Vol. 6 & Issue 2 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Feb.2016 to Apr.2016

 

Ecology and Reproductive Behavior of Yellow Wattled Lapwing (Vanellus Malabaricus)

Manju Bala Sharma and R. K. Sharma

  • Abstract

    The present study on ecology and reproductive behavior of yellow wattled lapwing, Vanellus malabaricus involving selection of the territory nest building, courtship, egg laying, hatching and parental care have been studied during and parental care have been studied during the year 2013-14. Male selects the territory and both male and female participate in nest building on the ground. Courtship behavior was recorded during the month of March and April. Clutch size varied between 3-4. Both the parents incubate the eggs for 28 days and defended the territory actively. The nudifugous hatchlings displayed the territory actively. The nudifugous hatchlings displayed perfect camouflage with the surrounding. Parental care for one month was recorded. Hatchling success was 80% whereas breeding success to adolescent was less than 25%.

HPTLC Fingerprint Profile and Preliminary Phyto-Chemical Analysis of Nimba (Azadirachta Indica) Leaf & Stem Bark

Ravi Sunder Prajapati, G.P.Richhariya, I P Tripathi, Ravindra Singh and Manoj Tripathi

  • Abstract

    Medicinal plants have been found useful in the cure of a number of diseases including bacterial diseases. Nimba is a very useful medicinal plant in the sub-continent and each part of the plant has medicinal properties. Almost every part of the plant has been in use since ancient times to treat a number of human ailments and also as a household pesticide. The extract from bark, leaves, fruits and root have been used to control leprosy, intestinal helminthiasis and respiratory disorders in children. Flavonoids, flavonoglycosides, dihydrochalcones, tannins and others are also important constituents of bark, leaves, fruits and flowers of Nimba. Present study aimed development and establishment of the HPTLC fingerprint profile and phytochemical screening of Nimba leaf and stem bark.

Probability of Heart Failure in Uncontrolled Hypertensive Patients

K.M.sharief, H.A.Hassan, H.Osman, Al-Safi Ahmed, Dr.Fatima Dahia

  • Abstract

    The main objective of this study was to detect the probability of heart failure (HF) in case of uncontrolled primary (essential) hypertensive (HTN) patients through the ejection fraction (EF) with age and gender , left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH) and left ventricle Diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) by using two dimensional (2D) ultrasound and echocardiography (Echo).The probability of HF or sign of it was detected by using echo for 100 uncontrolled primary HTN patients with difference ages less than 50 to 95 years, half of them was male and other half was female (50/50). An instrumentation that used for this study was my lab 50 and 60 from Esaote Company. The current manuscript studied the probability or sign of HF in low, high and normal EF, in normal LV, LVH with different grades, normal LV diastolic function and its different grades. The study showed that the EF was normal in all variables, that may lead to HF which may be developed to HF which called HF with normal EF or HF preserved EF (HFpEF) .The study also showed although the EF was high for all variables, may be lead to Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) which may be developed to HF if not well treated.Also the study demonstrated the probability of HF or sign of it, this probability may increase with increased the grades of LVH and LVDD.

Protective Effects of Flaxseed Oil against Oxidative Injury Induced By Gamma-Irradiation and Carbon Tetrachloride in Rat Liver

Amel F. M. Ismail, Asmaa A. M. Salem, Mamdouh M. T. Eassawy, Fatma S. M. Moawed

  • Abstract

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of flaxseed oil (FSO) against acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in γ-irradiated rats (7 Gray). Rats treated with CCl4 exhibited the elevations in the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Further, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and the relative ratio of the gene expression of cytochrome-P450-2E1 (CYP2E1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and Caspase-3 were significantly increased, accompanied by the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione transferase (GST) activities as well as the reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Furthermore, the alterations of the trace elements; iron, calcium, copper, manganese, magnesium and zinc were observed. These effects were augmented after injection of CCl4 in γ-irradiated rats. However, the oral treatment of FSO ameliorated these parameters. FSO exhibit protective effects on the oxidative stress induced by CCl4 or CCl4/γ-irradiation in rats that could be attributed to its potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory
    and anti-apoptotic activities. The antioxidant enzymes activation by FSO could be attributed to the down-regulation of the CYP2E1 and iNOS gene expression, which are responsible for the reactive species generation. The inhibition of the inflammatory response could be attributed to the down-regulation of NF-κB that might be mediated by the amelioration of the trace elements' levels in the liver tissues of the intoxicated groups. The down-regulation of Caspase-3 is responsible for the antiapoptotic activity of FSO.

Influence of Topography and Shading Condition on the Incidence and Severity of Red Rust (Cephaleuros Parasiticus Karst.) Disease of Tea in Chittagong Region

Juel Datta, Abdul Muqit, Afsana Hossain, Rakibul Hasan and Tareq Ahmed

  • Abstract

    A survey was conducted to find out the influence of topography and shading condition on the incidence and severity of red rust disease of teain different tea estates of greater Chittagong region during April to July 2014. Different topographic situations like flat, hillock, hill and shading conditions (shaded and unshaded areas) were considered during data collection. Disease incidence and severity varied from 52 to 62% in different tea estates. However, in flat and un-shaded areas disease incidence and severity was significantly higher than other areas.Baromasia tea estate had the highest average disease incidence (64.33%) and severity (17.32%) as compared to other tea estates. The lowest (51.67%) disease incidence was observed in New Datmara tea estate. On the other hand, disease severity did not vary significantly. In addition, red rust disease was more prevalent in flat areas showing 61.47% disease incidence and 16.46% disease severity than hillock and hill areas. Red rust disease was greatly influenced by shading conditions. Significantly lower amount of disease was observed in shaded areas

Assessment of Food Safety Practices and Microbiological Quality of Street Vended Rice and Beans in Mlalakuwa Ward, Dar es Salaam

Nancy Jotham Marobhe and Shadrack Matiko Sabai

  • Abstract

    This study aimed to assess the microbial safety of street vended food pertaining to food and personal hygiene at Mlalakuwa ward in Dar es Salaam. Existing laws that govern food safety were reviewed. Questionnaires, interviews and physical observations of the vending sites were used for data collection from the incharge of vending sites (vendors) and kitchen assistants. Rice and beans as well as water which is used by food vendors were bacteriologically analysed. Food samples were collected from the ready to eat food from the plates of consumers while water samples from storage containers. It was revealed that the street food vending is dominated by women. The age of most vendors (60%) ranged from 40 to 59 years while kitchen assistant (42.8%) was 21 to 29 years. Most kitchen assistants lacked food hygiene education. About 57% and 70% of the vendors and kitchen assistant respectively, washed their hands regularly irrespective of using soap. Kitchen utensils were washed using fecally polluted water. Skin scratching, nose picking and inappropriate methods of food storage contributed to the deterioration of food quality. The density of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Escherichia coli in food samples ranged from 5.56±0.74 to 1.73±0.24; 0.75 to 4.75 and 3.68±3.07 to 3.08±2.63 log10 CFU/g, respectively. These findings revealed that consumers are at a high risk of contracting infectious diseases. The laws that regulate street vending activities are insufficient and noncompliant. It is recommended that the Government should introduce street food vending centres with essential facilities along with regular food hygiene seminars.

Could Sodium Benzoate Enhance Broad Bean Salinity Tolerance? I. Seedling Vigor, Membrane Features, Antioxidant Enzymes and Osmolytes

Bardees Mohammad Mickky

  • Abstract

    Seed presoaking is a simple strategy exploited to improve seedling performance and alleviate the ill impact of salinity which poses a serious obstacle to agricultural production. A germination trial was conducted to evaluate sodium benzoate (SB) potentiality to adverse seawater (SW) strain on Vicia faba seedlings. Salt stress reduced germination capacity, root length, number of adventitious roots and seedling vigor index (SVI) while SB could enhance these parameters. Furthermore, SW prolonged the serial time required for germination but it was shortened by SB. Salinity also declined membrane stability index (MSI) and phospholipid content accompanied by promoted lipid peroxidation and membrane leakage (ML). Application of SB could attenuate lipid peroxidation and ML with corresponding upgrade in MSI and phospholipids. Besides, salinization activated catalase, peroxidase, ascorbic peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase with further increment in the activity of the first five enzymes by SB. Moreover, SW increased osmotic pressure (OP) caused by more organic osmotica (soluble sugars, proline, keto acids and citric acid) as well as inorganic ions (chlorides, sodium, calcium and phosphorus). SB could induce additional augmentation in OP on account of the assemblage of organic and inorganic osmoprotectants. More interestingly and via a novel statistical parameter "Contribution Index", enzymatic antioxidant system followed by membrane stabilization and finally osmoregulation were ranked in order of their contribution to overall trend of seedling performance inferred by SVI. Thence, the results herein suggest seed presoaking in SB as an efficient approach to promote bean salt tolerance.

Nutritional Potential of Cassava Peels Ensiled with Moringa, Gliricidia and Leucaena Leaves

Aye P. A.

  • Abstract

    The experiment was conducted to assess the proximate composition, mineral content, gross energy and anti-nutrients of cassava peels ensiled with Moringa, Gliricidia and Leucaena leaves. The crude protein for cassava peels ensiled with Moringa oleifera (CMO) was 20.32g100g-1, cassava peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocepphala(CLL) was 23.17g100g-1 and cassava peels ensiled with Gliricidia sepium (CGS) was 22.23g100g-1. Ether extract values were 4.02g100g-1, 3.56g100g-1 and 3.20g100g-1 for CMO, CLL and CGS respectively. Ash content for cassava peels ensiled with Moringa, Leucaena and Gliricidia were 4.26g100g-1, 3.80g100g-1 and 4.20g100g-1 respectively. The crude fibre ranged from 12.03g100g-1 in CLL to 12.56g100g-1 in CGS. In cassava peels ensiled with Moringa, Leucaena and Gliricidia leaves Na, K, Ca, Zn were the most abundant minerals in all the treatments. The tannin content varied from 0.20g100g-1 in CMO to 0.45g100g-1 in CGS. The phytic acid ranged from 10.12g100g-1 in CMO to 14.76g100g-1 in CGS. The phytic-phosphorus ranged from 2.85g100g-1 in CMO to 4.16gg100g-1 in CGS. The oxalate contents were 2.85g100g-1, 3.52g100g-1 and 4.16g100g-1 in CMO, CLL and CGS respectively. It is evident that cassava peels ensiled with Moringa, Leucaena and Gliricidia have great potentials for livestock animals and could be utilized as a source of supplementary feed for ruminant animals.

Comparative Study to Observe the Effect of Cml and Pure Alcohol on Soil Environment of the Field Used for the Study of Seed Germination and Growth of (Solanum Melongena L.Var. Sweekar 321)

 Kapil Sharma, Sanjeev Sharma and Seema Dwivedi

  • Abstract

    With reference to the earlier paper published in the renowned journal Nature Science citing the use of CML and IMFL for the cultivation of Brinjal crop. Various experiments were conducted with Solanum melongena L.var.BR112 to check the effect of CML and IMFL. Now for further studies and another experiment was conducted with Solanum melongena L.var.Sweekar321 to study the effect of CML and pure Alcohol on seed germination and growth behavior of brinjal. The seeds of Solanum melongena L.var.Sweekar321 were sown at the depth of 2.5 cm. with different treatments i.e. S1 (Control- without Country Made Liquor And Pure Alcohol ), S2 (Soil + Spray of 10% Country made liquor original conc.42.5%V/V at intervals of 03 days) and S3 (soil+10% pure alcohol), S4 (Soil + spray of 10% Country made liquor original conc. 42.5%V/V + only at the time of flowering and at 3 days intervals thereafter) and S5 (soil spray of 10% pure alcohol + only at the time of flowering and at 3 days interval thereafter). 500 seeds of each treatment were used for the study. Total numbers of germinated plants were counted from each set of all treatments, at the interval period of 5 days after sowing, and reported as emergence count. Result revealed that CML treated batch S2 showed germination count of 85 plantlets from 100 seeds, in S3 showed germination count of 90 plantlets from 100 seeds control batch S1 showed 30 plantlets out of 100 seeds and batch S4 showed 35 plantlets out of 100 seeds, in S5 alcohol at the time of flowering showed germination count of 30 plantlets out of 100 seeds. After 20 day of growth of S3 plantlets showed maximum average plant height (10.0 cm.), number of leaves 10 average length of leaves (5.0 cm.), average width of leaves (4.0 cm.) and average tap root length (8.5 cm) as compared to control S1 plant height (6.0 cm), number of leaves (7.0 cm), length of leaves (2.5 cm), width of leaves (1.9 cm), root length (5.5cm).The flowering number was higher in case of S3 and S2 in comparison to S5,S4 and S1. S4 (soil + spray 10% solution of CML at the time of flowering) showed 53 plantlets out of 100 seeds. In S5 (soil+spray 10% solution of pure alcohol at the time of flowering). After 20 days of growth S3 and S5 plantlets showed maximum average plant height.

 Prevalence of Hypertension among Young and Adults in the Kurdistan Region

Farah R. Saleh, Razhan S.Othman, Karzan A. Omar

  • Abstract

     Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and kidney failure in many young adults. Control of hypertension is associated with a larger reduction in morbidity and mortality in younger compared with the elderly. The purpose of this study is estimate the number of young adult people that having hypertension in the Kurdistan region. The causes and reduces of hypertension have been studied by changing lifestyle that made by the patient to reduce their hypertension and to be aware of their compliance with treatment. All participants were under 40 years old and already they have been diagnosed with hypertension in Shaqlawa Hospital- Kurdistan region / Iraq. From the results can be observed that the most common causes of hypertension was chronic exposure to stress with people who migrated from their origin places and people suffering from the bad economic situation. At the same time reduces of hypertension have been observed in the Kurdistan region people by changing their nutrition habits as well as using herbs and exercises.

Could Sodium Benzoate Enhance Broad Bean Salinity Tolerance?
II. Germination Parameters, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Hydrolytic Enzymes

Bardees Mohammad Mickky

  • Abstract

    Salt stress is one of the most problematic barriers impeding agricultural progress. A germination experiment was undertaken to explore the qualification of sodium benzoate (SB) to induce broad bean tolerance to seawater (SW) irrigation. Via two different statistical designs, the interactive influence of SW and SB as well as the solo effect of each were analyzed. As primary germination indices, SW could reduce seedling vitality indicated by lower biomass, water content and length of each of plumule, radicle and the whole seedling. Furthermore, salinity decreased the amount of some crucial metabolites including glucose, fructose, polysaccharides as well as total protein, DNA and RNA. SW could also suppress the activity of amylase and invertase. Only the dry mass, sucrose and total soluble sugars content as well as protease activity increased under stress. To mitigate SW impact on bean metabolic behavior, SB could intensify the amount of all the estimated carbohydrates as well as the titer of total protein and nucleic acids. To a lesser extent, SB was recorded to counteract the drastic effect of SW on amylase. As a consequence, most of the primary germination parameters recovered when the seeds were primed in SB. Accordingly, SB could be recommended as a potent presoaking medium to boost bean acclimation to salinity.

Inhibition of Diphenolase Activity of by Detergents, Inhibitors, Ionic Detergents and Metal Ions

Shahriar Saeidian

  • Abstract

    Polyphenol oxidases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of phenolic compounds using molecular oxygen. Diphenolase activity of Fragaria SP decreased with increasing detergents, chaotropic agents, inhibitors and metal ions concentration. The most effective concentration of sarcosyl, sodium cholate, Tx-100, NP-40, urea and GnHcl were 1 mM, 1 mM, 5 μM, 5 μM, 100 mM and 100 mM, where the measured activity was 72%, 53%, 5%, 8%, 18% and 20% of control, respectively. The activity was also decreased 0.28-fold by exposure to sarkosyl, 0.47- fold by exposure to sodium cholate, 0.95- fold by exposure to Tx-100, 0.92- fold by exposure to NP-40, 0.83- fold by exposure to Urea and 0.78-fold by exposure to GnHcl. Therefore detergents and chaotropic agents are inhibitors of diphenolase in Fragaria SP that can probably change conformation of enzyme. Inhibitory effect of Urea, GnHcl, NP-40, Triton x-100 and Sodium cholate in presence of these substrates investigated so urea, GnHcl, Tx-100 and NP40 showed that they are potent inhibitor of diphenolase and sarkosyl showed that it is a weak inhibitor of diphenolase. The enzyme was totally inhibited in the presence of ascorbic acid and benzoic acid and highly activated with manganez ions whereas other agents or metal ions such as Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Al3+, Cd2+ and Cr3+ showed inhibitory effect on activity. diphenolase activities inhibited by addition of citric acid, sodium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and benzoic acid. Mn2+ and Co2+ increased activities by 4.87 and 1.38-fold, respectively.

Cytoskeleton Molecules and Inter-Molecular Interactions, Underlining the Cell Differentiation Direction in Various Types of Biological Systems with Mouse, Rat and Human Origin

Iskra V Sainova, Ilina Valkova, Elena Nikolova

  • Abstract

    The importance of the cytoskeleton components for the normal cell differentiation, but also of the interactions with their participation, was proved on extraand intra-cellular levels: in bio-fluids, in tissue and organ probes, including in protein lysates from them, but also by cell culture assay methods. As one of the key molecules for in the activation of the normal cell differentiation, on the one hand, but also for prevention of the malignant transformation, on the other, has been determined the tripeptide Glutathione, in particular its reduced form (GSH), as well as the intra-molecular inter- and extra-cellular interactions, in which this molecule participates by cascade regulatory pathways. For this goal, several biological systems from human, rat and mouse origin were used. According to the cultivation methods applied, as well as of the cell type, possibilities about derivation of different normal mature cell lineages from common cells progenitors, as well as of one mature cell lineage from different type’s stem/progenitor cells, were shown. Future investigations on the cytoskeleton proteins and peptides, but also the interactions with their participation are necessary, taking in consideration the respective cell type and external conditions. 

Value of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis Petal Extract as Biological Stain in Plant Systematic Research

Aguoru, C.U , Okelionwu, S. and Olasan, J.O.

  • Abstract

    The significance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis petal extract as stains in plant systematic research was investigated. This was borne out of the desire to obtain cheap, available stains from effective and safe bio-sources to replace hazardous synthetic chemicals employed as stains in plant systematic research. 100g of petals obtained from the plant was homogenized using a mortar and pestle. Extraction was done using methanol and ethyl acetate in a sonicator for 1 hour. The extract was filtered using whatman filter paper and concentrated at 40oC using a thermostatic water bath. The efficacy of this dye was tested on eighty (80) foliar epidermal peel slides prepared from two plant specimens (Ixora parviflora and Allium cepa). Eighty (80) epidermal peel slides were also prepared and stained with safranin. All slides were viewed under the compound light microscope. Images were captured using digital camera under x40 objective lens. Results from the two sources of stain were compared. Hibiscus stain revealed better contrasting features of stomata, guard cells and epidermal cells than safranin. Epidermal cell walls and different shapes of the epidermal cells were more vividly elucidated on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of I. parviflora. The different types of stomata present in all preparations under Hibiscus stain were more conspicuously seen without muddle. All images emanating from this stain were excellent and appealing with consistent brownish effect. I. parviflora specimens stained with safranin on the other hand yielded less contrasting anatomical features. Images were less appealing and generally inconsistent with reddish effect. Independent staining effect on Allium cepa also showcased the superiority of Hibiscus stain over safranin by producing sharper images with more enhanced contrasts. The ability of Hibiscus stain to vividly reveal cell wall demarcations, guard cells, stomata and general outline of the epidermal cells has suggested its significance in plant anatomical research. The stain is effective, user friendly, non-hazardous, easily prepared, cheaply available, generally accessible and environmentally friendly. This cheaper biological source of stain may reduce importation of stain into the country and help save time and money.

16S r-DNA Based Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Method for Evaluation of Survival of Lignin Degrading Bacteria Bacillus Sp. In Soil Microcosms

Monika Mishra and Indu Shekhar Thakur

  • Abstract

    A bacterial community was introduced in soil microcosm for evaluation of survival of most suitable isolate and degradation of lignin and its derivative compounds which indicated that there was obvious community change and better survival of Bacillus sp. The survival of competent bacterial community monitored by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) method in soil microcosm indicated presence of one major isolate for utilization of lignin substantiated the results and significance of bacteria for in situ bioremediation. Simultaneously this isolate with three other isolates from DGGE were tested for lignin and colour removal in pulp and paper mill effluent. Among the four isolates tested for degradation of lignin and colour removal, one of the members of lignin degrading bacterial community, Bacillus sp., identified by 16S rDNA, found to have better potency to degrade lignin. GC-MS data showed degradation of lignin and its derivatives exhibited by formation of Acetic acid, 1,8 diphenyl 4,5 octanediol, Benzoic acid,4-ethoxy-ethyl ester, Propanedioic acid, 9-octadenamide, Phenyl propionyl glycine, Octadecanoic acid, Hexadecane. 

Phytochemical Analysis, GC-MS Composition, Antibacterial, Antioxidant Activity of Nyctanthes
arbortristis and Nerium oleander

Sandhya. S, Aruna Sharmili. S, Anbumalarmathi. J, and Umamaheswari K 

  • Abstract

    The present study was conducted to screen the phytochemical constituents, identify the compounds by GC-MS and explicit the antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of two aromatic flowers Nyctanthes arbortristis and Nerium oleander. The preliminary phytochemical test revealed the presence of flavonoid, steroids, glycosides, tannins and quinines in the methanolic extract of the flowers. A total of 14 compounds were detected in each flower using gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. N. arbortristis showed higher percentage of Hexadecanoic acid (15.04%), N.oleander showed higher percentage of 9-oxabicyclo [3.3.1] nonane-2, 6-diol (16.40 %) in the methanol extract. The methanolic flower extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia at 4mg. The total phenolic content for N. arbortristis was 4.7910±0.005mg TAE/g DW and for N. oleander it was 4.8562±0.0017mg TAE/g DW. The total flavonoid content for N. arbortristis was 12.2543±0.0015mg Quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DW and for N. oleander it was 11.5181±0.0023 mg QE/g DW.In the antioxidant assays performed maximum inhibition occurred in FRAP (74% for N. arbortristis and 68% for N. oleander) followed by FTC (66% for N.arbortristis and 67% for N. oleander). The study proves that the flowers can be used as an antioxidant agents. 

Antixiodant Effect of Extract of Rhizomes from Aristolochia Clematitis

Ahmed El Abbouyi, Soukaina El Maliki, Najoie Filali-Ansari and Said El Khyari

  • Abstract

    This study was designated to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of rhizomes from Aristolochia clematitis. The antioxidant potential of plant extract was assessed in vitro by measurement of DPPH (1, 1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) radical scavenging activity and production of conjugated dienes (CD) and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) during linoleic acid peroxidation. At the plant extract concentrations (0.3, 3 and 6mg/ml), the radical scavenging activities were 89, 95 and 97%. In the same conditions the rates of conjugated dienes inhibition were 61, 88 and 92%. In the same way, the rates of TBARS inhibition were 51, 63 and 75%. All the obtained results were significant (P< 0.05) and concentration-dependent. Similar results were exhibited by standard antioxidant BHT, used at 15, 20 and 25μg/ml. The plant extracts yielded higher flavonoids content (1.97mg/g dry plant) followed by total polyphenols (0.61mg/g dry plant) and condensed tannins (0.004 mg/g dry plant). A positive linear correlation (R²=0.999) was established between the amount of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of plant extract. The results obtained from this study showed the antioxidant potential of A. clematitis which could prevent many radical related diseases and could be a potent source of antioxidants.

 Entomocidal Activity of King of Bitters (Andrographis paniculata) Leaf Extract against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Infesting Maize Seed (Zea mays)

Ademiluyi Benson Oluwafemi and Obembe Olusola Michael

  • Abstract

    Laboratory investigation was carried out to access the effect of Andrographis paniculata leaf extract on the mortality of Sitophilus zeamais. Cold water, hot water and ethanol extracts from Andrographis paniculata were investigated for their entomocidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais. The potency of these extracts as grain protectant against S. zeamais was investigated using mortality as indices. Mortality was observed daily for four days at 24 hours interval (24. 48, 72 and 96 hours). The result showed that mortality of weevil increases with increase in the period of exposure to the extracts and increase in concentration in ml (1ml, 2ml, 3ml, and 4ml) of the extract, regardless of the solvent used for the extraction. All the extracts were effective, causing mortality ranging from 70% to 98.3% by 96 hour post-treatment with 4 ml extract concentration. The highest mortality (98.3%) of Sitophilus zeamais was observed with ethanol extract by 96 hour of exposure, followed by hot water and cold extract, causing 83.3% and 70% weevil mortality respectively. The result from this investigation showed that all the extracts from Andrographis paniculata leaf are very effective in controlling S. zeamais and could be used as alternative to the chemical insecticides. 

Inhibition of Diphenolase Activity of by Detergents, Inhibitors, Ionic Detergents and Metal Ions

Shahriar Saeidian

  • Abstract

    Polyphenol oxidases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of phenolic compounds using molecular oxygen. Diphenolase activity of Fragaria SP decreased with increasing detergents, chaotropic agents, inhibitors and metal ions concentration. The most effective concentration of sarcosyl, sodium cholate, Tx-100, NP-40, urea and GnHcl were 1 mM, 1 mM, 5 μM, 5 μM, 100 mM and 100 mM, where the measured activity was 72%, 53%, 5%, 8%, 18% and 20% of control, respectively. The activity was also decreased 0.28-fold by exposure to sarkosyl, 0.47- fold by exposure to sodium cholate, 0.95- fold by exposure to Tx- 100, 0.92- fold by exposure to NP-40, 0.83- fold by exposure to Urea and 0.78-fold by exposure to GnHcl. Therefore detergents and chaotropic agents are inhibitors of diphenolase in Fragaria SP that can probably change conformation of enzyme. Inhibitory effect of Urea, GnHcl, NP-40, Triton x-100 and Sodium cholate in presence of these substrates investigated so urea, GnHcl, Tx-100 and NP40 showed that they are potent inhibitor of diphenolase and sarkosyl showed that it is a weak inhibitor of diphenolase. The enzyme was totally inhibited in the presence of ascorbic acid and benzoic acid and highly activated with manganez ions whereas other agents or metal ions such as Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Al3+, Cd2+ and Cr3+ showed inhibitory effect on activity. diphenolase activities inhibited by addition of citric acid, sodium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and benzoic acid. Mn2+ and Co2+ increased activities by 4.87 and 1.38-fold, respectively. 

Comparative HPLC Fingerprinting and Antioxidant Activities of in Vitro and In Vivo Grown Aerides odorata, A Medicinal Orchid

Gargi Prasad, A.A. Mao, D. Vijayan, S. Mandal, K. Chaudhuri and T.Seal 

  • Abstract

    The aim of present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and HPLC fingerprinting assay of the 80 % aqueous ethanol extract of the leaves and roots of in vitro and in vivo grown Aerides odorata Lour. The extracts of the plants were examined for their antioxidant activities by using free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method, ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power capacity, estimation of total phenolic content, flavonoid content and flavonol content. A simplified method for the detection of ascorbic acid, phenolic acids and flavonoids content was also developed using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The 80 % aq. ethanol extract of the leaves and roots of in vitro developed plant contained the higher amount of total phenolic compounds (159.52±1.52, 189.65±3.75 mg/gm dry extract respectively) as compared to the same obtained in (111.62±2.40, 86.03±1.55 mg/gm dry extract respectively) the in vivo plant. The antioxidant activities of the different parts of the plant were also carried out through the estimation of flavonoids, reducing power and radical scavenging assay. The present study revealed that the micro propagated plantlets showed higher antioxidant activities and it was corroborated by the simultaneous estimation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the different parts of the plant with the help of a reversed phase HPLC using photodiode array detector with gradient elution. The observed differences in the contents of these biologically active compounds were related to different growth conditions and stages of plant development.

Effect of Papaya Leaves Extract on Platelets Count and Hemoglobin Levels of Dengue Patients

Priya Bajaj and Rekha Sharma

  • Abstract

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Papaya leaf extract on platelets count and hemoglobin levels in patients with dengue fever. Twenty adult patients admitted with diagnosis of dengue were purposively selected from a private hospital in Central India. These patients received standard symptomatic care for dengue fever. Ten patients who were willing to consume Papaya leaf extract were considered as experimental group and ten other patients were in control group. 50 ml/day Papaya leaf extract was given to the experimental group for four consecutive days and their platelets count and hemoglobin was monitored 24 hours for 4 days. The results indicated that the mean platelets count of the control group was 114200 + 72568.44 /μL and of experimental groups was 70222 + 67304.31 /μL on the day of admission. On the fourth day the platelets count of the control and experimental groups were 92900 + 47103.79/μL and 55500 + 27399.31 /μL respectively. The mean platelets count of the experimental groups were significantly higher (p =.044) than the control group for the fourth day. The platelets count of control group showed a significant decrease on second (p = .004), third (p= .003) and fourth day (p = .005) as compared to the day of admission. Results further revealed that the mean hemoglobin levels of the control and experimental groups on the day of admission were 11.77 + 0.48 mg/ and 11.34 + 0.58 gm/dl respectively. On the fourth day the hemoglobin levels of the control and experimental groups were 10.59 + 0.40 mg/dl and 11.79 + 0.46 gm/dl respectively. The mean hemoglobin level of the experimental and control group showed insignificant difference. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels of control group was observed on the third (p= .002) and fourth days (p = .0003) as compared to the day of admission.

Health Issues Associated with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Baloch and Hazara Populations of Balochistan Province of Pakistan

Mohammad Zahid Mustafa, Mohammad Kamran Taj, Asadullah, Nadeem Rashid, Zia-Ud-Din, Abdul Raziq, Ghulam Hyder Talpur, Abdul Malik Tareen, Irshad Ahmad, Asfhaq Ahmed and Zunera Tanveer 

  • Abstract

    The North Western region of Balochistan is inhabited with diverse ethnic populations constituting distinct genetic identity. The life style, traditions and dietary habits among these populations are varied. The physiological parameters of two diverse ethnic populations, their comparative adaptations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism have been investigated in the present study. Two hundred subjects of Baloch and Hazara populations apparently healthy were sampled inhabiting urban and rural areas in Quetta, Pishin and Mastung. The adult age groups of both genders in studied populations were sampled randomly. General characteristics of the populations according to their nutritional habits including, age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and glycemia were measured. The  characteristics of age, weight, height, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, LDL cholesterol did not exhibit significant differences between both populations. Total serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly greater in Baloch compared to Hazara population (P<0.05). A parameter of each total population was assorted into sub groups and significant relationships were compared with other sub groups of the parameter. Diastolic blood pressure in Baloch and systolic blood pressure in Hazara was significantly higher in subjects above 45 years of age compared to other sub groups. Similarly LDL cholesterol was greater in subjects’ above45 years in both populations. 

Improvement of Promising Tropical-Temperate Maize Populations Developed in Benin

Justin Abadassi

  • Abstract

    The genetic variability of four promising tropical-temperate maize populations developed in Benin was studied for resistance to three major maize diseases in tropical zone (rust, tropical blight and maize streak). Random sets of S1 families derived from the populations were evaluated in savanna zone using 10 × 10 triple lattices. Genetic variances of 75% tropical 25% temperate and 50% tropical 50% temperate populations were not significantly different for resistance to rust and resistance to tropical blight in the two crosses studied. For resistance to maize streak, the genetic variance of EV8443SR × (EV8443SR × FS14) (EFE) was significantly higher than that of EV8443SR × FS14 (EF). There was no significant difference between genetic variances of EV8443SR × (EV8443SR ×DEA) (EDE) and EV8443SR × DEA (ED). The expected genetic progress was higher in the population ED than in the population EDE for resistance to the three diseases. It was lower in the population EF than in the population EFE for the three traits. EFE and EDE appeared better than EF and ED respectively, as a foundation population to improve resistance to rust, tropical blight and maize streak.

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tinospora cordifolia using In Vitro Models

Shwetha R.J., Tahareen S., Myrene R. D.

  • Abstract

    Aqueous and methanolic extract of leaves of Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) was assessed for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acid, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, xanthoproteins and phenols. Results showed that the extract exhibited significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was found to be 2.0 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g and 0.7 ± 0.04 mg QE/g of fresh weight tissue respectively. In vitro anti‐inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay, lipooxygenase inhibition, and membrane stabilization assay and proteinase inhibitory activity at different concentrations. Aspirin was used as a standard drug for the study of anti‐inflammatory activity. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate IC50 value. The IC50 values for hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity were found to be 263.69 μg/ml. The extract inhibited the lipoxygenase enzyme activity with an IC50 value of 389.3 μg/ml. Maximum inhibition of heat induced protein denaturation of 75% was observed at 400 μg/ml, IC50 237.6 μg/ml). Proteinase activity was also significantly inhibited (IC50 = 352.1 μg/ml). Membrane stabilization assay attributed minor protection by the leaf extract with an IC50 of 206.4. From the results, it is concluded that flavonoids and related polyphenols present in the chosen plant extracts may be responsible for the activity. Antimicrobial analysis of the extracts was studied against common pathogens. The zone of inhibition was performed to determine the antimicrobial activity at different concentrations of plant extracts (60%, 70%, 80%). It was observed that E. coli was inhibited at all concentrations, followed by Klebsiella and Pseudomonas.

Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Beans Processing and Storage Conditions Control for Safe Chocolate Products

Heloisa H. Kreibich, Elisa H. Moecke and Vildes M. Scussel

  • Abstract

    Cocoa beans can be attacked during cultivation and storage by living organisms (insects: moths/ cockroaches; mites; fungi) leading to spoilage/ deterioration and they may reach the cocoa mass and be incorporated to chocolate products. Those chocolate contaminants presence including their fragments/larvae/eggs indicate bean exposure to low quality handling and storage. This study evaluated the conditions of cocoa beans from the producing cocoa farms (48) and warehouses (12) located in the Northeastern Brazil (Itabuna-Ilhéus regions-at Bahia state), during five months (March to July 2014). The parameters investigated were storage facilities: silos types & material (vertical or horizontal/wooden or metal/with or no thermometry); environmental conditions exposure: rain precipitation/relative humidity (RH) / temperatures; cocoa bean batches: humidity (moisture content-mc/water activity-aw); living organisms: insect/fungi toxins and cocoa bags materials: raffia/jute/ polyethylene layers. Green methods of prevention/control/decontamination were recommended. From the farms and warehouse storage facilities evaluated, 67 % of them did not have automatic environment, including control settings (i.e., aeration / TºC) and 33% apply high storage technology (control by aeration, refrigeration). Regarting external and internal warehouse conditions of RH and temperatures, they reached mean of 75 %(min 60; 90 max) and 25ºC(20 min; 35max), respectively. Bags insect proliferation and fungi spoilage were registered at different degrees, (50% of the warehouse evaluated) leading to part of stored bags discarding for Premium beans Type. Application of controlled atmospheres (vacuum/ozone/hermeticity, through cocoon in-container for export) was recommended and improvement of bags material and thermometry inclusion in some of the facilities too. That will be the next steps of the Cocoa Project.

Study of In vitro Micropropagation and Multiple Shooting in Brassica Campestris and Trigonella Foenum-Graecum

Madhulika Singh and Priya Rathore

  • Abstract

    Brassica campestris and Trigonella foenum-graecum are the two most vital and valued plants in the history of medicinal uses. In vitro culture of both of these plants was performed regarding their enormous medicinal as well as commercial uses. The explants of Brassica campestris and Trigonella foenum-graecum were culture on MS media supplemented with different combination and concentrations of growth hormones such as BAP, IAA and KINATIN. The maximum number of shoots were produced in the media supplement with 1mg/L BAP and 0.5mg/L IAA for Brassica campestris and concentration of 2mg/L BAP and 1mg/L IAA for Trigonella foenum-graecum ,whereas the media comprising 1mg/L IAA was considered most effective for the root proliferation.2-4 shoots of about 4-6 cm was seen in response in shoot number and shoot length Brassica campestris and 1-3 shoots of about 3-5 cm were observed in Trigonella foenum-graecum. The present work was done for the successful regeneration of plant for the effective future expects regarding their vital medicinal and commercial uses.

Adrenal-Kidney-Gonadal Expression of Aromatase (CYP19) In the Male Embryos of the Lizard, Calotes Versicolor- A Western Blot Analysis

Robert S. Nindi, Gopal M. Advi Rao and Laxmi S. Inamdar (Doddamani)

  • Abstract

    Many reptilian species exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) where in gonadal sex is determined by temperature during critical period of the embryonic development called thermo-sensitive period. In such TSD species estrogens and their precursors like aromatizable androgens play central role in gonadal sex determination. The biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens is catalyzed by the enzyme named aromatase. The ability of testis to convert androgen to estrogen is related to the presence of aromatase. Since, the present study model Calotes versicolor exhibit a novel FMFM pattern of TSD, the objective is to investigate ontogenic expression of aromatase (CYP19 or P450arom) in the embryos incubated at male-producing temperature (MPT). The torso of C. versicolor embryos containing adrenal-kidney-gonadal (AKG) complex was collected during different stages of development and subjected Western blotting analysis. The result reveals the onset of immunoexpression of aromatase (faint activity) at stage 29 i.e., during TSP suggesting the receptivity of AKG to aromatase enzyme. The CYP19 antibody recognized a protein band at 58 kDa in the total protein extract of AKG complex. Immunoexpression of aromatase was very low at the beginning of TSP which increases at the end of TSP, thereafter a decrease in the intensity pattern is noticed in postgonadal differentiation stages. Based on the observed results it is inferred that the embryonic testis, adrenal and kidney of Calotes versicolor respond to aromatase and its activity appears to differ during different stages of development. This may be due to the difference in steroid biosynthesis by the AKG complex.

Waist for Height Ratio and Body Mass Index: A Comparative Study in School Children

Preeti Pande; Rekha Sharma and Sabiha Vali

  • Abstract

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) assesses abdominal adiposity and has been proposed to be of greater value in predicting obesity-related cardiovascular health risks in children than BMI. The study group comprised of 163 boys and 150 girls in the age group of 11 to 15 years selected from a school located in east Nagpur (MS). Height, weight and waist measurements of children were recorded according to standard norms. Body Mass Index and waist height ratio were computed and subjects classified according to BMI percentile classification and WHtR classification. Assessment of obesity based on BMI percentile distribution shows 15.33 % each of boys and girls in the pre obese category, 6.13 % and 5.52% in underweight category and 78.52 % and 78.66 % in the normal weight category respectively. According to WHtR classification, only 14.72 % boys and 10 % girls had higher WHtR (>0.5), showing risk for metabolic syndrome. However 5.52 % boys and 4.66% girls in normal BMI percentile range were seen in > 0.5 WHtR indicative of central obesity category while those classified as overweight in BMI Percentile range (7.36 % boys and 10 % girls) were seen in < 0.5 WHtR normal category. A variation in the obesity prevalence as judged by two different indices (BMI and WHtR) indicates an urgent need for worldwide uniform index to define and predict central obesity in school children.

Impact of Time and Temperature during Transportation of Blood Samples on Lymphocyte Culture and Chromosomal Preparation

Tushar Chauhan, Jigar Suthar, Rajesh Kumar Patel, Mitesh Patel

  • Abstract

    The effect of time and temperature during transportation of blood samples of the patients on lymphocyte culture and chromosomal preparation remained a matter of concerned for cell biologists. Lymphocyte culture is the most common, desirable, and useful method for the chromosomal analysis or karyotyping. To observe the effect of such factors, 10 blood samples were collected from healthy males and stored at 40C except 2 samples which were collected in the house and immediate cultured. The morphology of metaphase chromosomes was found good for samples cultured within 7 days of collection. The present study describes the temperature and storage time of blood samples has cumulative effects on lymphocyte culture and the mitotic index. 

Effect and Mycoremediation of Four Selected Heavy Metals in Two Pleurotus Spp. Mycelia in Submerged Culture

Reynante G. Bustillos, Jhefferson Y. Roxas, Rochelle S. De Belen and Rich Milton R. Dulay

  • Abstract

    Pleurotus spp. are widely cultivated mushrooms due to its strong lingo-cellulosic degrading ability. In this work, the growth responses and mycoremediation abilities of P. ostreatus and P. florida mycelia in coconut water media contaminated with chromium, copper, cadmium and lead were investigated. Growth response was based on the yield of mycelia biomass and volume loss of the spent. The accumulated amount of heavy metals in mycelia was analyzed using atomic spectrophotometer. Results revealed that all the heavy metals significantly stimulated the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus except lead (1.74 g), which the mycelia weights (4.75 – 5.70 g) were found higher than the mycelial weight of heavy metal free (2.71 g). The highest volume loss was significantly registered in cadmium with 18.11 ml. P. ostreatus mycelia accumulated 8.9 ppm of chromium, 6.4 ppm of copper, 2.1 ppm of cadmium and 6.4 ppm of lead. In P. florida, maximum yield was significantly achieved in heavy metal free coconut water media having a mean of 8.5 g, followed by chromium and cadmium respectively having means of 6.42 g and 6.86 g. Among heavy metal treated, cadmium (19.28 ml) and chromium (19.44 ml) showed the highest volume loss but lower when compared with the volume loss of heavy metal free media with 25.50 ml. Mycelia of P. florida accumulated 8.1 ppm of copper, 6.3 ppm of chromium, 3.0 ppm of lead, and 3.9 ppm of cadmium. Therefore, these two Pleurotus species could play important roles in mycoremediation.

G Protein Couple Receptors: A Milestone in Health Research

Gawad J. B., Bawane P. P., Mhaske A. J., Tauro S. J

  • Abstract

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of molecules involved in signal transduction across cell membranes and represent major targets in the development of novel drug candidates in all clinical areas. Although there have been some recent leads, structural information on GPCRs is relatively rare due to the difficulty associated with crystallization. A specific reason for this is the intrinsic flexibility displayed by GPCRs, which is necessary for their functional diversity. Since GPCRs are integral membrane proteins, interaction of membrane lipids with them constitutes an important area of research in GPCR biology. In particular, membrane cholesterol has been reported to have a modulatory role in the function of a number of GPCRs. An emerging and important concept is oligomerization of GPCRs and its role in GPCR function and signalling. Future research in GPCR biology would offer novel insight in basic biology and provide new avenues for drug discovery.

InVitro Effects of Papaya (Carica Papaya), Lemon Juice (Citrus Aurantifolia), Vinegar and Yogurt as A Meat Tenderizer”

Shahid Iqbal, Omm-e-Hany, Asia Neelam, Aamir Alamgir and Samama Nawaz

  • Abstract

    This study compared the ability of tenderness of goat and beef meat with local plant products like papaya (Caricap apya), lemon juice (Citrus Aurantifolia) and chemical products vinegar and yogurt (local name Dhai). In this study ERV and pH of the meat also tested, which influenced the meat tenderness as well as the palatability of meat. The pH values were estimated within the range of good quality i.e (5.3-5.7), moisture content and ERV values also found within the range of normal level. To check the tenderness effect of local products, samples are injected in different concentration with brine solution in beef and goat meat samples. The samples were kept 4°C for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Tenderness were calculated with the expressed juice in %. The results indicate the vinegar has the higher tenderness activity in goat and meat samples. The papaya, lemon and yogurt also show the tenderization of meat samples to some significant level. The use of tenderizing material for meat is necessary, but the amount should be used in low quantity because the higher concentration denatures the protein found in meat.

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Medica Var Acidica Essential Oil

Swadesh Malhotra, Ruchi Shukla, Shweta Kulshrestha and Aisha Siddiqui 

  • Abstract

    Citrus commonly known as lemon is well established for its pharmaceutical and economic importance. The volatile compounds of peel of C.medica var acidica (Rutaceae) were analysed using GC, GC–MS. Analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 20 compounds, representing 95.17% of the oil. The major compounds of the oil are d-limonene (9.66%), geraniol (24.56%), geranial (31.54%), neral acetate (9.33%), geranyl acetate (6.2%). The samples viz. essential oil (A), it’s pure constituents geraniol (B) and geranial (C) were subjected to a screening for its possible antioxidant activity by using β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. It was found that the total essential oil (A), its pure constituent’s geraniol (B) and geranial (C) have marked to significant antioxidant activity. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, C. medica essential oil (A), geraniol (B) and geranial (C) exhibited -59.64 ± 1%, 24.56 % and 31.56% antioxidant activity.

Isolation of Novel Antioxidant Sesquiterpene and Antioxidant Activity of Sphaeranthus Indicus

Swadesh Malhotra

  • Abstract

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Sphaeranthus indicus led to isolation of a new compound viz. 11α,13-dihydro-3β,7α-dihydroxy frullanolide compound (I) along with sitosterol, quercetin, hentricontane and (-)frullanolide, which was earlier isolated from Garngea maderaspatana .Chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract and compound (I) exhibited significant to moderate antioxidant potential . Its structures was elucidated by spectroscopic methods and antioxidant potential was studied in terms of β carotene degradation and ferric thiocyanate assay.

Sweeteners
R. Mathur
  • Abstract

    Sweetness is one among the basic tastes of human being. It has been realizedfor centuries or more better from almost the age of human civilizations. Several natural materials with sweetness are known. These compounds vary in extent of their sweetness. Most of the natural sweeteners are carbohydrate or amino acid derived products. Manysynthetic sweeteners have also come up during the last century. This article summarizessome of the common sweeteners.

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