Vol. 6 & Issue 3 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : May 2016 to July 2016

 

Screening of Biopolymer Producing Diazotrophic Bacteria Isolated from the Agricultural Areas of North Gujarat Region

Shroff, P.K. and Parikh, S.C.

  • Abstract

    There is a worldwide concern regarding the development of biodegradable plastic materials to develop environment sustainability as a remedy towards harmful effects caused by plastic wastes to the environment. Polymeric materials like plastic and polyesters have wide spread use in today’s industrial society because of their ease of processability and amenability in providing a large variety of cost-effective commodity. In the present study, free-living nitrogen fixing diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of forty seven different leguminous and non-leguminous plants of North Gujarat region. Primary screening of the sample was done using different selective media and then secondary screening was performed by Sudan Black B staining procedure. Total 17 different isolates were found to produce biopolymer.

Biochemical Response of Solanum Melongena to Salinity Stress In Relation To Stress Factors

Nivedita P, Shishira T, Singh Kavitha G, D’souza Myrene R

  • Abstract

    Salinity due to over accumulation of NaCl is usually of great concern and is injurious especially for plants growing in arid and semiarid regions. Considering this agricultural problem, an experiment was performed to evaluate the salinity stress response of Solanum melongena. The experiment was conducted on 60 days old plants. Four replicates were taken wherein two of the replicates were subjected to 25 mM NaCl and other two to 50 mM NaCl on every third day for duration of 10 days. The stress was found to reduce the dry and fresh weight, RWC of the leaf tissue respectively. Plants have multiple strategies to prevent oxidative damage to cells employing enzymatic antioxidants such as Peroxidase, Catalase and Polyphenol oxidase .These enzymes were estimated along with Carotenoids which help in the deactivation of ROS. Salinity induces generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) which occurs via electron transport reactions in the mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Phytotoxic Effect of Cocklebur (Xanthium Indicum L.) Allelochemicals on Seed Germination and its Enzymatic Activities of Green Gram (Phaseolus Radiatus L.)

S.P. Adhikary and S.N. Sabat 

  • Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different concentrations of various types of aqueous leachate of Xanthium indicum L. on seed germination and catalase and peroxidase activities in germinated seeds of green gram. These two enzymes are act as key indicator of phytotoxicity in different morphological and biochemical dynamics of plant body. Allelopathy, one of the stress factors generated by secondary metabolites, of one plant that influences the biochemical reactions, growth and development of neighboring plants. The experiment carried out to study the effect of various types of leachate concentrations on per cent of seed germination and analyzes the activities of catalase and peroxidase in germinated seeds. The results showed that different concentrations of various types of aqueous leachate of test weed (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 %) were decreased the seed germination and activities of both enzymes. A positive correlation was noticed between increases of leachate concentrations with decrease in enzymes activities. This indicates that allelochemicals present in the leachates of Xanthium indicum L. might have increased the rate of production of reaction oxygen species (ROS) which are well known for causing degradation of different bio-macromolecules and ultimately decreased the percentage of seed germination.

Screening of Genetic and Biochemical Effects of Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (Spreng) Leave Extract by In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

Sameer H. Qari

  • Abstract

    The present study explored the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects of aqueous leave extract of CS (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) on the root tips of Allium cepa by CAs test, MNs test and SCGE assay as in vitro assays and auxotrophic mutation test on Aspergillus terreus as in vivo assay. Both biosystems were exposed to different concentrations of CS (1300, 2600 and 5200 μg/ml) for 18, 24 and 36 h. The combined treatment with EMS at 300 μg/ml was also used to evaluate the potential antigenotoxic effects of CS. Results showed significant in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic activity at high concentrations of CS with no significant change at minor concentration (p<0.05). Mitotic index was decreased at concentrations of 2600 and 5200 μg/ml, but the frequency of CAs and MNs were increased at the same concentrations for all experimental time (p<0.05). The total number of CAs and MNs were significantly reduced in root tip cells treated with CS. Chromosomal Abnormalities scored were stickiness, disturbance, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. The results of SCGE assay has been illustrated the genotoxic impact of CS as dose-dependent, that was demonstrated DNA damages at the highest concentrations of CS (5200 μg/ml). The combined treatment of CS with EMS was associated with reduced DNA damage as detected by SCGE assay at lowest concentration of CS (1300 μg/ml). In vivo, results showed that the extract of CS has Moderate lethal and slight mutagenic activities. The survival depended on the dose and time of treatments. Frequency of auxotrophic mutants was significant at 2600 and 5200 μg/ml (p<0.05), most of them were amino acid requiring. In conclusions, CS extract could be induces significant genotoxic effect in A. cepa or A. terreus cells. Additionally, this study implies that combined treatment of CS has inhibitory role against the genotoxic action of EMS, suggesting antimutagenic potential of CS.

Level of Lead and Cadmium in Subjects Consulting for A Balance of Spermogram in Pasteur Institute of Cote D'ivoire.

Konan Kouassi Martin, M’BOH Gervais M, Adje Félix, Coulibaly Founzégué A., N’guessan Jean David, Djaman Allico Joseph

  • Abstract

    Heavy metals have a negative effect on the reproduction, that could lead to the infertility. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of heavy metals for example lead and cadmium in male subjects consulting for a balance of spermogram. Biological material was constituted of sperm coming from of male subjects and the technical material by a drying oven, optical microscopes, of a centrifugal machine, and a spectrophotometer of Atomic absorption of brand VARIAN. Sperm was collected and separated in two aliquot. One was used for the realization of the spermogramme and the other preserved at -20°C to assess the lead and cadmium. A correlation was searched to study possible links between the spermatic anomalies and heavy metals. Our study showed that 85% of the subjects presented an anomaly of the spermogramme. The near total of the analyzed samples (97.5%) revealed the presence of Cd and Pb. Smokers subjects had a hive value of both metals compared to nonsmokers. A negative correlation was established between the Cd concentrations and mobility per first hour of the spermatozoïdes. In the case of Pb, none significant correlation was found between the concentration of Pb and semen analysis parameters studied. However, there was a positive correlation between Pb and Cd concentration (p value = 0.09). Taking into consideration this study, it is important to paire attention about environnment pollution on the balance of the infertility in Côte d’Ivoire.

Interleukin-28B Gene Polymorphism as Susceptible Risk Factor in HCV Viral Infection towards Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Samir A. El-Masry, Yasser B.M. Ali, Esraa M. El-Sayed, Gamal A. Badra

  • Abstract

    Background and objective: According to the World Health Organization, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered a major global health issue. The genetic background may be a crucial etiologic factor in HCV infection and its complications. Interleukin-28B (IL-28B) is a newly discovered cytokine located on chromosome 19. Mutations in the IL-28B gene are associated with spontaneous recovery and response to treatment of HCV. This study was designed to study the relation between IL-28B and HCV progression, including decompensated cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 

    Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight patients with HCV-induced liver cirrhosis (categorized into two groups decompensated LC and HCC) and 100 healthy controls. IL-28B mutations were detected by high resolution melting curve (HRM). 

    Results: A significant difference between HCV patients with induced liver cirrhosis and healthy controls was detected at rs12979860 (p<0.05), also C allele was more significant in healthy controls (p<0.01) and T allele was more significant in HCV patients (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference between LC and HCC groups. There was no significant difference between any groups of our study at rs8099917.

    Conclusion: IL-28B rs12979860C/T C allele appears to be more prevalent in healthy controls suggests that it has a protective role against progression of liver cirrhosis; rs12979860C/T T allele appears to be more prevalent in patients suggests that it is associated with disease progression to cirrhosis. IL-28B rs8099917G/T may not be associated with cirrhosis or HCC development. Further studies with large sample size should be conducted to validate these results in Egyptian population.

Exploration of Herbal Medicinal Plants at Maidan, District Dir, Hindukush Range, Pakistan

Zahoor Ul Haq, Abdul Razzaq, Usman Ali, Fazal Hadi and Ajmal Iqbal

  • Abstract

    A detailed study was conducted in flowering season of 2013 to investigate the traditional uses of some important medicinal plants taxa by local community in Maidan, Dir (L). Study revealed that 30 plant species belonging to 16 families are used for the treatment of various health problems. Out of these, 9 herbs are used as stomachache, 7 diuretic, 6 expectorant, 5 in constipation, 4 each as antispasmodic and eye sight. Ethnomedicinal information was mostly collected from the traditional healer, herbalists, elders and Pansaries by means of semi structural questionnaire, group discussion and interview. It was also observed that some species had single use whereas other had multiple uses.

Study of Stomatal Complexes and Appendages of Some Members of Family Bignoniaceae

Noor Alam Khan Wazir, Abdul Razzaq, Abdur Rashid, Usman Ali, Fazal Hadi and Ajmal Iqbal

  • Abstract

    Bignoniaceae is highly evolved family among the dicotyledons. The reasons for the advancement of the family are solely based on the macro-morphological characteristics. But so far some reliable anatomical characteristics of epidermal emergences and stomatal types of adaxial and abaxial epidermis in 7 species of Bignoniaceae showed that most of the species are hypostatic i.e having stomata on the lower epidermis while Tecomella undullata is amphistomatic in the investigated plants. Trichomes found in the investigated species are unicellular, peltate, non-glandular, stellate and tuft of hairs. The characters showed that the family has both primitive and advanced characters.

Rice Agronomic Traits Needed In Tropical Zone

Justin Abadassi

  • Abstract

    To be successful, rice breeding programmes have to consider the agronomic traits needed by producers and consumers. Those traits vary with region. However, some of them are omnipresent in tropical zone. Among them are listed: earliness, reduced plant height, resistance to the enemies (pathogens, insect pests, and weeds), drought tolerance, high and stable grain yield, high harvest index, and appropriate grain quality. The importance, the inheritance, the heritability, and the possibility of improvement of those traits are reviewed. Some of the traits are monogenic or oligogenic; others are polygenic. Heritability estimates found in literature are low, moderate or high depending on type of heritability (broad sense or narrow sense heritability), trait, population and environment. Breeding for those traits can give satisfactory results if appropriate methods are utilized.

Synthesis of Oseltamivir Derivatives with Anti-Tyrosinase Activity

Kittiwat Srikittiwanna, Anan Athipornchai , Muhammad Niyomdecha

  • Abstract

    Oseltamivir derivatives (3b), (3c), (3d) and four news (2), (4b), (4c) and (4d) were synthesized starting from epoxide precursor (1) in high yield. Oseltamivir derivatives were evaluated for anti-tyrosinase activity. Oseltamivir derivatives (2) and (3c) exhibited inhibitory activity of tyrosinase in 13.97 and 12.06 %.

Studies on impact of population density of larva on the commercial characters of silkworm

Kamaraj, S., Kartik, K.P., Madhusudhan, K.N., Serani, N., Malliga, C. and Sinha, A.K.

  • Abstract

    Antheraea mylitta. D the popular Indian tasar silkworm reared in wiled and as well as in semi domesticated condition. Due to the not awareness about the population density in single plant, keep it enormous amount of larvae in a bush for rearing lead to huge loss of larvae due to disease (35-40 %) and pest (40-45%) with frequent shifting of larvae for providing food also reason for weakening the health of tasar silkworms, those are all responsible for poor, low quality and quantity of cocoons yield harvested by tribal farmers. Hence rectifying the problems the studies were conducted and find solution, regulate the densities of larval population on a plant, enhance the cocoon production and livelihood of tribal farmers. The results of the present study revealed that, the host plants bearing very less larval density (50 nos.) showed more survival, larval weight and length along with less larval period. The more effective rate of rearing (ERR) was noticed in larvae reared on less larval density when compared to higher larval density bearing plants. The post cocoon character analysis also revealed that, the less larval density reared larvae showed higher Shell ratio (%). Hence, in tasar culture, less larval density without frequent transfers will leads to more productivity and higher cocoon characters.

Role of HSP70 Gene Polymorphisms in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Lova Satyanarayana M,Chaitra KL, Sairam M, Chaitanya Kumar Bhukya Venkateshwari A,Narsimhan C, Pratibha N.

  • Abstract

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a common cause of congestive cardiac failure, is defined by left ventricular systolic dysfunction and ventricular dilatation, with the exclusion of coronary artery disease and/or other causes such as hypertension or valvular pathology1. The role of HSP70 as a cardioprotectant in addition to its role in the assemblage and transport of newly synthesized proteins within cells, is well established.This study focuses on 3 polymorphic sites within the 3 genes of the HSP70 family, its correlation with activity of HSP and its effect on DCM. The study included 123 blood samples of DCM patients and 250 controls. PCR based RFLP was carried out to reveal the genotypes of the population under study followed by appropriate statistical tests to identify any susceptible genotypes. The study revealed CC genotype of HSP70-1 to be significantly associated with DCM with a 2 fold risk, and the TT genotype of HSP70- Hom to have a protective role against DCM. This was further confirmed by Haplotype analysis, which showed that GAT haplotype was significantly predominant in controls conferring protection from DCM, whereas the other haplotype ‘CAC’ was found to be about 9 folds higher in DCM than controls. Also, the mRNA of the “C” allele of both HSP70-1 and HSP70-Hom were found to have a higher stability when compared to the wild type alleles. In conclusion, it can be said that that HSP70-1 can be developed as a biomarker in the elucidation of genetic heterogeneity in DCM.

The Nuclear Abnormalities in the Exfoliated Epithelial Mouth Cells of the Petroleum Workers

Dhamia, K. Sukar, Nahi, Y.Yousif  and Zainab A.Mohmmad Al-Toma

  • Abstract

    It was found that the genetic abnormalities increased with the level of exposure to PAHs The nuclear abnormalities in the mouth cells in workers exposed directly or indirectly exposed to pollutants in comparison with control group in which levels of abnormalities represented by micronucleus (MN) , binucleated cell (BNC) and broken egg were 16.380 ± 2.664, 9.730± 3.156 , 14.860 ± 2.560 in the office workers , 16.910 ± 4.192, 12.450± 4.374, 15.170 ± 3.614 in direct exposed workers and 9.730± 2.235, 5.410 ± 2.390, 8.400± 2.549 in control group. A significant difference was observed between the office workers and direct exposed workers when compared with the control group at P≤0.05. The present study showed a strongest correlation between exposure to PAHs and the MN ( r)=0.694 , BNC( r)=0.738 , BEC( r)=0.722 (P≤0.05) .

Impact of Different Levels Alternaria Alternata on the Weights, Leaves and the Number of Flowers of the Water Hyacinth in a Controlled Environment

FATON M. Oscar Euloge, GNANCADJA A. Léopold Simplice, PARAIZO A. Armand, YEDOMONHAN Hounnankpon, BONOU Brice and EDORH A. Patrick

  • Abstract

    Alternaria alternata is a pathogen of the water hyacinth, which is a worst grass on our water ways in southern Benin. It has been tested under glass on the water hyacinth to assess its effectiveness. The device consists of seven treatments distributed in 7 blocks. Alternaria alternata was tested at different concentrations of 106 sp /ml, 107sp /ml, 108 sp /ml, 109 sp /ml, 1010 sp /ml 1011 sp /ml and 1012 sp /ml of water hyacinth for three months and some days. The average values of significant parameters of its growth at the end of the experiment such as the weight with a concentration of 1012sp /ml 82,90 ± 0, 5 g and 35.00 ± 0.29 g; those sheets are 8.90 ± 0.35 and 6.30 ± 0.16 at the end and those flowers are zero at the beginning but at the end 0.50 ± 0.16. Thus A. alternata is a potential biocontrol agent against the water hyacinth.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Carica Papaya L. Leaves and Seeds

F. I. Akinnibosun, H. A. Akinnibosun, O. M. Adeghe and E. Osanebi

  • Abstract

    The antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf and seed extracts of Carica papaya was assessed in this study using the agar-well diffusion method. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. Sensitivity pattern showed varying degree of inhibition at different concentrations of the extracts on the test organisms. The zones of inhibition of E. coli using aqueous seed extract and aqueous leaf extract ranged from 11.2 mm to 13.6 mm and 10.4 mm to 14.6 mm respectively while for S. aureus it ranged from 12.6 mm to 25.0mm and 13.4 mm to 21.6 mm respectively. The aqueous leaf extract inhibition of E. coli at 10-1 dilution (14.6 mm) was higher than the aqueous seed extract (13.6 mm) at the same dilution, while at the 10-3 and 10-4 dilution, the aqueous seed extract inhibition 12.2 mm and 11.2 mm respectively were higher than the aqueous leaf extract of 11.3 mm and 10.4 mm respectively. In S. aureus, the ethanolic seed extract inhibition at 10-1 and 10-2 (25.0 mm and 23.4 mm) were higher than the ethanolic leaf extract (21.6 mm and 21.4 mm) respectively at the same dilution. The antibiogram of the isolates against standard antibiotics used as positive control revealed the resistant pattern of the isolates to conventional antibiotics used in medicine. The results revealed that the aqueous and ethanolic leaf and seed extracts of Carica papaya possessed antibacterial properties and therefore is recommended, for use in treating ailments caused by the test organisms.

Physiological Approaches for Maximization of Yield in Horsegram (Macrotyloma Uniflorum L.)

M. Vijayakumar and S.Mohamed Jalaluddin

  • Abstract

    The field experiments were conducted at Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur to assess the physiological approaches for yield maximization in Horsegram for two consecutive years during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 in the non-calcareous soils of Lithic Haplustept. The treatments comprised of five levels viz.,T1-pulse wonder (1.0%), T2 - Mono Ammonium Phosphate (0.5%), T3 – Gibberillic acid (GA3) (20ppm) T4 - Thiourea (500ppm) and T5 - control. The above set of treatments were imposed either with seed treatment of Rhizobium and phosphobacteria (S1) or without seed treatment (S2). Results revealed that in addition to recommended dose of NPK, foliar spray of mono ammonium phosphate (0.5%) on par with pulse wonder (1.0%) recorded higher plant height (34.3 cm), more number branches/plant (4.1), more number of pods/plant (35.8), total chlorophyll (0.58 mg g-1) and per cent seed protein (21.8%) content and mean grain yield (770 kg ha-1) than NPK alone treatment. Application of recommended NPK along with foliar spray of monoammonium phosphate (0.5%) recorded B:C ratio of 2.53 followed by pulse wonder (1.0%) with B:C ratio of 2.43, when compared to application of recommended NPK only. It could be contended that along with recommended dose of NPK and foliar spray of monoammonium phosphate (0.5%) or pulse wonder (1.0%) at peak flowering stage coupled with seed treatment with Rhizobium and Phosphobacteria @ 600 g each/ha seemed to be anappropriate cultivation practice for horse gram production under North-western zone of Tamil Nadu

Preliminary selection of the micro-organisms for disintegration of insoluble phosphate in production of microbial fertilizer serving acid-sulphate soil

Hoang-Dung Tran and Ngoc-Linh Nguyen

  • Abstract

    Research on biological products utilizing beneficial microorganism is current trend in organic agriculture. Particularly, Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) are highly focused to improve soil quality in poorly nutritious and acid-sulphate areas. In order to produce biological fertilizer for improving acid-sulphate soil in Binh-Chanh district, Ho Chi Minh City, the native microorganism for disintegration of insoluble phosphate have been isolated and selected. The PSMs density is at low level from 2.103 to 4.106 CFU/gr. The stabilization of microorganism strains was screened by continuously sub-culturing. After 30 days, 21 stable active strains have been selected. Testing the activity of phosphate solubilization showed five strains with SI (Solubilization index) < 1, 8 strains with 1 < SI < 2 and 8 strains with SI > 2. Strain No9 and No12 got attention thanks to short time of halo appearance (SI after 3 days 0.87 and 0.93, respectively). In the other hand, strain No 33 was also noticed for the highest phosphate disintegration capability (366.128 μg.mL-1) after 10 culturing days and highest SI ratio (SI 4,545) after seven culturing days. No. 9 and No. 12 strains were chosen for matching high speed halo appearance. Molecular identification result using 16S region showed that both strains belong to Burkholderia. Burkholderia spp. No.9 and Burkholderia spp. No. 12 were studied with optimal condition for mass culturing in the future.

Cloning phbCAB operon of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 into Escherichia coli DH5α to manufacture Poly 3- Hydroxybutyrate using molasses as carbon source

Hoang-Dung Tran, Van-Hieu Huynh, Cong-Hoat Pham, Anh-Dung Chung and Quoc-Dung Tran

  • Abstract

    In this study, a 4985 bp DNA fragment including the whole phbCAB operon from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 was cloned into Escherichia coli DH5α. This fragment contains three genes phbC, phbA, phbB encoding three enzymes P(3HB) polymerase, β-ketoacyl CoA thiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase, respectively, which participate in PHB biosynthesis. This recombinant E. coli DH5α was performed batch fermentation in molasses pretreated with acid. 2.5g/l cell dried weight (CDW) and 22.5% PHB accumulation were obtained. This is the basis for future studies of optimization of PHB biosynthesis by recombinant bacteria using molasses as carbon source.

Acorus Calamus L.: An Insight Review of Botany, Chemistry, Medicinal Uses and Cultural Practice

Alok Ranjan, Paras Jain, Binod Singh, Pallavi Singh , H.P. Sharma 

  • Abstract

    Acorus calamus is monocot plant of immense medicinal potential. The plant grows in high water location, especially on damp soil. Locally known by various names like Bachh and Sweet Flag, belongs to taxonomic Family Acoraceae. Its ethnomedicinal uses includes the treatment of some of the dreaded diseases like cancer, ulcer, hepatitis, spasm, schizophrenia, gout, arthritis, anorexia etc. It is the source of myriads of phytochemicals like α- asarone, β-asarone, VOCs etc. Due to its medicinal uses, the rhizome of Sweet Flag is in high demand and thus over-exploited. Seed-set is very low and vegetative propagation is the chief method of propagation. Present review covers all possible aspects of the plant like habit, habitat, morphology, phytochemistry, anti-microbial property, ethnomedicinal uses, cultural practices, anti-oxidant properties. Evolutionary aspects of the plant have also been investigated. In vitro micropropagation of plant has also been reviewed owing to the need for its conservation.

Molecular Diversity Analysis of Withania Somnifera (L) Dunal in Central India using ISSR Markers

Prakash Tiwari and Abhilasha Shrivastava

  • Abstract

    Withania somnifera is an important medicinal properties. The objective of the present study was to investigate the intraspecific genetic variation present in eleven individuals of W. somnifera using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) marker technique. A sub set of 4 ISSR primers were screened to select the good ISSR primers in Ashwagandha. All four primers successfully amplified and clear banding profile was obtained. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.70 ±0.02 ranging from 0.462 (UBC-80) to 0.495 (UBC-811). There is highly significant correlation between total number of amplified band and polymorphic bands (r= 0.905 p> 0.001). The information about genetic variation determined from ISSR data was employed to estimate similarity matrix value based on Jaccard’s coefficient. The similarity values were further used to construct a phenetic dendrogram revealing the genetic relationships. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA (unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages) distinguished different genotypes of W. somnifera.

Role of Neurosecretory Cells in the Breeding, of Freshwater Bivalve: Lamellidens Corrianus (Lea)

N.G. Shinde, D.M. Gaikwad and A.N. Vedpathak

  • Abstract

    In the freshwater bivalve like Lamellidens corrianus neurosecretory cells have been detected in the cerebral, pedal and visceral ganglia. In this animal, which may releases gametes two or three times during the course of the reproductive period, cerebral neurosecretory material is observed to disappear in some or all of the cells several days prior to each discharge of the gametes. The material is replenished between successive spawning, and the cells become depleted completely by the end of the reproductive period. Emission of the gametes may depend on the lifting of an internal inhibition correlated with the disappearance of neurosecretory material from the cerebral ganglion. In the present study, removal of cerebral ganglia accelerated the growth of gametes and injection of their extracts gradually increases the growth. This was more pronounced in cerebralectomized animals than extract injected ones. Removal of cerebral ganglia than injection of cerebral ganglionic extract to Lamellidens corrianus shows stress on visceral and pedal ganglia which affect the spawning. Experiments were carried on 2nd and 12th day. Variation in neurosecretory cells were observed and compared as normal with experimental and results has been discussed in the light of neurosecretory shifts.

Some Important Trace Elements Present in Some Selected Seasonal Edible Plants, Available in Manipur

M. Aken Singh, N. Rajmuhon Singh, G. C. Bag, M. Sudarshan, A. Chakraborty, N. K. Sharat Singh

  • Abstract

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique was used for the determination of trace elements in some selected seasonal/wild edible plants available in Manipur. The trace elements present in some selected edible plants play important physiological functions.

Morphological Variability, Total Phenolic and Mineral Contents of Mucilage of Six Spineless Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica Var. Inermis L.) Provenances in West-Central Tunisia

Laamouri Abdelwahed, Elaloui Meriem, Ennajah Amel, Fezzani Tarek, Hajlaoui Hichem, Jellali Younes, and Dhifi Wissal 

  • Abstract

    The prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica= O.F.I) had many interesting properties that enhance to develop its cultivation. The objective of this study was to conduct a comparative morphological description and chemical characterization of six provenances of cactus (Ain Amara, Mornag, Sbeïtla, Matmata, Ouslatia and Carthage) existing in three Tunisian stations (Chbika, Sbeïtla and Sidi Bouzid). Four trees were chosen from each provenance where the height, the diameter were measured. The racket and the cladode numbers were also counted. Three rackets were selected and the length, width, thickness and weight of each cladode were measured. The mucilage yields, extracted from cactus rackets, ranged from 0.20% to 2.32%. The main constituents of mineral elements determined spectrophotometrically were: Phosphorus (0.7%), Sodium (0.17%) and Potassium (3.75%). Total phenol contents using the Folin ciocaltex method riched the level of 12.42 mg EAG/g of dry weight. The highest amount was found in Matmata and Sbeitla provenances. The cactus shrubs at Chbika station were the highest (3.47 m) and the thickest (16.72 cm). Those at Sbeïtla had the longest (35.53 cm), the widest (18.83 cm) and the thickest (29.51 mm) rackets.