Vol. 7 & Issue 2 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Feb to April 2017


Biochemical effects of cigarette smoke on salivary lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in healthy individuals at Zarka University College

Maissa Taleb Shawagfeh

  • Abstract

    Tobacco use is known as a serious global public health problem, it plays a significant role in oral and systematic disorders by generating various free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Saliva constituents a first line defense against free radicals-mediated oxidative stress (OS) by inhibiting the production of ROS and free radicals. To determine the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in smokers and non-smokers healthy volunteer, the study was carried out on 160 healthy students and were divided into two groups (80) smokers and (80) non smokers. Saliva samples were used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GHPxs) levels, and compared between studied groups. Saliva lipid peroxidation (as MDA) level was significantly increased in smokers group when compared to the corresponding non-smokers. Significant reductions in the levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, and GHPxs were encountered in smoking subjects as compared to non-smokers group. The results provide a foundation for future studies to identify specific salivary oxidative stress which may be linked to smoke-related diseases. These biomarkers are easily carried out in clinical laboratory and saliva could offer distinct advantages.

Impact of Spice Treatments on the Quality and Shelf Life of Sun Dried Taki (Channa punctatus)

M.S. Rahman, M.G. Rasul, M.M. Hossain, W. Uddin1, B.C. Majumdar, M.S.I. Sarkar and M.A.J. Bapary

  • Abstract

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of spices (turmeric, chili and their combination) treatment on the quality of dried Taki (Channa punctatus) immediately after production and subsequent storage. The raw Taki fish with excellent quality were collected from the local market, treated with 2% turmeric, 2% chili and a combination of 2% turmeric and chili after processing. A control group of fish was dried traditionally without spices treatment and some traditional sun dried taki were also purchased from local market. The spices treated dried fish showed excellent quality than other treatments when judged by sensory and nutritional quality. The fish treated with spices have higher percentage of protein (range 62% to 67%) than those of the others (58% to 62%). The quality loss was higher in untreated dried fish during storage under airtight plastic container. All the chemical compositions (protein, lipid and ash) except moisture percentage were decreased with the increase of storage period. Only moisture content was increased with storage length. Best water reconstitution percentage was found in the fish samples treated with spices than those of others. The fungal infestation was higher in the untreated and market collected dried fish products. The insects (Dermestes sp.) infestation was observed within 2 months of storage period. This result indicated that the spices have an impact on the quality of the final products as well as maintaining quality even longer period of storage. This technology can be adopted for commercial purposes to reduce the microbial and insect threat on dried fish products.

PE /PPE proteins family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as subunit vaccines against aerosol challenge

Najmeh Ansari , Mahin SHahdordizadeh, Adriana Garibay-Escobar and Kiarash GHazvini

  • Abstract

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the cause of infectious mortality worldwide with more than 2.9 million deaths annually. The effective control and eradication of Tuberculosis (TB) depend on the use of effective vaccines. The live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only vaccine currently available against TB. Subunit vaccines are compound of some protective antigens, in different forms such as recombinant protein in adjuvant. Analysis of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv genome sequence revealed the importance of the Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) gene families that comprise almost 10% of the coding capacity of the genome. Because of their strong induction of recall T-cell IFN-γ responses in infected mice, PE family proteins has been the focus of vaccine studies against TB infection. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate potential of PE/PPE family members as vaccine. We describe studies about protection efficacy of PE and PPE family proteins as vaccines in the mice challenge with M. tuberculosis.

Bacterial contamination of eye drops in multiple application bottles at Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Ochiogu BC, Udeaja AC, Ughachukwu PO Okani C.

  • Abstract

    Contamination is the presence of any substance or organism that makes a preparation impure. In Ophthalmology, different types of eye drops in multiple application bottles are in common use for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and their contamination, reported by several authors, may be associated with ocular irritation, disruption of ocular surface and ocular infection. We therefore decided to determine the incidence of bacterial contamination of eye drops in multiple application bottles. Eye drop in multiple application bottles dispensed to patients at the Ophthalmology clinic of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Amaku, Awka Anambra state of Nigeria on outpatient basis were retrieved from them after 7-28 days and the left-overs in these bottles were analyzed. A total of 30 eye drop bottles were collected within the period of two months. One bottle was discarded because it contained no specimen. The incidence of bacterial contamination of all the eye drops over the 7-28day period was 0.31 (31%). The incidence of bacterial contamination of antibiotics eye drop was 0.18(18%) compared to 0.38 (38%) for non-antibiotics eye drops. The binomial probability of contamination was 0.0186. There was no statistically significant relationship between the duration of usage of the eye drops and the percentage bacterial contamination using student t-test (P value = 0.3214).The incidence of bacterial contamination was higher in non-antibiotic-containing eye drops compared to antibiotic-containing eye drops. There was no correlation between the duration of usage and bacterial contamination of eye drops.

Effect of various supplementary feedings on growth of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
in concrete ponds

Tokuma Negisho, Megerssa Endebu, Daba Tugie and John Barnabas

  • Abstract

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect different supplementary feeding of wheat flour, noug cake and maize flour on the growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus in concrete ponds at Zeway fisheries resources research center. The feeding trial was conducted in three ponds of having a surface area of 35m2 each for seven months between July 2012 and January 2013. All the experimental and control group were run in triplicate with stocking density of 3fish/m2. The supplemental feeds were agreed at 5% of the fish body weight with respective test feeds and the control group was without any supplemental feed. The initial weight (33.3gm) and length (12.5cm) of O. niloticus, in all treatments was not noted as statically different. The results of study indicated that, the final weights were significantly different among the treatments. Generally, fish fed with supplementary feeds grew significantly higher than the unfed (Control group) group (ANOVA, P<0.001). Similarly, growth of the fish fed with wheat flour + noug cake (WF+NC) showed significantly higher growth performance than the fish fed with maize flour + noug cake (MF+NC) (ANOVA, P<0.05). Fish rose in WF+NC (0.35 g/day) demonstrated better growth rate than MF+NC (0.15g/day). Variation in growth rate between fed treatments and unfed treatment as well as among fed treatments might be attributed to both direct and indirect effects of supplementary feeds given to the fish. Direct intake of feeds by the fish provides more nutrients resulting in better growth and production. Moreover, addition of supplementary feeds can elevate the level of organic nutrients that favor the growth of flagellate phytoplankton which are good quality food for the fish. We therefore concluded that all supplementary feeds nearly doubled the growth of O. niloticus in ponds.

Control Region Diversity among Dutch Domesticated Clarias Gariepinus Strains in Nigeria

S.A. Nwafili and B. Uedeme-Naa

  • Abstract

    The sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus is an important food fish in Africa. It is distributed across the continent; however it was selected for growth and conformation in The Netherlands from where the Dutch strain was introduced to Nigeria and other parts of Africa. To examine the genetic variation among hatchery populations in Nigeria, parts of the control region from 8 samples were sequenced. The Control region suggests moderate genetic diversity indices. Among 93 sequences 45 sites representing 9.36% of total sites were variable, defining 29 haplotypes. Two genetically distinct mtDNA lineages in exotic Clarias gariepinus were observed; however, the median network shows that no strain is distinct. Escapes from aquaculture facilities are threats to local genetic resources of Clarias gariepinus and Clarias angullaris.

Impact of amino acid substitutions on FGFR1 gene stability at positions Val513Gly, Val607Met and Pro722Ser

Soumitra Nath, Appi Nath, Gayatri Nath and Bibhas Deb

  • Abstract

    FGFR1 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 8 that makes fibroblast growth factor receptor one protein. Mutation in FGFR1 gene causes diseases like Kallmann syndrome, 8p11 Myeloproliferative Syndrome, Osteoglophonic Dysplasia, Pfeiffer Syndrome, Cancers. In the present study, the 3-dimensional structure of FGFR1 gene was studied using SWISS PDB-Viewer, Molegro, and Chimera. The mutated rotamers having the lowest score were selected, and the amino acid residues were compared with wild type residue to identify the structural changes arising from the mutation. Three highly deleterious nsSNPs were seen in FGFR 1 gene at position Val513Gly, Val607Met, and Pro722Ser. The mutational results made us figure out the changes in the structure of the protein that are difficult to study in-vivo and in-vitro. The study demonstrated that the mutation in FGFR1 protein leads to change in protein conformation and structure.

Integrated Fish-horticulture Farm Production System at Shalad Arsi, Oromia, Ethiopia

Tokuma Negisho, Daba Tugie and John Barnaba

  • Abstract

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of integrated fish-horticulture farming system aimed to create job opportunity, ensure food security, increase family income and reduce level of poverty through diversifying and intensifying agricultural products using biological wastes as input. The horticulture experiments on two horticulture types (Brassica oleracea and Allium cepa) on different plots were categorized in to two groups, where group I was irrigated by direct river water and group II was fish pond water. Each group has two treatments and replicated three times. Both integrated horticultures farming were conducted simultaneously with fish raising where 3,295 Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings of an average weight of 26.23 g were stocked at the rate of 2fish/m2 in 1,640 m2 earthen pond. The fish were supplemented with 70%Wheat bran and 30%Noug cake at 5% body weight twice a day. Final fish size gained in 216 days was ranged from 85.4 to 273.5 g in weight with an average of 148.8±2.04 g. The fish mean daily growth rate (DGR), specific growth rate (SGR) and relative growth rate (RGR) were 0.57±0.01 g/ day, 2.23% day-1 fish-1 and 473.4% respectively. As the study revealed that, the integrated horticulture experiment treated with fish pond water without chemical fertilizers was performed better yield on Allium cepa 657.56 q/ha. However, the yield of Brassica oleracea from fish pond water with fertilizer was a little bit higher 153.70q/ha than which treated without chemical fertilizers140.60q/ha.

Phytochemical Screening and Antifungal activity of Leaf and Stem Extract of Vitex negundo

S.Rajapandi and N.Vishnuthari

  • Abstract

    Vitex negundo is a medicinal plant reported to be used for the treatment of skin diseases. Venereal infections, elephantiasis, asthma, topical burns and rheumatism. The plant possesses high medicinal potential. Various extract of stems and leaves of vitex negundo was done and antifungal activity of the extracts was assessed against microorganisms Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans by disc diffusion method. The ethanol extract showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans comparable to standard Clotrimazole.

Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn: a multi-potential medicinal plant

Siddalinga Murthy SM

  • Abstract

    Plants have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years and herbal medicines are much in demand throughout the world. Indian people have tremendous passion for medicinal plants and they use them for wide range of health related applications. Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn is a widely used medicinal plant. It is a small, erect, annual herb that grows 30-40 cm in height. It is common throughout the hotter parts of India in waste lands, cultivated fields and shady places. Traditional medicinal uses of this plant have been collected from the ethnobotanical survey carried out in Harapnahalli taluk of Davangere district, Karnataka state, India. The plant is mainly used in the treatment of diseases like jaundice, diabetes, viral fever, dysentery and urinary disorders. Majority of the people in the study area use this plant for these health problems as it is easily available and has no side effects.

Osmotic Stress Acclimation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) HH7 Variety Seedlings Induced by Germination in Sorbitol Containing Medium In-Vitro

Mai Quynh Le, Hoa Phuong Thi Vu, Trang Thi Ngo, Hong Van Thi Nguyen, Thanh Trung Nguyen

  • Abstract

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the most important dicotyledonous tuber crop, grown widely and it is the fourth most cultivated food crop in the world, following wheat, rice and maize. However, in Vietnam potato is only grown as a winter crop and at certain limited cultivation conditions. Hong Ha 7 is one of the most popular potato cultivars in Vietnam and in this study osmotic stress acclimation of potato cultivar HH7 seedlings was assessed for further application seed treatment procedure to increase potato area. Some parameters as shoot multiplication, height of shoot, number of leaves and roots as well as weight were evaluated. Chlorophyll and proline contents were measured photometrically. Drought acclimated plants which had germinated in media containing high concentrations of sorbitol increased the number of shoots, leaves and in particular roots and had higher shoot length in comparison to non-acclimated plants. Furthermore, the acclimated potato plants absorbed more water accumulated more dry weight as well as chlorophyll and proline than non-acclimated plants. Germination in sorbitol containing media induced acclimation, increasing osmotic stress tolerance in potato HH7 seedlings in-vitro.Concentration of 50 mM sorbitol, which is equal to -0.13 MPa water potential, could induce the highest acclimation effect in potato HH7 variety.

Adaptation to Immersion of Typha Australis (Schum and Thonn.) From The Study of Anatomical Characters of Leaves

Sagna Moustapha Bassimbé, Kane Ibrahima, Ndiaye Daouda

  • Abstract

    Typha plants, such as Typha australis, are generally found in wetlands. The aim of this work is to understand how the anatomical structures of the leaves explain its strong development potential in wetlands. The results show that the anatomical structure doesn’t differ from that of the macrophytes: the large presence of the aerenchyms and of the air spaces facilitate the transfer of the respiratory gases from the aerial part to the roots allowing an adaptation to the immersion. Moreover, the existence of a palissadic parenchyma on both sides of the leaves as well as a network of lacunar spaces in Typha would optimize photosynthesis.These anatomical characters would favor the adaptation of the species in the wetlands

Potent Telomerase Antisense Oligonucleotides over the Past Two Decades

Mohamed A. O. A. AbdelMoety and Sara Moghnie

  • Abstract

    The ribonucleoprotein complex telomerase is responsible for maintaining telomeres length at the end of chromosomes during cell division. It overcomes the wellknown end replication problem and guards against losing chromosomes ends. Telomerase activity is observed in many cancer and  ther immortalized cell lines. As a result of its innate ability to access to nucleic acids, telomerase is onsidered ideal for the antisense oligonucleotide therapies that target the RNA template of the enzyme. Over the years there has been a mass development of these agents for treating different malignancies. This review spots light to the most reliable trials that, over the past two decades, have directed antisense oligonucleotides of different chemical classes against human telomerase, analyzes their structural features and provides a possible explanation for their variant potencies and kinetics. In total, 26 anti-telomerase oligonucleotides were selected from different studies and their relative potency was discussed in view of their physicochemical properties. It was concluded that presence of 10 nucleotides, on average, targeting positions 142 – 151 of the template region is essential for telomerase inhibitory activity. Structural modifications such as 2’-OH replacement with O-alkyl, presence of sulfur atoms, introduction of steric hindrance along the backbone has improved solubility and/or stability and thus granted better activity. Attaching basic moieties to the oligonucleotide scaffold has optimized cellular delivery of the developed candidates.

Study of the catalytic effect of molybdenum salt on bacteria for phorate degradation

Sangita Saha, Gopinath Rana, Arijit Mukhopadhyay , Achintya Mondal, Tanusri Mandal

  • Abstract

    Experimental studies have been carried out to find the catalytic activity of molybdenum ion on Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas sp. for phorate degradation. Two bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., named ZS20, and Pseudomonas sp., named E57, have been used in this experiment to degrade phorate. Phorate is one of the most demandable insecticides. It is used in agricultural fields to kill insects. However, the residual or unused phorate contaminates the environment. However, phorate contains phosphate ion, which is an important plant macro-nutrient. In the present study, two different molybdenum salts, sodium molybdate and ammonium molybdate, have been used. The optimum amount of each of them has been found to be 0.12 M/L. Molybdenum ion is an essential micro-nutrient for plant-growth. Without the presence of molybdenum salt, the degradation capacities of both the bacteria are very low. The combination of ammonium molybdate and ZS20 strain can degrade the phorate at a faster rate than any other combination of the strains. Hence, the inoculants of ZS20 strain along with ammonium molybdate enhanced vigor index and germination index of Cicer arietinum seed. The experiment aims to degrade toxic chemical phorate into valuable phosphate and other compounds. Quantitative assessments of soluble phosphate, phosphatase enzyme, pH, and bacterial growth have been performed. The LC-MS data of bi-products of ZS20 and ammonium molybdate has shown the presence of valuable organic acids and soluble phosphates. These LC-MS data have confirmed the complete biodegradation of phorate. It is the combined effect of catalyst Molybdenum salt and bacteria that degrades the phorate.

Some Physical and Mechanical characterization of Tunisian planted Eucalytusloxophleba and Eucalyptus salmonophloia woods

Mohamed Tahar Elaieb, Sarra Ben Rhouma, Ali Khouaja, Ali Khorchani, IssamTouhami, M.L.Khouja, Kévin Candelier

  • Abstract

    After the independence in 1957 and with the support of the FAO117, Eucalyptus species were planted in Tunisia in different arboreta throughout the country for close observation and adaptation to climate and soil. The objective of this study is to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of two species planted in marginal area in Sousse (arboretum El Hanya) in the east of Tunisia (Eucalytus loxophleba and Eucalyptus salmonophloia). The moisture content, specific gravity and volumetric shrinkage were measured. The Mechanical tests were performed to evaluate the hardness, the static bending and the resistance to compression parallel to fiber direction.Preliminary results showed that Eucalytusloxophleba and Eucalyptus salmonophloia have a low dimensional stability. During the drying period, woods showed signs of collapses. On the other hand, both species were highly resistant to compression strength while they were lower on the static bending. Eucalytus loxophleba and Eucalyptus salmonophloia characteristics established within this study were similar to other Eucalyptus species from Tunisia, Morocco, Australia and Brazil. This wood may be used in furniture, structural material and/or biomass energy.

Effect of chronic levels of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on some haematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus juvenile

Uedeme-Naa, B and George, A.D.I

  • Abstract

    This study assessed the effect of chronic levels of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate on some selected hematological variables such as packed cell volume, (PCV), platelets, hemoglobin (Hb), leucocrit (Lct), white blood cell (WBC), and differential counts- neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, monocytes and basophil; red blood cell (RBC) and red cells - mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Packed cell volume, leucocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume were impacted negatively upon by toxicant except at 10.00mg/l where PCV and MCV were positively impacted when compared to control. Hemoglobin, lymphocyte, white blood cell, neutrophil, red blood cell and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were raised above control except hemoglobin and lymphocyte at 10.00mg/l and platelets fluctuated. Generally, all the blood variables except some differential counts such as monocyte, basophil, eosinophil - but at 30.00 and 40.00mg/l were impacted (P>0.05) by the exposure of juvenile fish to toxicant. Findings from the study suggests that assessment of the selected hematological variables are effective determinants of the impact of detergent exposure in the test fish, hence indiscriminate use of and disposal of detergent should be regulated.

Bioactive Properties and Stability of the Microcapsules with Lactobacillus Casei Probiotics and Arabinoxylans Fractions as Prebiotics

Gigi Coman, Elena Roxana Chiriac, Alexandru Chiriac

  • Abstract

    Cereal bran arabinoxylans (AX) as prebiotics and Lactobacillus casei spp paracasei as probiotic have been encapsulated in sodium alginate, having as objective survival increasing during exposure to stress conditions while crossing the gastro-intestinal tract. The number of cells of Lactobacillus casei spp paracasei (LAB) increased in all samples after encapsulation, in a similar ratio for LAB + inulin, LAB + rye bran AX, LAB + oat bran AX. A high percentage was obtained for LAB+2% oat bran AX sample at a high value of encapsulation yield (E.Y.132, 72%). The significant resistance in simulated gastric juice has presented LAB+2% oat bran AX sample after 90 min and LAB+2% rye bran AX after 60 min exposure time. Viability was maintaining under simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0) and simulated intestinal juice conditions (pH 8.0) for all levels of exposure time in the case of LAB + rye bran AX and LAB + oat bran AX samples, demonstrating the protective role and nutritional enrichment of AX extracted from cereals bran. In conclusions, this study presents a microencapsulation method of probiotic (Lactobacillus casei spp paracasei) with a prebiotic (cereal bran arabinoxylans), that makes to grow the resistance of the probiotic during exposure to adverse environmental conditions by gastro-intestinal tract.

Effect of additive supplementation and age of callus on the expression pattern of three key genes of phenylpropanoid pathway in P. ovata

Pratik Talukder  and Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri

  • Abstract

    Phenylpropanoid pathway is one of the most important metabolic pathways associated with plant secondary metabolism. This pathway leads to the formation of different types of polyphenolic compounds. Secondary metabolism in Plantago ovata involves various enzymes which are synthesized by different key genes of this pathway. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase are the genes which were studied in this present investigation. Here for the first time partial sequences of coding regions of these three genes were sequenced and identified in this plant. There pivotal role in phenolic biosynthesis during callus culture was analyzed in this present study. Impact of ageing of callus, presence of plant growth regulators in the culture media and the effect of supplementation with organic additives on the expression of these genes were also analyzed. Alteration in expression of these genes were observed both in ageing callus tissue and also in callus grown in medium with additive supplementation. Among the three genes, expression of DFR and CHS enhanced significantly more than PAL in additive supplemented callus. Contrary to that PAL showed highest enhancement of expression during callogenesis. This study portrays the regulatory aspects of PAL, CHS and DFR induction for higher production of polyphenols using in vitro callogenesis.

Determination of major and minor elements in kids’ milk using XRF Technique

Bakhtiyar Azad Abdullah, Faten Adel Ismael Chaqmaqchee and Sewgil Saaduldeen Anwer

  • Abstract

    Milk products are a very important human nutrient since their consumption has increased in recent years. The determination of mineral elements in milk products is of great importance since their excess or deficiency may affect human health. In this study, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, and iron were determined in milk products from markets in Erbil city, dried by freeze-drying (Lyophilization) and the elements determined by XFR technique. All milk sample has high concentration of K, Ca, and Cl. In addition, No.M and yM samples has high concentration of K, Ca and Cl at around 2.09, 1.54 and 1.10, respectively. The sample of yM is also high concentration of in K, Ca and Cl at around 2.54, 1.54 and 1.35, respectively. The total percentages for the thirteen samples were less and more than 100% due to the statistical errors during measurements. The elemental concentrations were similar in the milk products

Supplemental feed formulation for the best growth performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Cichlidae) in pond culture system

Firew Admasu, Abebe Getahun, Mulugeta Wakjira

  • Abstract

    Aquaculture remains virtually nonexistent in Ethiopia despite the nation’s suitable natural and socio-economic conditions to support its development. One of the major setbacks to the sector’s development in the country is a critical shortage of well formulated aquafeeds. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)) is one of the potential aquaculture species in the country. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the best supplemental feed formulation from locally available and low-cost ingredients for the best growth performance and yield of Nile tilapia in earthen pond culture. The experiment was designed to consist of three treatments of 30 %, 35 %, and 40 % crude protein formulated feeds, and one control, each in two replicates. Juvenile fishes of known initial length and weight were stocked into the experimental ponds at a rate of 2 fish m-2. The fishes in the treatment ponds were fed with the formulated feeds at 5 % of their body weight twice a day for 150 days. The growth, feeding and condition factor parameters were computed following known equations in the literature. Variations in the mean fish size were tested using one-way ANOVA. The values of growth and yield as well as feed conversion parameters and fish condition were higher for the fishes fed with the 35 % crude protein level. These parameters decreased as the amount of crude protein was increased beyond 35 %. The economic valuation suggested that large-scale earthen pond production of Nile tilapia can be economically feasible based on the feed formulated from the local ingredients experimented in the present study.

CYP gene polymorphisms in Uterine Leiomyomas

Veronica M, Chaitra K L  , Venkateshwari A, Mamata D and Pratibha Nallari

  • Abstract

    Uterine Leiomyomas (UL) are non-cancerous single celled mass of smooth muscle cells of the uterus made up of large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) components like collagen, fibronectin and proteoglycans. The growth and development of leiomyoma are estrogen dependent that is synthesized and degraded by CYP proteins. This study was carried out to evaluate the association of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms with uterine leiomyoma in South Indian Cohort. Study included 146 individuals positive for uterine fibroids and 150 healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was isolated from white blood corpuscles and subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis. The significance of the obtained data in controls and patients was estimated and computed by adopting appropriate statistical tools. In this study, an association between CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism and UL was reported. A significant association of the AG genotype ((χ2= 11.84, p=0.0027) with uterine leiomyomas was observed. Likewise odds risk estimates also revealed a significant association of AG genotype with uterine leiomyomas. However the “GG” genotype of CYP1B1 Leu432Val conferred protection against UL. The “AG” genotype of CYP1A1 Ile462Val is associated with higher risk to leiomyomas and they are likely to contribute in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma.

Chemical, physical and nutritional composition of residual press cake in four Jatropha species, natives of Mexico

Sandra L. Cabrera-Hilerio, Ivonne Perez-Xochipa, Maricela Rodríguez-Acosta, and Jesus Sandoval  Ramirez

  • Abstract

    A study of the physical characteristics and nutritional composition of the residual press cake and shell of four Jatropha species endemics to Mexico, Jatropha andrieuxii, J. elbae, J. rzedowskii and J. oaxacana was carried out. The press cake in all the evaluated species showed a low content of oil (2.77.8%) and ash (4.6-6.3%), but high protein (39-43%) and fiber (41-47%). The shell of J. elbae contains 83.6% crude fiber, while that of J. rzedowskii has 75.5% and J. oaxacana only 70.21%. J. andrieuxii showed the highest total dietary fiber (44%), the majority of which is insoluble fiber. J rzedowskii showed the highest content of soluble fiber (15.6%). Our results show that products remaining after oil extraction from these Jatropha species may be an important source of fiber and protein, and can be exploited in these regions of Mexico.

Comparative study on nutritive quality of edible muscles of the blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus ) from two regions of Saudi Arabia

Hala Ali, Abdel-Salam and Kamal Shaker Al Benasy

  • Abstract

    Regarding the results obtained in the present study in light of nutritional point of view commercial Portunus pelagicus crabs from studied regions of Saudi Arabia are considered to be highly nutritious and healthy crustaceans species and can be very well used as food for human consumption. The results showed that the edible muscles of both sexes of crab species contained high amount of protein, low level of carbohydrates, moderate content of lipids, 9 essential amino acids (EAAS) represented by arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, valine, threonine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine and methionine and 7 non-essential (NEAAS) amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, tyrosine, serine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid). The concentration of EAAS and NEAAS varied among studied samples. Additionally, the analysis of vitamins B showed that the crab meats had considerable amount of vitamins B1 and B2. According to mineral analysis, the concentrations of the mineral varied significantly among studied samples. The levels of minerals had the following descending arrangement in all studied samples of crabs: S > P > Ca > Zn > K> Na. So, P. pelagicus is also considered a good source of various minerals for human. From the electrophoretic analysis of protein, 14 bands were identified around molecular weight 114.66 to 13.67 KD and 188.20 to 5.55 KD for males and females from Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf respectively.

Improving of cellulase productivity of Trichoderma reesei isolate by using physical and chemical mutagens

Shimal Younis Abdul-Hadi, Fawz Abdel-Salam Al-Saffar and Aswan Hamdullah Al-Bayyar

  • Abstract

    Seven cellulytic fungal isolates were achieved referred to Trichoderma species isolated from different soils from ancient town Ayutthaya in Bangkok/ Thailand. The isolates were subjected for two screening methods primary and secondary screening to select the most cellulases productivity. From screening results, it cleared that the isolate which marked (T5) was the best. Cultural and microscopial identification tests showed that it refers to Trichoderma reesei. The UV light mutant isolate for 20 min. which marked (Tr-UV 20) achieved a high productivity of cellulase which was 17.38U/ml. while the mutation operation by Gamma ray (2KG) showed increasing in production ability for the isolate marked (Tr2-G2) which was 28.55U/ml. Using Nitrosoguanidine achieved great success in increasing cellulase productivity which was 42.26U/ml for the mutant isolate marked (Tr-NTG3), it was 5 times of their parents.

Effect of Moringa Oleifera, Portulica Oleraceae and Cymbopogon Citratus extracts on MCF7 and A549 Carcinomas Cell Lines, Determination the Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities In-Vitro

Nermien Z. Ahmed

  • Abstract

    The current work aimed to evaluate the potential anti-proliferative properties of seed oil from M. oleifera; aqueous extracts from both C. citratus (leaves) and P. oleracea (seeds) on Human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Human lung carcinoma cell lines (A-549).The % inhibition was determined by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide solution (MTT) assay and the literature contains few (or no) information about the cytotoxic properties. The medicinal extracts were also evaluated for their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, the biochemical studies were carried out to determine the oxidative status by measuring: DPPH, OH•, FRAP, TAC, Total phenolic, total flavonoids, and NO contents. The anti-inflammatory activity by two doses of each extract against Rutin hydrate (as standard) on the four marker lysosomal enzymatic activities in rat liver (Acid phosphatase; β-galactosidase; β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase and β-Glucuronidase) as compared to control group after 60 minutes of incubation were investigated. It was concluded that, these extracts may be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidants in food preservation and may be potentially useful as a food and cosmetic ingredient. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress can cause hypertension; these extracts expect to develop health care products for the prevention and mitigation hypertensive symptoms. It supposed to play an important role in cancer inhibition and progression, considering that these extracts showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and also variable cytotoxic effects, they seem to be a chemo-preventive agent and a good candidate for antineoplastic drug development.Also, it was recommended for human lung cancer (A-549) patients never use the aqueous extract of P. oleracea seeds.

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