex cord having basement membrane and filled up by the centrally placed large primordial germ cells with varying numbers and peripherally located small indifferent basal cells. From the above findings, we conclude that the prepubertal testes are the primitive/special form of adult testes.

Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Roductive Performance and Digestive Enzyme Activities in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus)

Badryah R. Alsuwaigh, Faisal A. Bughdadi and Kamal A. Attia

  • Abstract

    The experiment was performed to compare the effects of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities in Nile tilapia. Sixty Nile tilapia (25.00 ± 0.05g) were used, distributed in two experimental groups, 30 fish / group, in glass tanks at a density of 15 fish / m3. The control fish group was considered those fed on a soybean meal based diet (SBM), and the treatment group was fed on a fermented soybean based diet (FSBM). Fish were fed at a level of 3% of body weight three times a day for 8 weeks .At the end of experimentation time, growth performance parameters including initial body weight (IBW), final body weight (FBW), specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), were measured. Digestive enzyme activities including protease, lipase and amylase were measured in gut homogenates. Results revealed that fish fed FSBM-based diet exhibited a significant higher FBW, WG, SGR and FCR as compared to SBM-based diet. Also, Replacing SBM with FSBM in the diet significantly increased the activities of lipase, and protease enzymes. No significant difference was recorded in amylase activity between the two experimental groups. Conclusively, a diet containing FSBM has appeared to improve the digestion of protein and fat that could be due to higher levels of enzyme activities, which may explain the better growth and feed utilization in tilapia.

Proximate analysis of selected Green Leafy Vegetables in fresh water, 75% of Silk dyeing effluent and Biotreated effluent

Sumayya. A.R and Sivagami Srinivasan

  • Abstract

    The Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs) such as Brassica juncea (mustard),Trigonella foenum (fenugreek), Amaranthus polygonoides (sirukeerai), Amaranthus tristis (araikeerai) and Sesbania grandiflora (agati) were grown to study their proximate parameters in normal, 75% of silk dyeing effluent and biotreated effluent conditions as pot study. The parameters namely moisture content, ash content, crude fibre, total carbohydrate, total protein and cellulose with different treatments in fresh water, 75% of silk dyeing effluent and biotreated effluent were analysed on its 45th day of its growth. Among the GLVs, Amaranthus tristis grown in silk dyeing effluent shows the highest moisture content which had a low dry weight followed by Sesbania grandiflora and Amaranthus polygonoides respectively. The GLVs grown in various treatments had shown a comparable ash content. The crude fibre, total carbohydrate content and total protein level of all the GLVs differs significantly with the maximum value for the biotreated S.grandiflora. There was a significant change in the cellulose content of the GLVs exposed to different treatments. 

To study the effect of vermiwash and vermicompost on the rowth regulators and morphological characters of Rice Oryza sativa naturally

U. S. Indurkar

  • Abstract

    Sustainable agriculture is one in which the goal is permanence achieved through the utilization of renewable resource, this lead to development of concept of organic natural farming. Application of vermicompost, favourably affects soil pH, microbial population, NPK content and soil enzyme activities. Vermiwash is used as liquid manure has excellent growth promoting effects besides serving as biopesticide. Effects of vermicompost and vermiwash on rice plant growth, in relation to that of length and height with normal compost showed that the shoot and root biomass and their length, and the number of leaves, and leaf area were significantly higher in treatment than those of control. These measurements were lower in treatment 5 gram, and higher 10 gram Vermicompost while the plants growth lower 5ml and higher in 10 ml concentrations of vermiwash. Interestingly, the plants grown in 10 gram vermicompost and 10 ml vermiwash compared to those of the plants grown in soil without using any fertilizer. In this context, the present investigation was planned to study the effect of vermiwash and Vermicompost on the growth regulators and morphological characters of Rice Oryza sativa naturally.

Semi-automated Home-made HPLC-UV System fordetermination of Amoxicillin Trihydrate (AMO) in
Antibiotic Drugs

K. H. AL - Sowdani and H. N. K. AL - Salman

  • Abstract

    An accurate, precise and sensitive HPLC assay was developed for the determination of  moxicillin in Oral dosage form, to compare the bioavailability of two Amoxicillin Trihydrate (AMO) capsule (500mg) from Brazil formulations and Amoxicillin Trihydrate (AMO) Analr as a test formulation. Amoxicillin concentrations were analysed by a home-made UV-HPLC System at (λ=230 nm). The separation was achieved using the Ion Pac zorbax 300- SCX Agilent Column; 5μm, 4.6×250 mm. The mobile phase consisted of a Ammonium acetate (20 mM) + Methanol] buffer (95:5) with a pH=4.8. The study of bioequivalence between the two Amoxicillin formulations was assessed by calculating the peak height. The standard Amoxicillin and amoxicillin drug eluted at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The recoveries were rang within 90.0-100% Linearity rang (0.2 -1.0) μg/ml, (n=5) with r2≥ 0.9970 and RSD ±0.505-2.672 at room temperature 25oC. The detection limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 2.830μg/ml and Lower limit of detection (LLOD) 1.047μg/ml.

Enzymatic Biofuel Cells – A Progress Review

Mrumayee Patil, Priyanka Pawar, M. A. K. Kerawalla and Prerna Goswami

  • Abstract

    Fuel cells are applied for primary and backup power for commercial,industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. They are also employed to power fuel-cell vehicles, including forklifts, automobiles, buses, boats,motorcycles and submarines. An Enzymatic biofuel cell is a bioelectronics device, a specific type of fuel cell that uses enzymes as a catalyst to oxidize its fuel, rather than precious metals. It has several attractive points including: the ability to operate optimally at temperatures between RT and body temperature; the flexibility of fuels that can be employed, including renewable fuel (e.g., ethanol, sucrose, glucose, glycerol) and traditional fuels (e.g. hydrogen, methanol, etc.); and the application of non-platinum renewable catalysts. The two main application areas that are considered for enzymatic biofuel cells are insitu, implantable power supplies for sensors and pacemakers and ex vivo power supplies for small portable power devices (portable electronics, wireless sensor networks, etc.). The  mplantable devices would most likely uses glucose as a fuel and recent advances that biofuel cells can be implanted and continue to function in a living organism. Different types of enzymatic fuel cells are reviewed for their structure, developments, applications and the future research possibilities in this paper.

An overview on various weed control practices affecting crop yield

Shah Jahan Leghari, Umed Ali Leghari, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari,Mahmooda Buriro, Farooque Ahmed Soomro

  • Abstract

    Weeds are known as unwanted, undesirable, unsuitable and harmful plants.They are mostly C4 plants (Extraordinary metabolize essential carbon) and have vigor growth. Due to vigorous growth and inordinate development, they compete with all type of crops including cereals, fiber, sugar, medicinal and vegetable crops as well as floricultural crops for nutrient, place, space, air, carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), light, soil moisture and soil oxygen etc that result in causes of long or short stressful periods during growth and development of plant which have adverse influence on the harvest and straightforwardly diminish the yield and quality of crops. Various methods are utilized to control the weeds but all methods are not efficient equally against weeds before they give any damage to the harvests, with the exception of a few. These involves use of weedicides, hoeing, tillage operations, hand pulling, pure seed, seeding rate, mulching,  Intercropping, cultivation of weed competitive varieties, mixed cropping, sowing time,sowing methods and use of fertilizer practices. However nowadays modern agriculture concept is giving recommendation to use all these practices combined which is known as integrated weed management (IWM). This review paper evaluates different weed management practices in different crops and suggests effective weed control methods for good crop yield and its quality. This paper is also indicating challenges in integrated weed management practices with raising a question why a majority of farmers around the world are unable to apply integrated weed management (IWM) practices. 

Protective Activity of Commercial Citrus Peel Extracts against Paracetamol induced Hepato-nephro Toxicity in Rats

Fatma A.A. Mostafa, Asmaa A. Salem, Shahenda M. Elaby and Nivin S. Nail

  • Abstract

    The hepato-renal protective effects of three commercial citrus peels ethanolic extracts (lemon [Citrus lemon] Mandarin [Citrus reticulata]) and sweet orange [Citrus sinensis]) on oxidative stress, in vivo were investigated. Oral administration of three citrus peel ethanolic extracts to rats at 50 mg/kg bw for 28 consecutive days before a single dose of paracetamol (5 g/kg b.w) demonstrates a significant protective effect on histological architecture of the liver and kidney as well by improving the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma- glutamyl transferase (GGT), lowering the levels of creatinine and urea. Citrus peel ethanolic extracts were attenuated oxidative stress by decreasing the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), a significant increase in the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), gutathione-Stransferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Lemon peel ethanolic extract has provided more effective against oxidative stress, in vivo than other peels ethanolic extracts. This study demonstrated that citrus peels ethanolic extracts can be used as anti-hepato-nephrotoxic agents against paracetamol-induced liver and kidney injuries.

The Effect of Alkaloid Extracted from Cordia myxa Leaves on the Survival of Mustard Aphid Lipaphis
erysimi (Kalt.)

Hind Suhail Abdulhay

  • Abstract

    This study was carried out to investigate the toxicity of alkaloid extracts of Cordia myxa leaves to mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi. The alkaloid was extracted bysoxhlet apparatus using organic solvent ethanol. The extracted alkaloid applied at concentrations of 16, 25, 40, and 50%.The results indicated that the concentration of 50 % was the most effective mortality of Lipaphis erysimi compared with control treatment. Differences in nymphal mortality according to age were observed at all concentrations of alkaloid extract. Mortality rate reached to 100, 100, 91.5, 92.2, 92.6 and 85.4% at concentration of 50% in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th nymphal instars, apterae and alatae respectively. Also, the study indicated that apterae were less sensitive for extracts than winged adults or alatae. For the TLC technique, the solvent system selected for the best results was chloroform: ammonia: methanol. TLC resulted in identification of three spots and one compound which was quinine found in the ethanolic extract. The Rf values of the extract were 0.51, 0.53 and 0.88.The present study suggests that ethanolic extract of C. myxa leaves possess powerful insecticide activity against Lipaphis erysimi.

Preliminary Investigation of Some Phytochemicals and Organic Functions in N-Hexane Extracts of Chromolaena Odorata Leaf and Stem

Marcus, A.C.

  • Abstract

    The extraction of dried leaf and stem of Chromolaena odorata for preliminary investigation of some phytochemicals and organic functions by infrared spectrometry has been achieved from n-hexane using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening on 12.4 % and 10.7 % of recovered crude extracts of the leaf and stem respectively tested positive for alkaloids, phenols, terpenoids, saponins and glycosides which have been reported as useful natural products of therapeutic and nutritive values. Spectral data obtained from infrared analysis suggested the presence of C-C (1500 - 1440 cm-1) and C-H (3100 - 3000 cm-1) bonds from alkanes, -C=C (1600 &1475 cm-1) from aromatic hydrocarbon as well as –C=O from carboxyl groups (1700-1730 cm-1) and esters or ketone (1715 cm-1) from both samples; the stems, in addition however, revealed the presence of C-H bond associated with a carbonyl C=O in form of H-C=O stretching vibration as well as a C-C bond that is also suggestive of an aromatic ring. The isolation of components associated with these functions will enable structural assignments to be made, as well as establish the immense benefits of the plant to man. 

Anti-phospholipase A2 and anti-elastase activity of sixteen marine green and brown algae from the Coast of El Jadida-Morocco

Khadija Oumaskour, Nabila Boujaber, Omar Assobhei, Samira Etahiri

  • Abstract

    Sixteen marine algae (six belonging to Chlorophyta and ten belonging to Pheophyta) collected along the Atlantic coast of Morocco were studied for their antiinflammatory activity; it was evaluated as inhibition rate of two enzymes (phospholipase A2 and elastase). This study is the first research demonstrating that the organic extracts of algae produces anti-inflammatory effects against these two enzymes. The results show that a total inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity was obtained by Sacchoriza polyschides, Cystoseira humilis, Bifurcaria bifurcata and Cystoseira baccata extracts, while the elastase inhibition was obtained by Saccorhiza polyschides, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Cystoseira ericoides and Enteromporpha compressa extracts which give an inhibition greater than 95%. This work has shown important results, these algae should be thoroughly investigated for natural sources bioactive anti-inflammatory compounds.The purification and the determination of chemical structure of active compounds from these algae is under investigation

Extent of heart wood formation in some angiosperm trees

Prabha Venkata Ramaiah

  • Abstract

    Radial extent of heartwood formation in ten species of angiosperms has been studied. In general the radial extent of heartwood is lesser in deciduous trees than in evergreen ones. Gum producing trees excepting Acacia nilotica have less extent of heartwood.

Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders in a Sample of Iraqi Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Maha J. Frayyeh, Makarim Q. Al-Lami, Muhammad-Baqir M. R. Fakhridin

  • Abstract

    The present study aims to estimating the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disorders in Iraqi infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Eighty-five Iraqi women, with age range (19-45) years, were divided into three groups; first group included 33 women with PCOS; second group included 30 women without PCOS; while third group included 22 fertile women as controls. The clinical data [age, body mass index (BMI), and menstrual status] have been recorded. Blood samples were collected to determine the levels of reproductive hormones [estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)]; and thyroid hormones [triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4)]. Also, autoimmune thyroid antibodies assessment has been carried out to determine the titrations of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (Anti-TPO Ab) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (Anti-TG Ab).The findings revealed that the percentage of obese was significantly (P<0.01) higher in the women with PCOS and without PCOS (66.67% and 53.34%, respectively) compared with the control women (9.10%). Also, more of the infertile women with PCOS and without PCOS (51.51% and 46.67%, respectively) had oligomenorrhea. The results of hormonal analyses revealed that non-significant (P>0.05) differences were found in levels of E2 and FSH among the different groups. A significant (P<0.05) increase was recorded in level of LH among PCOS group compared with control and without PCOS groups. Also, LH/FSH ratio was increased significantly (P<0.05) in PCOS group compared with control and without PCOS groups. On the other hand, the results of thyroid hormones showed non-significant (P>0.05) differences for T3 and T4 levels among the studied groups. Autoimmune thyroid antibodies assessment showed a significant (P<0.05) increased in the Anti- TPO Ab titration among the infertile women with and without PCOS compared with the control; while there was a non-significant (P>0.05) difference between infertile women with PCOS and without PCOS. A significant (P<0.05) increased in the Anti- TG Ab titration was found among infertile women with and without PCOS compared with the control group; also, a significant (P<0.05) increased was found in the infertile women without PCOS compared to with PCOS. Correlation between autoimmune thyroid antibodies and the studied hormones in women with and without PCOS revealed only a significant (P<0.01) positive correlation between Anti-TPO Ab titration and LH level (r=0.26); while a non-significant correlation has been found between Anti-TG Ab titration and the studied hormones  

Effect of some herbal extracts on reducing hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

Fatma A.A. Mostafa, Asmaa A. Salem, Nivin S. Nail and Shahenda M. Elaby

  • Abstract

    Cabon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxic chemical and also induces nephrotoxicity in rats. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of antioxidant activity of coriander, dill and parsley leaf ethanolic extracts (CLE, DLE and PLE) on oxidative stress of carbon etrachloride (CCl4) treated in Wistar albino rats. CClinjection induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) lkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma- glutamyl transferase (GGT) as well as the levels of serum eatinine, urea, uric acid and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione reductase (GR), gutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Oral administration of the herbal leaf ethanolic extracts at dose (500 mg/kg b.w) showed a significant improvement of hepatic and renal biochemical parameters and antioxidant oxidative stress activities compared to CCl4 treated rats. The activity of DLE showed more amelioration than other leaf ethanolic extracts.Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver and kidney injuries in CCltreated rats and its recovery by three herbal leaf ethanolic extracts treated rats. Based on these results, it was observed that CLE, DLE and PLE protect the liver and kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

Detection of Mosaicism in Blood Cells of HF Bull

Rajesh Kumar Patel,Rosaiah Kotikalapudi, Hemanth Medidi, Lakshmi Siva Sankar Vallabhaneni, and Nagaraju Naik Sugali

  • Abstract

    Mosaicism could be developed due to involvement of sex chromosomes or autosomes and both. The phenomenon is commonly observed in many species of animals and plants, but the physiological effects of low-level mosaicism are largely unknown. Heparinized blood sample was collected from a 4-year old HF bull during routine karyotyping. Chromosomal preparations were performed using standard procedures. Around 110 G-banded metaphase plates were screened for chromosomal analysis under microscope. Out of 110 metaphase cells, 10% metaphase cells exhibited mosaicism with following ration: 60,XY (99): 61,XXY (6): 61,XXY (3): 61,XY+t (1): 61,XY(1). Mosaicism was associated with reduced fertility as the bull is showing poor semen production performance; near average values for production parameters and spermiogram.

Mutagenic sensitivity and variability studies in Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp).

M. Ariraman, T. Bharathi and D. Dhanavel

  • Abstract

    Gamma rays and EMS are the effective mutagens widely used for mutation plant breeding. In the present study mutation techniques were applied to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and EMS treatment on growth and yield aspects of Pigeon pea plants. Genetic variability is the most essential prerequisite for any successful crop improvement  rogrammed as it provide spectrum of variants for the effective selection. Gamma rays and EMS treated progeny produce more and more number of viable and economic mutants with higher productivity at 20KR of gamma rays and 25mM of EMS in M2 generation. The results were sown high genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance with significant positive directional in growth and yield contributing characters. It indicates that improvement in quantitative traits would be possible through physical and chemical mutagenesis.

Association of Estrogen-metabolizing Gene polymorphisms CYP 1A1 MspI (rs 4646903) and CYP
C17 (rs 11191548) with breast cancer in Iraqi patients

Abdul Hussein A. Algenabi, Hamed Jadoa Abbas & Talib Hussein Kamona

  • Abstract

    Estrogen has been proposed to trigger breast cancer development. Increase or prolong exposure to estrogen can damage the DNA molecule and increase the genomic instability process in breast tissue. To examine this hypothesis, case-control study was conducted to determine whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for estrogen biosynthesis (CYP17) and hydroxylation (CYP1A1) are associated with an elevated risk for breast cancer in Iraqi women. Three hundred breast cancer women and 170 healthy controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction– restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR- RFLP) assays were used to determine the genotypes of estrogenmetabolizing genes. The homozygous mutant genotypes (vtvt) of CYP 1A1 in codominant was significantly increased the risk of breast cancer to 3.34 folds with respect to those of the wild type (wtwt). The homozygous mutant genotype (A2A2) of CYP 17 in codominant was significantly increased the risk of breast cancer 3.86 folds with respect to those of the wild type (A1A1). The findings of this study revealed that CYP1A1 and CYP17 genes polymorphisms were associated with breast cancer in Iraqi women. 

Morphological Characters and Pigment Composition of Vigna Mungo L. Hepper under Water Stress

Swapna B.

  • Abstract

    Adaptation to stress in the environment is one of the strategies developed by plants for their survival. Water deficit is alarmingly becoming a global issue to ensure the sustenance of agricultural crops and enhance food production. The present study was carried out to explore the impact of water stress on morphological characters and pigment composition in black gram (Vigna mungo L.Hepper). The experiment was conducted in laboratory condition using PEG-6000 to induce water stress at different levels (-0.3,-0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa).Significant decrease in germination percentage was observed at -0.9MPa. Increase in osmotic potential reduced the total chlorophyll content. This study reveals the adaptability of this cultivar to mild water stress.

Population Differentiation Analyses In Opuntia Ficus Indica From Tunisia: Prioritization For Conservation

Chibani Farhat, Riahi Leila, Bouamama Badra, Zemni Hassene,Ghorbel Abdelwahed, Zoghlami Néjia

  • Abstract

    Random amplified polymorphic markers were utilized to identify patterns of population genetic structure and differentiation in 15 Opuntia ficus-indica populations from Tunisia. Primers varied in their ability to detect variation and variance analyses indicated that most of the variation is partitioned between rather than among populations. FSTs, gene flow values and cluster analysis revealed also significant differentiation between all populations. Gene flow decreased rapidly as the geographic distance increased. This may imply that, exchange of plant material was limited to a regional scale. Our findings showed that all studied populations are equally important for conservation and support the required setting up of a national germplasm collection for Barbary fig populations from Tunisia

Population Composition and Status of Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala) In Chittaurgarh District, India with Special Reference to Aquatic Avian Fauna

Mohammed Yaseen, Nazneen Sheikh, Nikita Vyas, Neha Totla, Shwetangi Rathore

  • Abstract

    A district survey to estimate the status of aquatic avian diversity with special reference to  opulation composition and encounter rate of the Painted Stork (Mycterialeucocephala) was carried out from 2010 to 2014 in 6 tehsils of Chittaurgarh district. A total of 88 species of aquatic birds belonging to 58 genera, 19 families and 8 orders were recorded. Out of these 45.46%bird species were Winter Migratory and 54.54% species were Resident. Of these 22 were common, 32 uncommon and 34 were rare. According to IUCN category 1 species of bird is endangered, 1 species is Vulnerable and 6 species are Near Threatened category: The members of order Charadriiformes were dominant. A total of 1156 Painted Storks were counted during summer seasons of 5 years study. Maximum population of Painted Storks of 288 was recorded in 2014 whereas minimum 180 was recorded in 2010. Out of the total population, 92.99% adults and 7.01% juveniles were observed.Maximum numbers (23) of juveniles were recorded in 2012. Maximum encounter rate (1.0) was found in 2014
    while minimum encounter rate (0.63) observed in 2010.From the tehsil-wise record it is reflected that Dungla tehsil stands at first place recording (mean 83.2.±18.94)during the five years while minimum (mean 14.0.±11.25) population was observed in Bari Sadri tehsil. During the study 9 reservoirs were identified that are used as major sites by most of the Painted storks.

Ethanomedicinal Values of Sacred Trees in Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India.

D. Sivalingam, R. Rajendran and K. Anbarasan

  • Abstract

    This study provides a significant Ethanomedicinalinformations, about the sacred plants in cuddalore district, tamilnadu state qualitatively and quantitatively. Ethanobotanical studies are very important to reveal the multi sort values of plants in the world in past and present. In this way since this is the first ethanobotanical study which records the traditional important medicinal values of sacred plants in cuddalore district. The information was obtained through open and semi-structured interviews with 35 (22 males, 13 females) knowledgeable local people and traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, conservation status of the
    plants, usage value and relative importance were determined. A total of six species of sacred plants, mostly trees, belonging to six families were studied in this investigation. They were used to treat 30 diseases and 12 major ailment categories. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part. Based on IUCN red data, the identified sacred plants include one least concerned species, one vulnerable species and two endangered and threatened species. The ailment categories of Gastro-intestinal problems had the highest percentage (83.3) of use plant species. The most important species according to their high use value (UV) were Aeglemarmelos (0.97) and Prosopis cineraria (0.94) which are the most frequently and popularly used plants. The species which had the highest Relative Importance (RI) values are Aseglemarelom (1.80) and Ficusreligiosa(1.71).As a result of the present study, it can be concluded the sacred plants play an important role in the health care of human being and people rely on medicinal plants to treat various ailments and diseases. In addition, the ethanomedicinal plants with high UV and RI values might give some useful leads for further pharmacological inverstigation.

XX/XY Chromosomal Chimerism in Infertile Jersey Crossbred Bull

Nagaraju Naik Sugali, Hemanth Medidi, Lakshmi Siva Sankar Vallabhaneni, Rosaiah Kotikalapudi and Rajesh Kumar Patel

  • Abstract

    A heparinized blood sample was collected from an almost 44-month old phenotypically normal Jersey crossbred bull for routine cytogenetic investigation using lymphocyte culture. The bull was found to be carrier of chimerism (60,XX/60,XY). The percentage of XX and XY cells in the present investigation was found to be 56 and 44 respectively. The bull, which has already crossed almost 46 months of age, was found infertile because of no libido, no ejaculation and no semen collection. It has been, therefore, recommended culling of the bull from the semen collection centre.

Phytochemicals and Mineral Potentials of Tamarindus Indica L Seeds As Influenced By Processing Treatments

Shlini P, K R Siddalinga Murthy

  • Abstract

    Tamarindus belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. Tamarindus itself is a monotypic genus, containing the sole species T. indica. Tamarind is a multi-use tree. The present study was outlined to investigate the phytochemicals and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica L seeds as influenced by processing treatments such as soaking, dehulling, cooking, autoclaving and germinating the seeds. Extraction of Tamarindus indica L seeds were carried out at 37˚C with methanol and the extracted materials were then determined for the presence of phytochemicals. The alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics were present in the soaked, cooked and autoclaved samples. Absence of phytochemicals was observed in case of dehulled seeds. But in case of germinated seeds, the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolics was noted. Further the ash content of the sample was determined and the ash obtained from all the processed samples were extracted with concentrated HCl and was subjected to mineral analysis. In soaked seeds, potassium and sodium decreased when compared to the control unprocessed seeds. In contrast sodium increased in dehulled and autoclaved seeds. Calcium and magnesium remains same in the entire processed sample as that of control group except that of dehulled seeds where magnesium is decreased and calcium is increased. Iron and phosphorus also remains similar as that of the control group except in case of germinated seeds where there is an increase in their content.

Extraction and Evaluation of an Anthocyanin Rich, Food Colourant from Fruits of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Rafiya Muhammed and Anumol Jose

  • Abstract

    Anthocyanins are widely investigated alternative of synthetic food colourant. In the present study an anthocyanin rich extract was isolated from the fruits of Syzygium cumini by a cost effective simple method. The amount of anthocyanin in the extract was estimated as 5.08mg/g. FTIR spectroscopy of the extract confirmed the presence of bioactive anthocyanins in it. The potentiality of this extract to use as a food colourant was proved by different stability assays in terms of pH, temperature and stability. Applicability of the proposed food colourant was evaluated by making different food items using the anthocyanin rich extract. The acceptability and palatability of the prepared food items were analyzed by sensory evaluation.

Hematological Profile of Pigs in the Tropics as Affected by Live Weight Changes

I.A. Amata and D.O. Adejumo

  • Abstract

    Hematological and clinico-chemical properties of swine can be used to establish herd health status, so in an experiment to determine the effect of weight changes in the blood chemistry of pigs reared commercially in the tropics in Ibadan (7.380N and 3.930E) in South-West Nigeria, a number of randomly selected Yorkshire pigs were sorted into 8 body weight categories of 10 pigs each, giving a total of 80 pigs. The pigs were slaughtered and hematological assays were carried out. The body weight categories were 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, 81-90 and 91-100.kg respectively. Both sexes were equally represented in each category. Results showed that animals within the 91-100kg weight range recorded the highest RBC, Hb and PCV values as compared to other weight categories. The WBC count was highest for animals within the 81-90kg weight range, while MCHC values were lowest for animals within the 21-30kg weight range and not significantly (P>0.05) different from others. MCH and MCV values were highest for animals within the 21-30kg weight range. The serum chemistry results show that albumin and ALT values were highest for animals within the 61-70kg weight range, while animals within the 21-30kg weight range recorded the lowest ALT and urea values. Total serum protein and ALP values were highest in animals within the 51-60kg and 91- 100kg ranges respectively. Cholesterol values were lowest in pigs within the 61-70kg range and not significantly (P>0.05) different from those within the 21-30kg, 41-50kg and 71-80 weight range.