Vol. 7 & Issue 4 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2017

 

Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Anogeissus Leiocarpus Stem Bark on Castor Oil- Induced Diarrhoea in Rats

Memi G.G , D, Dahiru, Junaid, O.Q , A. Abubakar 1, Ogah J.J

JCBPS; Section B; August 2017 – October 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 1001-1010.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.10101]

  • Abstract

    Diarrhoea has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially among children in developing countries. Anogeissus leiocarpus (Combretaceae) has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of methanolic extract of A. leiocarpus stem bark on castor oil- induced diarrhoea model in rats. Rats were divided into four groups of five in each and treated. Group I (distilled water), group II (200mg/kg extract), group III (400mg/kg) and group IV Loperamide (2mg/kg). All treatments were orally administered for effects on intestinal motility, fluid accumulation and electrolytes secretion pre and post administration of extract and their respective percentages expressed relative to experimental control. Methanol 10.67%. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and glycosides. 200 and 400mg/kg methanolic extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited motility by 41.11% and 51.32% respectively, and fluid accumulation was reduced by 39.45% and 57.87%. The study also revealed progressive diminution of Na+ and K+ concentrations in stool. There were significant reductions, (P<0.05) in frequency of wet stool, with lower curatives values of 10.00% and 24.00% than preventive values of 20.79% and 44.99%. The presence of some of the phytochemicals in the extracts may be responsible for the observed activities and attest to its utility in a wide range of diarrhoeal states. Further research to be carried on monitored fractionation and subsequent structural elucidation with a view to understanding the compound and possible mechanism of action.

Few Simple Sequence Repeats in Human Hair Keratin Genes

Jitendra Gharu, Seema Trivedi 

JCBPS; Section B; August 2017 – October 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 1011-1036.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.101136]

  • Abstract

    Keratin genes are subgroup of intermediate filament (IF) genes. Keratins expressed in hair are called “hair keratins”. Comparison of keratin gene sequences and structural organization has been done earlier but no study has been undertaken that compares human hair keratin genes with orthologues in chimp, orangutan, macaque and platypus, with specific references to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. This study seeks presence of SSRs in human hair keratin genes and compares their positions in orthologue genes. Although the structural organization of keratin genes is largely conserved, as reported in other studies; some human keratin genes show differences in the number of exons and the lengths of exons/introns, when compared with the orthologues. The present study shows few SSRs in human hair keratin genes, where only one repeat is found in exon of Type I keratin gene KRT31, while additional repeats are present in introns. Some repeats are longer in the human genes whereas some indicate reduction in length compared with orthologues. Many repeats are present in regions that are known for intronic variations. This study revisits the comparisons of structural organization of human hair keratin genes and compares them with the orthologues. The SSRs found here could be useful for monitoring variations in human
    hair keratin genes that may happen due to hypermutable nature of SSRs. 

Screening of Potential Heavy Metal Tolerant Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from the Rhizosphere of Castor (Ricinus communis) Fields

Nishat khatoon, Mazharuddin Khan, Mohamed Yahya Khan,

JCBPS; Section B; August 2017 – October 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 1037-1044,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.103744]

  • Abstract

    Phosphorous is one of the most vital micronutrients required for the growth and development of plants. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria enhances P availability in soil through dissolving inorganic P pool. 17 phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of Castor (Ricinus communis), fields of Nalgonda district, Telangana State, India, on NBRIP agar. PSB1, PSB9 & PSB16 showed highest solubilization 370, 408 and 415μg/ml and belongs to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella. 9 efficient PSB strains were further screened for their phosphate solubilization under heavy metal stress. 6 different heavy metals (Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, Ni & Cr) each with 4 concentrations (50, 100, 200 & 400μg/ml) were used. PSB9 showed tolerance to all heavy metals and solubilized the TCP under highest concentration i,e 400μg/ml, except for Ni and Cr where it shows the growth. PSB11 and PSB13 are considered as most vulnerable to heavy metals as it do not show phosphate solubilization under metal stress. The presence of heavy metals above critical concentration not only harmfully affects the human health but also the environment. Hence the results obtained suggest that, the isolated PSB9, a Pseudomonas strain can be used as a source to supply phosphorous to the plants in heavy metal contaminated soil.

Nan- Hung Chen,

JCBPS; Section B; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 1145-1151,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.114551]

  • Abstract

    The aims of this study were to detect the clinical chemical digital values of two sex hormones in common carp and crucian carp by treatment with the Chemiluminescecent Immunoassay (CLIA) of human medicine. The digital values of luteiinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were detected

Study of Phenotypic Correlations of Some Selected Fine Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Genotypes

Md. Omar Kayess , Md. Shoebur Rahman , Md. Jalil Uddin , Bibekananda Adhikery, Md. Kajal 

JCBPS; Section B; August 2017 – October 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 1152-1160.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.115260.]

  • Abstract

    An experiment was conducted at the research field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur to evaluate the phenotypic correlations between some traits and yield components of nine fine rice cultivars and also to determine the most effective factors on its yield. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The nine fine rice cultivars namely Salsira, Binni pakri, Bolder, Joitha kathari, Ukni modhu, Salna, Radhuni pagol, BRRI 49 and Katarivog were evaluated. Analysis of variability parameters elucidate that the phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for most of the trait studied. The plant height, non-filled grain number/panicle and yield showed high heritability and spikelet length showed low heritability. Yield displayed positive significant correlation with of spikelet length and days to 50% flowering but showed non-significant correlation with other traits