Vol. 6 & Issue 4 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug.2016 to October 2016


Study of the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Baghdarrah Lake, Baghdarrah Nature Park,
Udaipur Wildlife Division, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Meenakshi Mahur and Chhaya Bhatnagar

  • Abstract

    The present study was conducted on Bagdarrah Lake that is located about 20 km from Udaipur city. Bagdarrah Nature Park is a protected closed area declared by the by the state government under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 under Sec. 37 for conservation of endemic species found here. The study aims to assess the water quality of lake by studying limnological parameters as all the park inhabitants are dependent on this. Water samples were collected from three pre-decided sampling stations at monthly intervals for one year and were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters using the standard methods of APHA (1989).Upon analysis of data collected during the present study and its comparison with that of earlier one reveals a remarkable increase in values of chloride, total hardness, BOD, nitrates and phosphates. There is a decrease in values of DO, pH and alkalinity in comparison to earlier study. It is indicative of increase in pollution level during the six years gap. The limnological parameters suggest that the trophic level of the lake is raised, that is, the limnological quality of water body is shifting towards the eutrophication. Although this is a eutrophic water system but still it provides a congenial habitat for the marsh crocodile inhabiting the lake.

Biomarker Detection and Classification of Cervical Cancer using DNA HPV Signatures

Gopinath.P.G., V.R. Anitha, S. Aruna Mastani

  • Abstract

    In this paper we focused on biomarker classification based on the given HPV signature datasets and these datasets are preprocessed and using DWT techniques different components extracted and by using Fast Fourier transformation, the energy values been plotted. These values is trained by using suitable neural network tool by giving appropriate training signal and the based on the output value the conclusion is performed whether given HPV signature data is normal or cervical cancer. The development of these concepts led to identification of cervical cancer provides advantages of precision and higher sensitivity. With the help of different Signal processing tools by choosing the appropriate techniques for the better results with accuracy and this part plays a vital role in cancer detection. In this work, cervical cancer detection is summarized using DWT and neural networks concepts. The results show a significance identification and classification of cervical cancer.

Correlation between antioxidant (enzymatic nonenzymatic and Total antioxidant) and oxidative stress marker (MDA) in osteoarthritis patient

Sahera G.Sayyash and Entissar Abd .Alradha

  • Abstract

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease which leads to pain, stiffness, a reduced motion, swelling, and crepitus, the cartilage breaks down and wears away. As result, the bones rub together and the new growth of gartilage and bone at the joint margins form (osteophytes.In OA free radicals may act as triggering factor for degenerative changes seen in cartilage. Oxidative stress leads to increased risk for OA but the precise mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluate the amount of oxidative stress in osteoarthritis, by quantifying the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant (enzymatic – Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathion peroxidase (GPX) activity and non-enzymatic – erothrocyte glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant levels. Correlation between lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidants was also done along with the above said. A total of 214 subjects were included in the study and were divided into two groups. The first group comprised of 112 patients who had been confirmed with osteoarthritis after clinical and radiological examinations. Another 92 subjects who were age and sex matched controls, formed the other group. Statistical analysis was done using Student’s t test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for correlations. A significant increase in serum MDA level were observed, while there was a significant decreased in erythrocyte antioxidants (SOD, GPX activity, GSH, and total antioxidant levels in patients with osteoarthritis when compared to controls groups Negative correlation between MDA and antioxidants (SOD,GPX , and GSH).The results of our study suggest higher oxygen-free radical production, evidenced by increased MDA and decreased GSH ,TAA levels ,SOD, and GPX activity, support to the oxidative stress in osteoarthritis. The decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes may be a compensatory regulation in response to increased oxidative stress

New Flavonoid Glycoside from the Medicinal Plant Vitex negundo

Md. Abdul Mannan, Md. Saifullahhel Ali Azom, Babul Hasan, Md. Kudrat-E-Zahan, A B M Hamidul Haque

  • Abstract

    A new polyphenolic flavonoid glycoside has been isolated from the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Vitex negundo Linn. Structure of the isolated compound-1 has been elucidated as methyl 6-(5-(5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)-2-hydroxyphenoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxy tetra hydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylate based on the FT-IR and GC-Mass spectroscopic data analyses

Detection the Digital Value of Hormones with Human clinical medicine for Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and Promotion the Sharing of Resources to Different Science

Nan- Hung Chen

  • Abstract

    The aims of this study were to detect the digital clinical chemical values of five hormones in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by treatment with the human medicine Chemiluminescecent immunoassay (CLIA). Triiodothy (T3), thyroxine (T4), luteinizing-hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and epinephrine can be presented with digital values. Strong recommended the promotion of share resources for human clinical medicine science and fisheries science. In terms of economic point, sharing of the two science resources will be built for spend less money and get the high accurate results. This is the future of every scientific field are required to move in this direction.

A comparative analysis of effect of C.M.L and alcohol on soilmicro flora of the field used for growing (solanum melongena l.)

Sanjeev Sharmaand Seema Dwivedi

  • Abstract

    Micro flora of soil is diverse and complex aspect which depends upon the types of soil and the climate conditions in which formation of soil have taken place and that's why even if produced from same parent material soil may have different micro flora. This micro flora may only make up a tiny fraction (<0.5%) of the total soil volume or less that10% of the total organic matter; they are key players in the cycling of nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus, and the decomposition of organic residues. Thereby they affect nutrient and carbon cycling on a global scale. Microorganisms also respond quickly to environmental stress compared to higher organisms, as they have intimate relations with their surroundings due to their high surface to volume ratio. In some instances, changes in microbial populations or activity can precede detectable changes in soil physical and chemical properties, thereby providing an early sign of soil improvement or an early warning of soil degradation. But analyzing all the parameters which indicate soil health was not feasible as it was a vast area beyond boundaries so Minimum Data Set (M.D.S) was the only way that's why only on a specific parameter i.e. Micro flora was chosen for the study as micro flora had considerable effects on several biochemical transformations and mineralization activities in soil, growth of plants should have marked affect if soil micro flora was affected. Work on micro flora however clearly pointed towards the intervention of C.M.L and Alcohol in changing soil microbe dynamics.

Total phenolic content, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts from Solanum ferrugineum Jacq. (Solanaceae)

José Roberto Medina-Medrano, Monserrat Vázquez-Sánchez, Edgar Villar-Luna, Hipólito Cortez-Madrigal, María Valentina Angoa-Pérez, Estefanía Elizabeth Cázares-Álvarez

  • Abstract

    In vitro total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant capacity of methanol extracts of Solanum ferrugineum were analyzed to determine its potential as a source of natural antioxidants using 2,2-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). TPC in fruits, reported in mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry tissue (DT) showed similar values to those reported for cranberry. TFC content in fruits, reported in mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g DT, showed higher values than those reported for black mulberry. A relevant scavenging activity of ABTS radical was exhibited by extracts of leaves and fruits of S. ferrugineum (86.97±0.79% and 57.80±1.19% inhibition respectively) and EC50 values similar to those reported for grape seed. Leaf and fruit extracts showed a TAC in mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g DT similar to those in tomato. Analyzed S. ferrugineum leaves and fruits synthesize significant concentrations of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant capacity

First record of Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803) from Punjab, India

Harsimran Singh

  • Abstract

    First record of Common Bronze Back Snake, Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803) for state of Punjab is being presented. Finding of the snake was an opportunistic record from S.A.S. Nagar district of Punjab. Morphological measurements, pholidosis and details of its ecology were noted.

Assessment of Bacteriological Flora in Mangroves of Karachi Coast, Pakistan

Omm-e-Hany, Asia Neelam, Abdul Jabbar, Aamir Alamgir and Waqar Ahmed

  • Abstract

    Microbial flora in mangroves of Pakistan forms an integral part of this unique marine ecosystem. In this research samples from Korangi creek and Sandspit were collected from the water, surface soil and subsurface. The samples were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of bacteria. Bacterial densities ranged from 10-2 – 10-3 CFU/ml in water and 10-2 – 10-3 CFU/ml in soil samples. Water sample from Korangi creek and Sand spit has temperature range from 22 ◦C – 30 ◦C,average salinity ranges from 30 ppt-43.6 ppt and the pH ranges from 6.8-7.3. From the soil samples of mangroves the average temperature ranges from 24◦C – 30 ◦C and the salinity ranges from 4.6 ppt to 43.6 ppt,whereas the pH ranges from 6.7 to 7.3.The microorganism of this ecosystem is halotolerent and get additional nutrient by dumping of sewage waste. The maximum diversity (H) noticed at the temperature of 27-30 ◦C in water sample (0.99) and the maximum dominance was also recorded high (0.659) at the temperature of 24-24 ◦C as compared with the soil sample. This is hope that this research study adds new information about the ecology of mangroves and help new scientist to further research on this ecosystem.

Breeding Biology of Red-Vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus Cafer) In Annannur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Junas Ekka, Dilip Xalxo, Ronald Nathanael S & S. John William

  • Abstract

    The pair formation in red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) in Annannur (Chennai) started in the month of December. This was followed by selection of nest building site by the pair and both the partners actively participate in nest building activity. Bulbul prefers the nest building at a height of 1.6 to 3.25 meters. The clutch size varies from two to three eggs and female hatches them in 10-12 days. The nestling period was keenly observed and it was ready in 14 days. Breeding success was moderate because of predation by cat, squirrels, crows, and eagles. Both the parents care their young nestlings, feed them and train them for escaping predation and flying.

Microfungi, Climate Change and Emerging Pathogens: A Preliminary Report from Kerala

Manuel Thomas, M. Thangavel , and Rogimon P. Thomas

  • Abstract

    Fungi are ubiquitous with a prime place in biological world not only because of their vital role in ecosystem functions but also because of their influence on humans and human-related activities. Recent climate change reverberations and shift in life style across the world are highly significant to filamentous microfungi, as they are involved in various emerging infectious diseases and related species extinctions. The incidence of fungal infections in tropical regions tends to be higher, possibly due to the higher number of fungi that can cope with human body temperatures. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the extent of microfungal diversity in Kerala, India, among different samples including air, house dust, agricultural soil, river water and mangrove soil. A total of 70 species of fungi were identified from the 150 samples studied. The presence of mycotoxigenic and allergenic species has unplumbed implications among humans and animals. Mangrove soil was more diverse with 29 species followed by agricultural soil with 28 species, house dust 26 species river water 24 species and least from air samples – 21 species. Regular surveillance and prophylactic measures are important in dealing with the challenge of emerging fungal infections along with climate change impacts.

Mechanism of Microbial Corrosion: A Review

Imo, E.O., Ihejirika, C.E., Orji, J.C., Nweke, C.O.,Adieze, I.E.,

  • Abstract

    The role of microorganisms in microbial corrosion is to constantly create surface conditions that favor the maintenance of cathiodic and/ or anodic reactions. There is no generally accepted mechanism of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Instead various mechanisms of MIC that reflects the variety of physiological activities carried out by different microorganisms have been reported and some have been analyzed better than others. Studies have shown that corrosion of metals in the presence of microorganisms is as a result of the microbial modifications of the environment near the metal surfaces. Microorganisms can influence corrosion processes through their direct actions on anodic and cathodic reactions, formation of biofilms, corrosive media in the form of metabolic by-products and modifications on resistance films on metal surfaces among others.

Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of Seven Essential Oils from Blighia sapida (k. Koenig)

Oluwafunmilola Elizabeth AKINPELU, Dorcas Olufunke MORONKOLA, Folasegun A. DAWODU

  • Abstract

    Essential oils from the leaf, leaf stalk, stem bark, root, fruit pulp, fruit husk and fruit seed of Blighia sapida were obtained in Nigeria by hydro-distillation, using all-glass apparatus designed to British Pharmacopeia specifications. The oils were screened against two Gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, four Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae and four fungi: Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Rhizhopus stolonifer and Penicillium notatum. Their antioxidant activities were also investigated. Leaves essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities against eight of the ten microorganisms, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae exempted. Essential oils of the leaves stalk, stem bark, root, fruit pulp and fruit seed showed growth inhibitory effects on all the ten test organisms. Fruit husk essential oil showed growth inhibitory effects on all the organisms except Rhizhopus stolonifer and Penicillium notatum. Our results indicated that oil from Blighia sapida root is the most potent against the ten test microorganisms. Assessment of antioxidant activities of Blighia sapida essential oils showed EC50 between 0.03 – 0.44 mg/mL compared with EC50 0.11- 0.65mg/mL of standards (BHA, α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and Zingiber officinale). Oil from Blighia sapida root is the most potent with EC50 0.03 mg/mL. This study revealed the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from Blighia sapida which have not been reported earlier in literature.

Analysis of Caffeine in Different Available Brands of Black Tea

Amber Nawab, Quratulain Waseem, Javeria Asif, Fatima Ahmed, Aiman Khan

  • Abstract

    To evaluate the amount of caffeine from different brands of black tea in order to check the strength of caffeine in daily life. Caffeine a mild addicting drug was isolated, purified from tea. Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance present in the leaves, seeds or fruits of over 63 plants species worldwide. The universal sources of caffeine are coffee, cocoa beans, and tea leaves. Caffeine is a pharmacologically active substance and a mild CNS stimulant. Pure caffeine occurs as odorless, white powder. The solubility of caffeine is in water, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, methanol, chloroform, dichloromethane but highly soluble in chloroform. Isolation was done by liquid-liquid extraction using chloroform as an extracting solvent. Tea bags boil in water on hot plate. Allow the mixture to cool. Extract the caffeine with chloroform by using separating funnel. The amount of caffeine calculated as 100mg, 40mg, 39mg and 102.5mg and percentages shows as 4.16%, 1.66%, 1.58% and 4.25% in Tea 01, Tea 02, Tea 03 and Tea 04 respectively. Caffeine has been used widely around the world; it is estimated 80% of the world’s adult population consumption. The effect of caffeine to stimulate the CNS. As a result, there is the common increase of alertness and heart rate. Normal range of caffeine in single tea bags is approximately 40mg and our result shows that two samples out of four shows high amount and two meet the normal ranges. Study revealed that the amount of caffeine in different brands and estimate utilization per day which consequence on daily activities and provide an awareness regarding sufficient consumption of tea per day.

A Case Report of Unusual Location of Medial Telangiectatic Nevus

Ayesha Sameera, E. Sridhar Reddy, Jesudass Govada, Rajesh Kumar Patel, A. Sudarshan Kumar

  • Abstract

    Medial telangiectatic nevus (MTN) or Angel’s kiss is a vascular stain located on the midline body most commonly on the glabellar region. It is an autosomal dominant inheritance with only 0.3 % to 1 % prevalence of new born. In a present case, a 21 year old male having pink stains on the forehead and also on philtrum of lip which is a rare location for medial telangiectatic nevus. The patient exhibited pale pink stains on glabellar region close to right eyebrow and on the philtrum near the right ala of the nose of size 2 cm sand roughly triangular in shape. The vascular stains are present since birth which have been slightly increased in size with growing age and color has become paler pink. Family and medical history is non-contributory. There was no associated pain and compared to adjacent skin no undue abnormality was present. There was no visible pulsation. On radiographic examination, posteroanterior (PA) view did not show any important alterations. No molecular genetics was performed to know whether the condition is associated with some mutations in the genes responsible for MTN. The article presents a case report of MTN in an adult patient.

Biochemical and functional properties of two wild edible mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea and Armillaria mellea) consumed as protein substitutes in South Côte d’Ivoire

Edmond Ahipo DUE, Djary Michel KOFFI, Yolande Dogore DIGBEU

  • Abstract

    In the forest areas of Côte d’Ivoire Volvariella volvacea and Armillaria mellea are well known, prized and widely consumed in many households as protein substitutes. In this paper, we report on the proximate composition and functional properties of flours from these two wild edible mushrooms with a view to reveal any possibility of their uses as conventional protein sources for human and animal nutrition and industrial purposes. Fresh mushrooms Volvariella volvacea and Armillaria mellea were harvested from plantations of oil palms in Aboisso area’s (5° 28′ 06″ N and 3° 12′ 25″ W) in Côte d’Ivoire. The fresh mushrooms were oven dried and ground to obtain the crude flour. Chemical composition and functional properties were investigated using standard methods. All results were statistically analysed. The proximate composition revealed that V. volvacea had the highest in the moisture (15.69 %), dry matter (84.71 %), ash (8.66 %) and protein (29 %) contents while carbohydrate and fat contents was found to be highest in A. mellea with values of 56.60 and 3.67 ± 0.37 %, respectively. These data suggest that the studied mushrooms could be used in human diet to prevent undernourishment due to proteins and also, to prevent hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and cardiac problems. The functional properties showed that the two mushroom flours had high oil (527.45 % for V. volvacea and 149.23 % for A. mellea) and water absorption capacities (425.81 % for V. volvacea and 364.74 % for A. mellea) as desirable characteristics for use in some foods such as meats, sausages, breads and cakes. Fevermore, they showed high bulk density (0.91 and 0.65 g/mL respectively for V. volvacea and A. mellea) and good wettability and therefore would be suitable for use as a functional ingredient in a variety of food formulations like weaning food, textured meats and baked products. The two flours exhibited good foaming characteristics implying their attractiveness for products such as cakes or whipping topping where foaming is important. The two mushrooms show good chemical composition and functional characteristics for use in many food industries.

Tailoring the in-vitro production of 20-hydroxyecdysone using PGR’s in Sesuvium portulacastrum

Vishwadeep Kapare, Ramesh Satdive, Devanand Fulzele and Nutan Malpathak

  • Abstract

    Sesuvium portulacastrum L. is a plant belonging to family Aizoaceae, growing in the coastal area and is used by the traditional medical practitioners due to presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The excised juvenile shoot tips were transferred on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium fortified with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopuirne (BAP) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Highest number of shoots were obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (15μM) and BAP (5μM), having an average of 3.9±0.63 shoots per explants with an average length of 3.7±0.36 cm. Maximum concentrations of 20E (1.35 μg/mg dry wt) was produced by shoots established on MS medium fortified with 20μM BAP and 5μM 2,4-D. HPTLC system was validated for linearity, precision, specificity, repeatability, limit of detection and limit of quantification for 20E. Linearity was found to be in range of 0.2 to 1 ug/spot with coefficient of correlation 0.999. LOD and LOQ values were found to be 20ng and 150ng respectively. This protocol provides method for in-vitro culturing of S.portulacastrum as well as for maximum in-vitro production of 20E.

Comparative studies on the interaction between Vitamins E, D, and K with Human Serum Albumin: UV-visible absorption spectroscopy

M. M. Abu Teir, S. M. Darwish

  • Abstract

    The binding reaction between Vitamins E, D, and K with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results of these vitamins binding with HSA indicated that van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding played a major role for the vitamins-HSA association. The comparative experiments demonstrated that the primary binding sites of the vitamins are within subdomain IIIA while the binding sites of HSA are within subdomain IIA. The binding constants of vitamin E, vitamin D and vitamin K with HSA have been determined by UV-absorption spectroscopy. The values of the binding constants are calculated at room temperature and found to be: (1.21×102M-1) , (6.8×101M-1), and (60 𝑀−1) for vitamin E- HSA , vitamin D- HSA and vitamin K-HSA mixtures, respectively.The effect of the vitamins (E, D, and K) on the conformation of HSA was analyzed by UV-Vis CD spectroscopy. Synchronous spectra indicated that the polarity around the tryptophan (Trp214) residues of HSA was decreased and its hydrophobicity was increased.

Cardioprotective Effect of Flaxseed Oil against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Myocardial Toxicity in Rats

Amel F.M. Ismail , Asmaa A.M. Salem  and Yasser M. Abdel Shafea

  • Abstract

    This study investigated the effect of flaxseed oil (FSO) on cardiac-toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. CCl4-intoxicated rats showed an elevation in the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CK-MB) and Troponin T (TNT). Further, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels showed significant increases. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and glutathione (GSH) content showed a significant decrease. In addition, the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory markers; Tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin–6 (IL-6), Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-β1), Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) were up-regulated in the cardiac tissues of CCl4-intoxicated rats. However, the oral administration of FSO amended these biochemical parameters. In Conclusions, FSO exhibited cardioprotective effects on CCl4 induced cardiac toxicity in rats that might be ascribed to its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via scavenging of reactive species as well down-regulation of the inflammatory markers and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression

Sorghum Phenolic Extracts Their Storage Stability and Antioxidant Activity in Sunflower Oil

Bajarang Bali lal Srivastava and Lekule Stanlaus V

  • Abstract

    Whole grain and bran samples of two sorghums, a brown coloured condensed tannin variety and white-coloured condensed tannin-free variety were analyzed for their content of total phenols, condensed tannins and antioxidant activities using the Folin-Ciocalteu, Vanillin-HCl and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays method respectively. A Chlorox bleach test revealed the presence of a pigmented testa in brown colored while no pigmented testa was detected in white colored grain. The brown colored variety had higher total phenols and antioxidant activity than the white variety in both the whole grain and the bran. For both sorghum varieties, the bran contained higher levels of total phenols and antioxidant activity than the whole grain. No condensed tannins were detectable in white bran and whole grain. Antioxidant activities of the sorghum varieties correlated highly with their total phenol and condensed tannin contents, suggesting that these phenolic compounds may be largely responsible for the observed antioxidant activities of the sorghum grains. Storage stability of a freeze-dried crude phenolic extract (CPE) from condensed tannin sorghum bran as influenced by packaging, storage temperature and length of storage, in relation to its content of total phenols, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity investigated. The effect of oxidizing conditions also investigated by bubbling a stream of oxygen in the liquid extracts prior to freeze-drying. Total phenols, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity of the samples were determined on selected days of storage. Bubbling of oxygen in the liquid extract did not have any significant (p > 0.05) effect on the parameters tested. Similarly, vacuum-packed samples did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) in the parameters tested from the samples that were not vacuum-packed. Samples stored at –20°C had significantly higher levels of total phenols, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity than those stored at 25°C during some days of the storage period. Storage time however was the major factor influencing the levels of total phenols, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity during storage.

Constituents of the Jamaican Gorgonian Soft Coral, Pseudopterogorgia americana

Ronique R. Hunter, Monique N. Thompson and Winklet A. Gallimore

  • Abstract

    The investigation of Jamaican populations of the slime-exuding gorgonian, Pseudopterogorgia americana, found off the South Coast of the island led to the isolation of a new sulfated 9(11) secogorgosterol, 3-hydroxy-9-oxo-9,11-secogorgostan-11-ol, (1) from an ichthyotoxic fraction which was identified by spectroscopic means. The furanosesquiterpene furoventalene (2), and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (+)--gorgonene (3) were also obtained from ichthyotoxic fractions of the extract. Furoventalene has not been previously identified in this organism.

Phenological monitoring of cork oak in Kroumirie (northwest Tunisia)

Kaouther Ben Yahia, Hatem Chaar , Salima Bahri , Sameh Mhamdi ,Kamel Soudani , Ali Khouaja , Brahim Hasnaoui

  • Abstract

    The phenology of Quercus suber L., a dominant sclerophylious species in northwest Tunisia, was studied for two years at three sites selected according to altitudinal gradient. The seasonal progression of phenological events was analyzed on 41 trees in Ain Snoussi, 39 in Bellif and 22 in Khroufa selected from 1ha plots. Phenological observations about budburst and flowering were made every week from mid-March to late May, about leaf fall from January 2010 to the end of December 2011. Litter fall was estimated at plot level. 35 litter traps were placed every 15 m. Statistical models (linear logistic model) were used to analyze the following: i) the kinetics of early
    bud break and full bud dates (d1 and d2); ii) the beginning and end of flowering (F0 and FF) and iii) the two leaf fall peaks. Bud break, flowering and leaf fall showed strong seasonality. The first two phenological phases (bud and bloom) occurred in the spring while the third took place in both spring and autumn but with different growth rates. The median dates of early bud break and full bud estimated from the model showed that cumulative needs bud burst at higher elevations occurred later than at lower altitudes assuming that cumulative needs in degree days have been met. Leaf fall is usually in two phases, presumably explained by the rhythmic nature of the primary growth of this species, making its kinetics well-fitted to a bi-Richards model (sum of two Richards-Chapman models). Phase 1 of leaf fall, which was the most important, is synchronized with budding and flowering. All these periods have coincided with wet months, during which the trees have renewed almost 90% of their foliage.

High temperatures effect on morpho-physiological indicators in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants during the germination and growth in non-optimum season

Alfredo Socorro García, Susana Calderón Piñar, Lázaro Walón García, Yanisbel Sánchez Rodríguez and Nadia Bergamini

  • Abstract

    The knowledge about high temperature effect on plant crop is important for adaptation strategies to Climate Change. For this reason the aim of the paper was to analyze its abiotic effect on common bean cultivation in a Red Ferralitic soil. A sowing of twelve varieties was performed in non-optimum season (high heat environment) during three years: 2013, 2014 and 2015 through an alpha-Latin design using three replicates per accession. The number of germinated plants was measured within the first 11 days after sowing to obtain the survival percentage. In the same way absolute (AGR) and relative (RGR) growth rate between 21 and 30 days and the plant height from 20 to 70 days with measurement ranges of 10 and 15 days were also evaluated and plotted by a logistic model. The values of daily mean temperature (DMT) were registered to calculate the accumulative temperature during the germination and growth phases. For the statistical evaluation, AGR and RGR were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and a Tukey comparison where significance was defined with a probability level of P<0.05. The results showed that plant survival percentage was significantly affected by increasing temperature following a sigmoid model, where differences among varieties were observed, while a prediction of survival behavior was also carried out for extreme values of temperature. The model corroborated that DMT above 28 °C decreases the survival percentage until values less than 30%. On the other hand the most sensible varieties in the germination stage showed a higher relative growth rate which contributes for understanding the physiological effect of thermal stress in common bean plants.

High Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria from a Healthcare Setting: Case in the Surgery Wards of the Regional Hospital of Bafoussam, West-Cameroon

J. Simo Louokdom, P.R. Fotsing Kwetche , J. Kouamouo , A.L. Kengne Toam , S. Gamwo Dongmo ,  S.H. Tchoukoua  B.P. Tamatcho Kweyang , J.R. Kuiaté

  • Abstract

    The present investigation aimed at assessing susceptibility profile of major bacterial types isolated from patient wounds and environmental items in the surgery wards of the Regional Hospital of Bafoussam. Specimen collection was performed by swabbing and laboratory works conducted according to conventional protocols with common antibiotics. Results indicated high bacteria diversity, predominated by common hosts of the environment (Staphylococci, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Klebsiella). It also appeared that all bacterial types recovered from the surrounding items were isolated from patients. High resistance rates were observed with common available and affordable antibiotics. The susceptibility profiles varied within very broad ranges, even amongst populations from the same species. Gram positive resistance rates were highest with Oxacillin (96.9%), Penicillin (85.5%), Cephalotin (85%) and Amoxicillin (72.7%) while in Gram negative they were observed with Amoxicillin (97.2%), Cephalotin (93.1%), Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid (91.7%), Ceftriaxon (83.3%) and related drugs. The lowest values were recorded with Ciprofloxacin (37.5% and 19.7%) and Nitrofurantoin (41.7% and 40.9%) in Gram positive and Gram negative, respectively. Though yet to be better substantiated and fully understood, bacterial populations recovered appeared to have diffused from human hosts to the hospital environment, highlighting the necessity to regulate access to hospital wards. The high resistance rates were also clue for increased likelihood of therapeutic failure, pointing out that of routine susceptibility testing in the health facility and monitoring resistance trends. This will sustainably be achieved by integrating other environmental bacterial populations which can play significant role in selecting and disseminating resistance determinants.

Determination of the Antioxidative Potential and Toxicity of the Different Parts of Yacon (Smallanthus Sonchifolius)

Merlyn G. Gonzales and Romeo M. Del Rosario

  • Abstract

    This study aimed to determine the antioxidative potential and toxicity of the different parts of Smallanthus sonchifolius locally called yacon. The study adopted the descriptive-comparative research design to determine the antioxidative potentials (measured as Oxidation Protection Efficiency or OPE) and toxicity of yacon. Statistical techniques include the following: One- Sample t-test, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Tukey, and Pearson (r) Correlation Coefficient. The findings of the study showed that roots, tuberous root peels, leaves, and flowers have OPE values higher than 0%. While tuberous roots and stems have negative values indicating prooxidative effects. Statistically, however, results showed that only tuberous roots came out with a statistically significant OPE but because the value is negative which is not favorable as far as antioxidative effect is concerned. Meanwhile, there was no toxic effect manifested by all six parts of yacon. In other words, the different parts of yacon are not poisonous. On the other hand, there is no clear indication of a relationship between the oxidation potential and the toxicity for all six parts of yacon. This means that the antioxidative potentials may not have an influence on the toxicity as far as the data collected are concerned. In conclusion, (1) the different parts of yacon do not have antioxidative potentials. The tuberous roots appears to have prooxidative effect but the magnitude is not conclusive; (2) the different parts of yacon especially tuberous roots are not poisonous to humans and animals alike; (3) the oxidation protection efficiency and toxicity exhibit no relationship.

Bacteriological Analysis of Street-Vended Ready to Eat Food Available in Malir Town, Karachi, Pakistan

Aamir Alamgir, Moazzam Ali Khan, Javaria Ghazal, Omm-e-Hany, S. Shahid Shaukat and Sehrish Zehra

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    Thirty samples of street vended ready to eat food were aseptically collected from 6 different locations of Malir Town, Karachi. Microbiological analysis was conducted by MPN technique. The MPN technique gives the consistence results of the presence of microbes in all selected samples. The current investigation was undertaken to evaluate the bacteriological quality that shows the positive result for the presence of high microbial loads and this posed some potential risks to the consumers. It is recommended that the regular scrutinizing of street foods quality must be practice to avoid any food borne infections.

Biogenic Constituents of Respirable Aerosol over Semiarid Region

Mamta , Harshda , Nupur Raghav , J.N. Srivastava , G.P. Satsangi , P. Jain  and Ranjit Kumar

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    Biogenic constituents of aerosol are the main contributor to the aerosol and diseases related to the air pollution. They are playing very crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, physics and climate. Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous in nature and are primary bioaerosol. In this paper, we estimated the biogenic components in respirable aerosol particles using culture techniques. The experiments revealed a high load of respirable aerosol particles and high concentration of biogenic constituent viz., bacteria and fungi. The Respirable aerosol particle level is many folds higher than NAAQS, WHO, and USEPA standards. The presence of protein in aerosol particles indicated the presence of biogenic components. Bacterial contribution is higher than fungal. Several types of hazardous bacteria and fungi are identified. The correlation analysis of biogenic constituents of aerosol along with climatic conditions explores role in climate change.

Biodiversity Indications of Zooplankton in the Kelavarapalli and Krishnagiri  Reservoir, KrishnagiriDist.,  TamilNadu,India

D.Manivelu, J.Prakash Sahaya Leon, F.Yesuraja, N.Gowrappan, J.Venkatesan

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    The present investigation made an attempt to analyze the comparative study of Zooplanktons of Krishnagiri district reservoirs. Zooplankton is supporting economically important for fish cultures. They are a major role of energy transfer between plankton to fishes. The reservoirs of Kelavarapalli dam (KP) and Krishnagiri Reservoir Project (KRP) was constructed across the Thenpennaiyar river in, Krishnagiri District, Tamil Nadu was studied to identify it’s diversity of Zooplankton community during the period of December-2014 to November-2015. During this study period in the Kelavarapalli reservoir, it’s showed the species composition of 24 Zooplankton species, among these 9 species of rotifera, 7 species of cladocera, 5 species of copepoda and 3 species of ostracoda and the Krishnagiri reservoir showed the presence of 20 species, among these, 8 species of rotifera, 5 species of cladocera, 4 species of copepoda and 3 species of ostracoda.

Agromorphological and Organoleptic Characterization of Vernonia Calvoana and V. Amygdalina

Nguimkeng Gaintse Eric Dumas , Zapfack Louis, Mbogne Taboula Judith , Temegne Nono Carine , Ntsomboh-Ntsefong Godswill , Tonfack Libert Brice , Youmbi Emmanuel 

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    The objective of this study was to assess agromorphological and organoleptic characters of Vernonia accessions. After prospection, survey and sample collection in the Western Region of Cameroon, cuttings of six accessions of Vernonia amygdalina and V. calvoana were sown in the nursery. Quantitative parameters (12 variables) and flower color (qualitative) were recorded directly in the nursery. Organoleptic characterization allowed to describe the other 2 variables (taste and color of the leaves). The survey revealed that farmers (48 %) of youth ages (45 %) are the most numerous producers of Vernonia. The sensory test helped to separate the accessions into three groups (bitter, slightly bitter, not bitter) recognizable by their tastes. Multiple correspondence analysis established ‘leaf taste’ as main discriminant qualitative criterion. Differences (p < 0.01) reflecting phenotypic variability were observed for all quantitative traits. The coefficients of variation ranged from 4.98% (life span) to 38.06% (leaf surface). PCA confirmed this significant variability (89.98% of the total variation for the first factorial design). Life span, stem height, percentage of stem budding, pollen size, number of leaves and flowers were discriminating quantitative traits of Vernonia. These characters were used to organize morphotypes in a dendrogram in two large groups (V. calvoana and V. amygdalina). V. calvoana group was divided into two subgroups (bitter leaves and non-bitter leaves). V. amygdalina group contained small and broadleaf bitter morphotypes. This study lays the foundation for an inventory of plant genetic resources of edible Vernonia in view of establishing a breeding program.

Soil Fertility Status of Agriculture College Farm, Nandurbar (Maharashtra)

H. B. Shinde, T. D. Patil and Ritu Thakare

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    The present study was conducted during the year 2015-2016 at Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Dhule with aim to know the fertility status of soils of Agriculture College Farm, Nandurbar. The soils were collected and analyzed as per standard procedure for assessing chemical properties and available nutrient status. The pH of soil varied from 6.80 to 7.90, while, EC varied from 0.08 to 0.89 dSm-1. The organic carbon and calcium carbonate content in soil were varied from 3.7 to 9.9 g kg-1 and 0.5 to 12.50 per cent, respectively. The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ranged from 125 to 238, 7.49 to 32.42 and 336 to 459 kg ha-1, respectively. Soils of Agriculture College farm, Nandurbar were very low to low in available nitrogen, low to high in available phosphorus and very high in available potassium. The exchangeable calcium and magnesium and available sulphur were ranged from 20.30 to 32.60, 11.40 to 18.20 cmol (p+) kg-1 and 11.48 to 27.59 mg kg-1, respectively. The 100 per cent soils were sufficient in exchangeable calcium, magnesium and in available sulphur.

Changes in Acid Phosphatase and Alkaline Phosphatase activity in gonads of Rainbow trout

Sharma R.K. and Bhat R.A.

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    The present study describes the activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the ovaries and testis of rainbow trout during different phases of reproduction. The activity of acid phosphatase as well as alkaline phosphatase was found to be maximum in mature stage and was minimum in spent stage in rainbow trout ovary. However in the testis the activity of acid phosphatase was observed maximum in spent stage and minimum in maturing stage. The activity of alkaline phosphatase activity was observed maximum in mature stage and was minimum in immature stage in trout testis.

Phytochemical analysis and Antioxidation Study of Indian Pennywort

R. Mukesh Kumar, M.Shamantha, S. Sindhuja , D. Vinothkumar and N.G Ramesh Babu

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    Indian Pennywort (Centella asiatica) was analysed for phytochemical studies and antioxidant analysis. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed from leaves extract for the presence of alkaoids, saponins and tannins. Three different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) were used and their highest antioxidant activity was assayed by effect of phenolic content, reducing power and flavonoid for acetone concentration was 243μg/ml, 82μg/ml and 215μg/ml. 10% of acetone extract of C.asiatica contained significantly higher amount of phenolic content. Finally, it has been suggested that the high phytochemical content of C. asiatica and its antioxidant activity makes it popular and wide traditional use.

Effect of Vermiwash and Vermicompost on the Growth and Productivity of Moong Dal

Poonam Bhardwaj and R.K. Sharma

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    Present investigation was carried out in Kurukshetra district of Haryana, (India) focusing on recycling organic waste using vermitechnology and use of organic and inorganic fertilizer for exploring the effect on growth and yield of moong dal (Vigna radiata). A total of six experimental plots were prepared: T1 (control), T2 (15t/ha cow-dung) T3 (recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer), T4 (vermicompost @ 15t/ha) and T5 (vermiwash) to test the plant production patterns, under field conditions. The maximum range of some plant parameters i.e. root length, shoot length, leaf length, pod length, pod weight and number of pods per plant were studied in different treatment plots. Also, the average yield of moong dal was approximately 44.9% greater in T5 than T1 plot. The vermicompost applied plot showed a comparatively better results of moong dal production than cow-dung and chemical fertilizers. The plant growth results indicate the presence of some growth-promoting substances in vermicompost and vermiwash obtained from vermitechnology. This study suggests that vermicomposted manures may be a potential source of plant nutrients for sustainable crop production.

Quantitative Detection of Monosaccharaides and Oligosaccaride of Honey during Transformation of Nectar to Honey in Apis Cerana Indica

Balasubramanyam, M.V.

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    Honeybees effectuate nectar to honey transformation. Laevulose, dextrose and sucrose levels were determined in five stages of honey ripening process of indigenous hive bee A. cerana indica. The five stages in nectar to honey transformation include floral nectar (fn), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh). Laevulose of fn and sh cells was maximum of 1.75% and minimum of 38.02% likewise, dextrose of fn was lowest of 0.96 % and highest of 33.38 % in sh stage. On the contrary, sucrose content of sh cells and fn was 4.11% and 19.50% respectively. Further results clearly indicated the maximum hydrolysis of sucrose into laevulose and dextrose due the action of invertase occurs in uh stage. Hence, content of laevulose and dextrose were inversely proportional to sucrose throughout the five stages of nectar-honey transformation. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of laevulose and dextrose content in ripening of honey was significant at 1% level (p<0.01). Sucrose was not significant at 1% level (p<0.01) in formation of honey from nectar.

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