Vol. 7 & Issue 1 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Nov.2016 to Jan.2017


Selection Index for Genetic Improvement of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Omar Kayess, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Md. Waliur Rahman, Md. Jalil Uddin, M. R. Zaman

  • Abstract

    An experiment was conducted at the research field of the department of Genetics and Plant Breeding to study the genetic variability and selection index for genetic improvement of the selected wheat genotypes. The 24 genotypes were evaluated in randomized completely blocked design with three replications. The study results revealed moderate heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance for thousand grain weight (g), number of grains per spike, plant height (cm) and days to heading. Among characters thousand grain weight had high genotypic and phenotypic co-efficient of variation over other characters. Yield per plant alone considered 100% expected genetic grain and relative efficiency of other functions were calculated accordingly. Selection index showed that yield per plot (g) with thousand grains weight (g), number of grains per spike, number of spikelet per spike, days to anthesis, number of heading per days, and plant height (cm) association would be more effective for genetic improvement due to the maximum expected genetic gain (425.97) with maximum relative efficiency (122.75%). But considering economic viability and practical field conditions, the five character association would be better than other combinations. On the basis of selection index value and total rank value based on selection criteria the five character combination and PYT-15 genotype may be used in further breeding program.

Garlic (Allium Sativum): A Source of Multiple Nutraceutical and Functional Components (Review)

Siham Ourouadi, Hamid Moumene, Naima Zaki, Abdel-Ali Boulli, Aaziz Ouatmane, Aziz Hasib

  • Abstract

    Garlic (Allium sativum Linnaeus) is widely used as an obligatory part in many cooked dishes. It is one of the ancient plants playing one of the most important dietary and medicinal roles in human beings for centuries. Many studies have evaluated the compositions and therapeutic value of garlic. The major physiological role of garlic are its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, anti-inflammatory and its potential role in preventing cardiovascular diseases. Data indicated that the main pharmacological effects of garlic are attributed to its organosulphur compounds such as thiosulfinates and related compounds formed enzymatically from odorless precursors when the plants are cut or crushed. Because of their instability, the profile of organosulfur compounds need be analyzed in the order to access the quality of garlic. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the chemistry composition, physiological role of garlic and the methods using for determination of thiosulfinates main compounds of garlic

Carrot juice reduces cadmium chloride induced chromosomal aberrations in somatic cells of mice

K Rudrama Devi, A Rajitha and Dilip Reddy K

  • Abstract

    In the present study, modulating effect of carrot juice against cadmium chloride induced clastogenicity in bone marrow cells of mice. When animals administered with various doses of carrot juice 20, 40, 80 ml/kg the results showed antimutagenic nature of plant extract. There was a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in 3.0mg/kg cadmium chloride treated animals. However when animals were co-administered seven days prior to the priming experiment the frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed a decrease after the treatment of carrot juice. Thus the results clearly indicate protective nature of carrot juice in cadmium chloride induced cytogenetic damage in somatic cells of mice.

Dermal Fillers - A Mini Review

K. Roja lakshmi, Hasini nelakurthi, A. Sudarshan kumar, Sridhar reddy erugula, G. Jesudass, Rosaiah Kotikalapudi

  • Abstract

    Aging is a continuous, complex, and dynamic process hampering the facial aesthetics of an individual. People’s approach to various means of enhancing their aesthetics has changed. New generation of cosmetic consumers are demanding than ever. They want safe, minimally invasive, long-lasting techniques and natural results with less downtime. This resulted to an increasing demand for non-surgical facial rejuvenation and augmentation techniques world-wide among which dermal fillers is on the promising edge as the results are almost immediate. A thorough knowledge of the various dermal fillers used and the injection techniques is necessary for the best results.

Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp.: Potential Reservoirs of Resistance  Traits  in a Healthcare Facility 

D.P. Noukela Noumi , P.R. Fotsing Kwetche , J. Kouamouo ,J. Simo Louokdom , S. Gamwo Dongmo , A.L. Kengne Toam 1 S.H. Tchoukoua , B.P. Tamatcho Kweyang , K. Kourouma

  • Abstract

    The necessity to identify bacteria types and susceptibility profiles of major categories likely to associate with hospital acquired infections at the Regional Hospital of Bafoussam (West-Cameroon) prompted us to carry out the present survey. Specimen collection was performed by fingerprinting done from  healthcare workers, and generally swabbing of 1 out of 3 inanimate hospital devices or surfaces. Wards of interest included: Pediatrics, Medicine, Operating Theater, Intensive Care Unit, and Maternity. Culture, isolation, identification and susceptibility tests were conducted according to standard protocols. A total of seventeen conventional antibacterial agents were chosen and included representatives of major families of antibiotics used in Cameroon. Data analysis revealed that out of a total of 86 specimens, 54 (≈ 63%) resulted in positive cultures according to the assigned threshold (≥ 8 CFU/2.5x4 Cm2). Also 90% the hospital personnel’s hands were deemed contaminated while, in each of the hospital wards investigated, at least one item was contaminated. Overall, most common isolates belonged to Gram-positive bacteria genera Bacillus (62.5%) and Staphylococcus (17.5%). The safest ward was the Operating Theater (17%) and the riskiest, in decreasing order, Pediatrics and General Surgery where, respectively, 86% and 60% of cultures were positive. Without any obvious origin-linked differences, susceptibility profiles indicated high resistance rates in both bacterial types, highlighting clonal distribution within the hospital. Based on these and other developments in the present paper, we advocated more regulation for in-and-out movements. Using common environmental bacterial flora as tools for cost-effective and sustainable antibacterial resistance stewardship was also suggested.

Detection of Laevulose, Dextrose and Sucrose Levels in Ripening Of Honey in Dwarf Bee, Apis Florea

Balasubramanyam, M.V

  • Abstract

    Honeybees effectuate nectar to honey transformation. Laevulose, dextrose and sucrose levels were determined in five stages of honey ripening process of indigenous hive bee A. florea. The five stages in nectar to honey transformation include floral nectar (fn), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh). Laevulose of fn and sh cells was maximum of 1.75% and minimum of 38.02% likewise, dextrose of fn was lowest of 0.96 % and highest of 33.38 % in sh stage. On the contrary, sucrose content of sh cells and fn was 4.11% and 19.50% respectively. Further results clearly indicated the maximum hydrolysis of sucrose into laevulose and dextrose due the action of invertase occurs in uh stage. Hence, content of laevulose and dextrose were inversely proportional to sucrose throughout the five stages of nectar-honey transformation. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of laevulose and dextrose content in ripening of honey was significant at 1% level (p<0.01). Sucrose was not significant at 1% level (p<0.01) in formation of honey from nectar.

Pumpkin Accessions in Kenya Exhibit Significant Variation in Quantitative Characters Based on Baby Trials in Kakamega and Nyeri, Kenya

J.K. Kiramana  and D.K. Isutsa

  • Abstract

    Pumpkin landraces grow in diverse environments in Kenya. It is not clear whether they are uniform or why farmers prefer them. Subsequently, 151 accessions collected in Kenya were evaluated in two seasons for uniformity and preference. They were maintained by farmers in baby trials. Each farmer planted one accession and exotic control ‘Sugar Baby’ at 2mx2m spacing in Completely Randomised Design. Analysis indicated significant variation in most traits. Germination, flowering and fruit maturity ranged from 5-14, 32-84 and 76-141 days, respectively. Fruits varied from 1-16 and accession NY-154 produced 16. Total fruit weight varied from 0.25-26.5 kg and accession KK-30 yielded 26.5 kg, while KK-21, NY-149 and ‘Sugar Baby’ yielded 0.25 kg. Kakamega trials flowered early and had highest yields. Germination was highest in Nyeri. Germination and yields were highest for local accessions, while ‘Sugar Baby’ was early in germination, flowering and maturity. High GCV, PCV, heritability, genetic gain and correlations resulted for fruits and total weight. PCV was higher than GCV for all characters. ECV was higher for germination rate than PCV, and germination timing and maturity than GCV. The variations were due to genotype and environmental effects. GCV had no value, while heritability, genetic advance and genetic gain were negative for germination due to genotypic effects. The high variance for fruits and total weight implied that direct selection can be based on these characters to obtain high yielding accessions for improvement. The significance indicated diversity and farmers prefer local accessions because of tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses.

Gamma radiation and EMS induced genetic variabilityon the improvement of Garden bean

S. Monica and N. Seetharaman

  • Abstract

    Genetic variability is the most essential prerequisite for successful crop improvement programme as it provides spectrum of variants for the effective selection, which can be achieved through the processes of mutation. Induced mutagenesis through physical and chemical mutagens is an important and sophisticated approach to induce desirable variability, resulting in the creation of new varieties with better characteristic. In the present study, seeds of Garden bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet var. typicus cv. CO (Gb) 14) was mutagenized with different doses/concentrations of Gamma rays and EMS to determine the effect of mutagens on different quantitative characters. The
    quantitative characters that were analyzed in M3 generations were included: days to first flower, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length (cm), pod breadth (cm), pod yield per plant (g) and hundered seed weight (g). The results showed that in M3 generation, 30mM of EMS and 25KR of gamma rays showed a significant increase in all the quantitative characters when compared to control and other doses/concentrations. However, consistent decrease in the flowering period was found with decrease in the mutagenicconcentration. We conclude that the mutagenic effect of gamma rays and EMS were found to be beneficial in improving the growth and yield of Garden bean.

Utilizing molecular dynamics simulations for identification of conformational B-cell epitopes in diphtheria toxin at varying pHs

Soheila Ghaderi , Shirin Tarahomjoo, and Mohammad Reza Bozorgmehr

  • Abstract

    Variations in pH conditions can result in the conformational changes of the diphtheria toxin (DT) structure. Conformational B-cell epitopes depend on the DT conformation and affect the DT immunologic activity. We therefore, aim to investigate effects of pH on the toxin conformational B-cell epitopes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed at different pH levels (pH 4, pH 5, pH 6.5, pH 8 and pH 10) and consisted of a DT structure in water at 300K and at 100ns timescale simulation. We used results of MD for evaluation of conformational B-epitopes of diphtheria toxin using bioinformatics tools. Our results indicated the extension of alpha helixes of the DT translocation (T) domains at acidic pH. However, no changes were identified at other pHs. We recognized common regions of conformational B-cell epitopes at different pHs. Conformational B-cell epitopes extended to several amino acid residues at the catalytic domain and at the beginning of the R-domain at pH 4.0. In addition, these epitopes included the amino acids G171-G174 at pH 5.0. We already reported that DT was inactivated enzymatically due to missing of the Disulfide Bridge between fragment A and B at acidic pH. Our results demonstrated that using low pH for the DT production is an appropriate approach for preparation of an inactive toxin with the immunological activity.

Effect of different pruning practices on the morphological quantitative characters of sweet gourd (Cucurbita moschata Duch.ex Poir.)

Md. Shoebur Rahman, Md. Omar Kayess, Md. Rakibul Alam and Md. Imanur Rahman

  • Abstract

    A study was conducted at the research field of department of Horticulture at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur, Bangladesh during August, 2014 to January, 2015 to study the pruning response on different morphological quantitative characters of sweet gourd at four different treatments viz.T1 (Maintaining three secondary vines after pruning), T2 (Maintaining four secondary vines after pruning), T3 (Maintaining five secondary vines after pruning) and T4 (control). In addition, correlation studies among the different characters was also done. An advanced sweet gourd line (23 self) was evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The experimental results elucidate that most of the quantitative characters performed better in T1 treatment but showed worsen performance in relation to yield per plant and yield per hectare. The study result revealed that T3 treatment with five vines produced the highest fruit yield (11.9 t/ha). But the fruit size, individual fruit weight and seed quality were better in T1 treatment than other treatments. Beside this, fruit set/plant showed significant positive correlation with yield. So, considering overall facts, T3 and T2 pruning practices and selection would be effective for increasing fruit yield with simultaneous consideration of fruit set/plant can be recommended for better yield performance of sweet gourd.

Protective effects of aged garlic extract against oxidative stress induced by total body irradiation in albino Wistar rat’s kidney

Kouam Foubi Brice Bertrand, Chuisseu Djamen Dieudonné Pascal, Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré, Samba Nganou Odette, Mopia Myriam Arielle, Gonsu Fotsin Joseph

  • Abstract

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a powerful antioxidant that protects tissues against oxidative stress by inhibition of free radical processes and limiting oxygen effect. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of Aged garlic extract (AGE) against oxidative kidney damage induced by gamma-irradiation. Eight groups, five healthy male rats each were used (20 irradiated and 20 Sham Irradiated), among which some were receiving via gavages distilled water, the others AGE at different doses (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) and the rest vitamin E + Alpha Lipoïc Acid. Then, after sacrifice; the 8th day post irradiation, biochemical analyses, lipid peroxidation, total Protein and antioxidants assessment were made from blood samples and kidney tissue homogenates. The data obtained revealed that exposure of rats to gamma radiation caused a significant decrease in the level of glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and total protein level while a significant increase in the level of Creatinine, Malondialdehyde and Nitrite. Oral administration of AGE to rats from the first hour after irradiation on day 1 up to day seventh revealed a significant improvement in all previous parameters. It could be concluded that Aged garlic extract (AGE) administration after whole body gamma-irradiation might be capable to attenuate gamma radiation induced kidney injury.

Effect of clove extract Eugenia caryophllus on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici the causative
of tomato wilt disease

Furdos. N. Jafar

  • Abstract

    In previous study the fungicidal activity of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts for the flower buds of clove Eugenia caryophyllus (after the preliminary testes preformed to detect the active compounds) was tested against the causative agent of wilt disease Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici. Alcoholic methanol extract was more effective with high significant difference than the aqueous extract through it effect in the radial growth of the fungus, spore germination and dry weight. The concentration 200 ppm appeared very high activity toward the radial growth of the fungus the percentage of inhibition of radial growth was 100% in both extracts. While the other concentration lower than 200 ppm gave high activity in methanol extract treatment compared to the aqueous extract toward studying indicator The first extract was inhibited the radial growth to 100% in (100, 75, 50) ppm concentrations while the rate of inhibition for the aqueous extract was 60%, 55.5% and 38.8% respectively in the same concentrations.

Development an Efficient Protocol for Plant Regeneration of Manihot Esculenta Crantz via Somatic Embryogenesis Induction from Immature Leaf and Apical Shoots

Do Hai Lan, Do Xuan Dong, Le Van Son, Le Tran Binh, Chu Hoang Ha

  • Abstract

    In this study, we developed a method for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in two cassava genotypes from Vietnam is described. The explants for this study were immature leaves and apical shoots isolated from in vitro 2-3-week plants. Somatic embryogenesis was achieved at high frequencies by the addition in the induction medium of the auxin picloram over a wide range of concentrations. Our results show that the highest rate of somatic embryos formation for both cultivars was obtained by using 12 mg/l picloram supplemented to Murashigh - Skoog (MS) media. For immature leaves: the number of embryos per explant was similar between two cultivars for 4 weeks, the KM94 cultivar gave a higher rate (81,4 ±1,7%) than the KM140 cultivar (70,4 ± 2,9%). For apical shoots: the number of embryos per explant was similar between two cultivars for 4 weeks, the KM94 cultivar gave a higher rate (82 ±1.7%) than the KM140 cultivar (59.6 ± 2.9%). Somatic embryos were subsequently transferred onto media (MS supplemented with 0.3 mg/l BAP) for the highest frequency of plantlet regeneration (KM140 - 82,1 ± 3,1% and KM94 - 79,2 ± 2,3%), for immature leaves and (KM140 - 81 ±3.2% and KM94 - 79 ± 2.3%) for apical shoots. Shoots with the length of about 1.0-1.5 cm were transferred onto free - hormone MS media for 100% of rooting for 2 weeks. Complete plantlets were cultivated on a mixture of rice husk and sand-soil under ratio 4:6 in a greenhouse. This protocol required 16 to 18 weeks and is entirely appropriate for mass production of various cassava genotypes and further genetic transformation experiments

In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts of Eleven Jamaican Marine Specimens with Seventeen Cancer Cell Lines

Shamar O. Richards, Tavia A. Riggon, Jenise S. Smith, Monique N. Thompson,Kemil Walford and Winklet A. Gallimore

  • Abstract

    Crude extracts of six species of green and brown algae, two species of sponges, two species of ascidians and one gorgonian were analysed for cytotoxic activity at concentrations of 1 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml against seventeen cancer cell lines. Four of the algal extracts exhibited potent activity with at least one cell line with 72 - 99% inhibition at a concentration of 10 g/ml. The crude extract of one of the algal species, Stypopodium zonale, displayed the broadest spectrum of inhibition with potent activity (> 90%) with seven cell lines. The sponge extract of Amphimedon compressa displayed selective bioactivity (88% inhibition) toward a leukaemia cell line (ALL3). Both ascidian extracts were deemed to be inactive while the gorgonian extract showed potent activity when evaluated with two cell lines (94-97% inhibition) at 10 μg/ml. Low activity was recorded for the extracts when tested at the concentration of 1 μg/ml.

Ciliates from Bos indicus the Genus Metadinium (Awerinzew & Mutafowa, 1914)

Sanghai P.K.

  • Abstract

    During the course of investigation of rumen fluid contents of 814 adult Indian cattle (Bosindicus) protozoan ciliates were studied from subfamily Diplodiniinae (Order: Entodiniomorphida). The present paper deals with the study of ciliates from the genus Metadinium. In all five species (M. affine,M. minorumDehority, 1975, M. medium, M. magnumDogiel, 1925 and M. ypsilonDogiel, 1925) were described, of which M. minorum and M. magnum reported as new host record in cattle and reported first time in India. M. affine and M. ypsilon recorded first time in India. Morphology of all the species with variations is described and body dimensions are recorded from the specimen taken at random from different slides and compared with earlier reports.

Studies on male genitalia of Nevrina procopia (Stoll) (Pyraustinae: Crambidae: Lepidoptera)

Jagbir Singh Kirti, Navneet Singh and Harsimran Singh

  • Abstract

    Male genitalia of the Nevrina procopia (Stoll) is studied here is considerable details for the first time. The collected specimens were identified by using standard techniques of Lepidopterology. The studied male genitalic features will strengthen the diagnosis of this economically significant species and have been incorporated for updating the status of present taxa.

Effects of Subchronic Intoxication with Propoxur on Acid-Base Status in Pigeon (Columba livia domestica)

Azab Elsayed Azab, Aziza A. El-Shafey , Mohamed F.F. Bayomy,and Ata Sedik Ibrahim Elsayed

  • Abstract

    Propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methyl carbamate) is a widely used broad spectrum insecticide. Despite the increasing use of propoxurin Egypt, there is no complete information on the toxic effects of this insecticide in birds. Pigeons are usually feed on the seeds that may be contaminated by the insecticide (propoxur), mean while their meat is greatly required as food for people. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of subchronic oral dosage of propoxur (1/10 LD50) on acid-base status. The bird employed in the present study is the rock pigeon (Columba livia domestica), weighing between 320 – 380g. Birds were classified into four groups each consists of 5 animals as follow:1- Control group, 2- Three doses group, pigeons in this group treated with a repeated oral dose (1/10 LD50) of propoxur for three consecutive doses. 3- Six doses group, pigeons in this group treated with a repeated oral dose (1/10 LD50) of propoxur for six consecutive doses. 4 – Nine doses group, Pigeons in this group treated with a repeated oral dose (1/10 LD50) of propoxur for nine consecutive doses. (two-days interval between each two consecutive doses in treated groups) and birds were sacrificed after 24 hours after the last dose.This study concluded that, propoxur intoxication leads to Significant elevation in arterial and venousPCO2in all intoxicated groups, and significant decrease in arterial and venous blood pH as compared to control decrease in arterial and venous blood HCO3-and a significant decrease in calculated HCO3-/α PCO2 in arterial and venous blood compared to control in all intoxicated groups.

Hypolipidemic effect of some natural herbs on Normal diet-fed mice

Ata Sedik Ibrahim Elsayed

  • Abstract

    Lipids play an important role in virtually all aspects of biological processes in the body. Disturbances of their level in tissues and serum are usually associated with many abnormalities, including atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. This study aimed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of powdered green tea and curcumin when added to the normal mice diet. 30 male CD1 mice were used as experimental animals, these were classified into three groups, the first acts as a control, which fed only by normal mice diet, and in the second group powdered green tea was mixed with the diet, 15 gm of tea with each kilogram of normal diet. In the third group, curcumin was added by 3% to the diet and mixed will. After six weeks the animals were sacrificed and blood collected for biochemical analysis. The results showed that green tea caused decrease in serum triglycerides and VLDL, an increase in HDL cholesterol was also observed. Curcumin caused increase in HDL and amelioration in atherogenic index of plasma, atherogenic coefficient, and cardiac risk ratio.

Toxicological Effects of Propoxur on Electrolyte Balance in Pigeon (Columba livia domestica)

Azab Elsayed Azab and Ata Sedik Ibrahim Elsayed

  • Abstract

    Propoxur is a carbamate insecticide used for household control of flies, ants, aphids, mosquitoes, cockroaches and millipedes. Despite the increasing use of propoxur in Egypt, there is no complete information on the toxicity of this insecticide in birds. In this study we measured serum levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, bicarbonate, urea, creatinine, and uric acid as biomarkers to assess the toxic effects of propoxur on electrolyte balance and the quality of kidneys for maintaining this balance. The bird employed in the present study is the rock pigeon (Columba livia domestica), weighing between 320 – 380g. Birds were classified into four groups each consists of 5 animals as follow:1- Control group, this group, non-treated pigeons, were not subjected to oral administration of the insecticide. 2- Three doses group, pigeons in this group treated with a repeated oral dose (1/10 LD50) of propoxur for three consecutive doses. 3- Six doses group, pigeons in this group treated with a repeated oral dose (1/10 LD50) of propoxur for six consecutive doses. 4 – Nine doses group, Pigeons in this group treated with a repeated oral dose (1/10 LD50) of propoxur for nine consecutive doses. (Two days interval between each two consecutive doses in treated groups) and birds were sacrificed after 24 hours after the last dose. Results of this study, showed significant increase in serum sodium, potassium, urea and uric acid, and significant decrease in venous blood bicarbonate, and non-significant changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and creatinine as a result of subchronic dosage with propoxur

Effect of butanolic extract of leaves of Blighia unijugata Bak. (Sapindaceae) on liver and kidney cells of wistar rat

KONE Mama, N’CHO Roland Patrick, GBOGBO Moussa, N’DIA Kouadio Frédéric, YAO Kouadio Emile, KOUAKOU Kouakou Léandre, YAPO Angoué Paul

  • Abstract

    Blighia unijugata is a medicinal plant used in traditional management of hypertension in Côte d'Ivoire. In order to verify its safety, the butanolic extract of its leaves was administered for 28 days to wistar rats. Histological analysis of liver and kidneys showed hepatotoxicity at doses 500 and 1000 mg / kg body weight, as well as nephrotoxicity at dose 50 mg / kg body weight.

Cynoff Induced Renal Toxicity in the African Catfish Heterobrachus bidorsalis

Edori, O. S.2Edori. E. S. and Okere, I.

  • Abstract

    The effect of cynoff on the kidney was assessed by subjecting twenty-four (24) Heterobranchus bidorsalis of mean total length 32.55 ± 2.32 cm and mean weight 243.76 ±45.12 g to different cynoff concentrations. The prepared concentrations were 0.005, 0.0025, 0.010, 0.0125 and 0.0150 mg/L and a control (0.00 mg/L). The electrolytes and enzymes were assessed in the kidney after twenty one days of exposure. Sodium (Na+) declined in value in all the concentrations with the lowest value at 0.010 mg/L which was 70.00 ± 0.00 mmol/L. Potassium values were either lower, equal or higher than the control value. The lowest value was 12.92 ± 4.89 mmol/L, while the highest value was 15.52 ± 0.57 mmol/L being values at 0.0075 and 0.0125 mg/L respectively. However, chloride (Cl-) ion was only lower than the control at 0.005 mg/L which was 11.67 ± 0.00 mmol/L. Alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the concentrations and the control, but the activities increased in all the concentrations above the control value of 20.00± 7.70 IU/L. Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) declined in their activity compared to the control value which was not concentration dependent. The decrease however were significantly (P>0.05) different. AST highest value was 245.00 ± 8.66 IU/L at the control and the lowest value was 111.67 ± 6.50 IU/L at 0.0150 mg/L. ALP had the highest activity at 0.005 mg/L being 802.50 ± 4.19 IU/L and the least value at 0.010 mg/L being 510.00 ± 35.66 IU/L.

Study of centric diatoms along the southern coast of Karwar (Karnataka), India

Pallavi Choudhari and Ekhalak Ansari

  • Abstract

    The present study was carried out to assess the diversity profile and ecological aspects of centric diatoms in the southern coastal waters of Karwar. The study focuses attention on the systematic of diatom diversity in and around Karwar region from three stations. Total twenty five species were recorded from 9 different families. Maximum of 4 genera were recorded from Family Thalassiosiraceae. The most common genera were Skeletonema sp., Melosira sp., Hemidiscus sp., Coscinodiscuss sp., Rhizosolenia sp., Chaetoceros sp., and Biddulphia sp. Station 1 had high taxonomic diversity throughout study period compared to station 2 and station 3.

Subterranean Nest Architecture and Colony Characteristics of Meliponula (Meliplebeia) becarii (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) in Cameroo

NJOYA Moses Tita Mogho, Dieter Wittmann and Balgah Roland Azibo

  • Abstract

    Five nests of Meliponula (Meliplebeia) becarii were located and excavated in Bui Division of Cameroon to study their detail architecture. This paper describes the general nest structure of this species in terms of number, size, shape and area of combs, brood cells, pollen and honey pots. They construct their nests in secondary forests, eucalyptus plantations and open farm lands where numerous lateral roots are used as anchor for the nests. Meliponula (Meliplebeia) becarii is a subterranean stingless bee species made up of a brood area, involucrum layers and storage pots area. The combs are horizontal and the mode of comb building is concentric while cell construction is synchronous. The nests are connected to the exterior by a short outer entrance of 5-6cm above the soil with less than 0.1cm thick wall. A drainage tube of excess moisture measured 16.5cm long and 7-12m diameter was observed below the nests cavity. All the nests of Meliponula (Meliplebeia) becarii were found in subterranean cavities, built in the soils and exhibits architectural characters which are typical to all other genera of obligatory ground nesting bees in Africa like Plebeiella and Plebeina

Recruitment Communication Strategy of Workers of Dactylurina Staudingeri (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) in Cameroon

NJOYA Moses Tita Mogho᷾, , Dieter Wittmann and Grace Mendi Anjah

  • Abstract

    The potential of Dactylurina staudingeri to recruit nestmates to food sources of different quality was examined in Cameroon between October and December, 2008. Foraging bees were trained to collect sucrose solutions (artificial feeder) of increasing concentration at different distances and the number of new comers (recruits) to the various artificial sources was allowed to accumulate. The trained bees were marked and released to forage at the artificial feeder sources and to return to the nest. According to our findings, up to 53.4 % of foragers can cover a distance between 100m - 225m to collect high quality food, though most foragers (34.6%) are likely to forage at about 100m away from the nest. A majority of foragers (39.8%) may reach the food source between 30-60 minutes after training. Meanwhile, up to 28.6% of foragers visited food sources in less than 30minutes. Some new comers (55%) appeared to artificial feeder almost at the same time as the trained bees while others (44%) appeared unaccompanied. On the other hand, Dactylurina staudingeri appeared to lay scent trials because both new comers and trained bees landed on the nearby plant leaves and on the brim of the artificial feeder source before finally moving into the feeder to collect the sugar solution. The highest number of recruits was recorded at the feeder with 100% sugar concentration and at 150m.

Occurrence of Butterflies at Ramanuj Nagar Teshil, District Surajpur, Chhattisgarh

Junas Ekka and S. John William

  • Abstract

    Butterflies have an important role in maintaining the balance of environment and the lives of other living ones. A survey regarding occurrence of butterflies, was carried out at Ramanuj Nagar Teshil, District Surajpur, from November 1st 2015-December 31st 2015.During the survey, Nymphalidae was the most dominant family having 6 species under 6 genera, followed by Pieridae with 4 species and 3 genera, Papilionidae with 3 species of 2 genera, Lycaenidae 2 species of 2 genera and least occurrence was in Hesperiidae, which had only 1 species and 1 genera. Some aspects of nectar vegetation are suitable for dominant species of butterflies such as Nymphalidae. All the species found here are new to Ramanuj Nagar Teshil, Distrct Surajpur. The aim of this short term exploration was to invent the occurrence of butterflies at Ramanuj Nagar. During summer and winter the occurrence of butterfly population is less, compare to other seasons of the year. It is due to defoliation of plants, frost and to greater extent due to summer heat.

Leaf architecture studies in some species of Lagerstroemia L

Anil A. Kshirsagar

  • Abstract

    The present paper deal with the study of leaf architecture in six species of Lagerstroemia belongs to family Lythraceae. The leaves are opposite, alternate and simple type. They are unicostate reticulate in venation. The venation category is weak brochidodromous and semicraspedodromous type reported. This paper is mainly focused on the examination of leaf architecture, venation pattern and areoles etc. The areoles are varies from species to species. Laminar ratio (L: W) ranges from 14 to 7.2. The laminar symmetry, shape, base angle, apex angle, vein category and areolation are variable.

Studies on the Production and Optimization of Pectinase by Aspergillus Niger NCIM 616 using Mixed Substrate under Solid State Fermentation

V. Suman and K. Jaya Raju

  • Abstract

    Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially important t enzymes. Pectinases are one of the most widely disseminated enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. In the present study, the production of pectinase using Aspergillus niger NCIM 616 was carried out under solid-state fermentation using mixed substrate. Among Tapioca starch(Manihotesculenta) ,Wood apple(limonia accidissima), Rajma(phaseolus vulgaris), Tapioca starch powder and Wood apple powder were selected and mixed in different ratios for fermentation medium. The maximum production was obtained at the ratio of 2.5:2.5( Tapioca starch: Wood apple) .Different parameters optimization processes were investigated on SSF namely fermentation time (5 days), temperature (350C), pH (5.0), and moisture content (80%), inoculum volume (2ml), inoculum age(5 days) and nutrient supplements possessing sucrose as carbon source and Ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source.

Impact of integrated diets comprising of Sesamum indicum, Emblica officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare during Pregnancy and Lactation in Swiss Albino Mice

Ragini Sharma, Neelam Jain Deepika Rani, Amrita jaitawat, Mahima suthar

  • Abstract

    Proper nutrition is necessary for preparing the body for the demands of pregnancy. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and lactating agents are essential nutrients which are necessary for pregnant women to diminish adverse birth out comes. In the present investigation we find out the role of high fat (Sesamum indicum) and antioxidant containing Emblica officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare during pregnancy and lactation in Swiss albino mice. To evaluate the role of Sesamum indicum, Emblica officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare selected pregnant females were fed with water ad libitum and divided into six groups, each group comprising six females. Group I – control diet, groups - II Control diet + Sesamum Indicum, group - III Control diet + Emblica officinalis, group - IV Control + Emblica officinalis + Sesamum indicum, group - V Control + Foeniculum vulgare and group - VI Control + High fat + Foeniculum vulgare. After parturition the body weight (BW), crown to rump length (CRL) and BMI of pups were recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, 35th and 49th day. Statistically highly significant changes were noted in the BW of pups on 1st, 14th, and 21st day while on 35thand 49th day no significant changes were observed. There was highly significant change in the CRL on 1st, 7th, 14st, and 49th day but significant changes occurred on 21st day and no significant changes were noted on 49th day along with highly significant changes in BMI on 14th and 35th day and other groups showed similarity at all post-natal days (PND).

Test of the safety of Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) root aqueous extract

Tchogou AP, Sènou M,  Agbangnan DCP, Agossadou A, Assogba F, Dougnon TV, Klotoé JR, Gbénou J, Sèzan A, Lalèyè A, Loko F

  • Abstract

    Cocos nucifera L. is a widespread tropical plant in coastal areas. In Benin, its roots are used to cure anemia. The aim of this work was to test the safety of the aqueous extract of its roots. On the aqueous extract of the roots of the plant, were carried out in vitro larval toxicity test and in vivo acute oral toxicity test according to OECD guideline 423. 2000 mg of the extract / Kg of body weight were injected into Wistar rats which were followed for 14 days. On day D14, blood tests were performed as well as the histology of the liver, kidneys and spleen and were compared to D0. In vitro, the LC50 was 9.23 mg / ml, above the threshold 1 mg / ml indicating no larval toxicity. In vivo on D14, the weight of the rats did not significantly change. Uremia and serum creatinine also did not significantly change, indicating no renal function impairment, confirmed by kidney histology. The ASAT and ALAT transaminases did not significantly change suggesting an absence of hepatic cytolysis, confirmed by the normal appearance of the hepatic parenchyma. The number of white blood cells did not change significantly, suggesting lack immune disturbance, confirmed by an examination of the splenic parenchyma, a secondary immune organ. The aqueous extract of Cocos nucifera roots did not reveal liver or kidney toxicity or impair immunity. The study should be continued by chronic toxicity tests and appropriate clinical trials.

Seasonal changes in the muscle biochemical composition of Harpiosquilla harpax (de Haan, 1844) (Stomatopoda: Crustacea) represented in trawl net by-catches off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

D. Rajendra Prasad and P. Yedukondala Rao

  • Abstract

    In the present study, biochemical constituents (protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash) along with moisture were studied in different sexes and length groups of Harpiosquilla harpax has been carried out during July 2007 to June 2009. The range of moisture, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash were 75.82% to 85.75%, 9.28% to 16.96%, 0.06% to 0.58%, 2.23% to 5.94% and 0.87% to 2.34% respectively. In general, the protein and ash were higher except moisture, carbohydrate and lipid in males than females. The total values of protein, lipid and ash were higher in younger ones than in adults. In the present study clearly indicated that the nutritional value of H. harpax is very well compared to the edible species of decapod crustaceans already studied (shrimps, prawns and lobsters). Considering the above results from the nutritional point of view, H. harpax can be very well used as food and for preparation of various by-products.

Tumor Lysis Syndrome: A Review

Himani Joshi

  • Abstract

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is the term collectively used for a group of metabolic disturbances that may precede cancer chemotherapy or result as a complication occurring as a result of cancer chemotherapy, most commonly observed after the treatment of blood related cancers, lymphomas and leukemias. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by a large and extensive death of tumor cells which leads to the development of metabolic disorganization and hence, target organ dysfunction. TLS occurs as a result of cancer chemotherapy or spontaneously. Blood related cancers constitute the significant majority of TLS cases because of the sensitivity to therapy and rapid division rates. Another significant observation is the increased blood levels of potassium (hyperkalaemia), phosphorus (hyperphosphataemia), uric acid (hyperuricemia), and lower levels of calcium (hypocalcaemia).

Applications of nanotechnology in plants, agriculture and food sectors

Anil A. Kshirsagar, V.P.Deshpande2 and S.B.Kolhe

  • Abstract

    Nanotechnology has a large scope of applications in the field of plants, agriculture and food sectors. Now a day’s nanotechnology has tremendous use in the packaging, storage, production, food processing and transport of agriculture products. Reduction of pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides with increasing yield by the use of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have unique physiochemical properties namely process of photosynthesis, pore size, high surface area, high reactivity, plant growth and morphology. Therefore the present paper focused on the use of nano pesticides, nanoherbicides, nanoparticles in crop improvement in plants and agriculture.