Vol. 7 & Issue 4 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2017


Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Anogeissus Leiocarpus Stem Bark on Castor Oil- Induced Diarrhoea in Rats

Memi G.G , D, Dahiru , Junaid, O.Q , A. Abubakar , Ogah J.J

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.10101]

  • Abstract

    Diarrhoea has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially among children in developing countries. Anogeissus leiocarpus (Combretaceae) has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of methanolic extract of A. leiocarpus stem bark on castor oil- induced diarrhoea model in rats. Rats were divided into four groups of five in each and treated. Group I (distilled water), group II (200mg/kg extract), group III (400mg/kg) and group IV Loperamide (2mg/kg). All treatments were orally administered for effects on intestinal motility, fluid accumulation and electrolytes secretion pre and post administration of extract and their respective percentages expressed relative to experimental control. Methanol 10.67%. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and glycosides. 200 and 400mg/kg methanolic extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited motility by 41.11% and 51.32% respectively, and fluid accumulation was reduced by 39.45% and 57.87%. The study also revealed progressive diminution of Na+ and K+ concentrations in stool. There were significant reductions, (P<0.05) in frequency of wet stool, with lower curatives values of 10.00% and 24.00% than preventive values of 20.79% and 44.99%. The presence of some of the phytochemicals in the extracts may be responsible for the observed activities and attest to its utility in a wide range of diarrhoeal states. Further research to be carried on monitored fractionation and subsequent structural elucidation with a view to understanding the compound and possible mechanism of action.

Few Simple Sequence Repeats in Human Hair Keratin Genes

Jitendra Gharu, Seema Trivedi

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.101136]

  • Abstract

    Keratin genes are subgroup of intermediate filament (IF) genes. Keratins expressed in hair are called “hair keratins”. Comparison of keratin gene sequences and structural organization has been done earlier but no study has been undertaken that compares human hair keratin genes with orthologues in chimp, orangutan, macaque and platypus, with specific references to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. This study seeks presence of SSRs in human hair keratin genes and compares their positions in orthologue genes. Although the structural organization of keratin genes is largely conserved, as reported in other studies; some human keratin genes show differences in the number of exons and the lengths of exons/introns, when compared with the orthologues. The present study shows few SSRs in human hair keratin genes, where only one repeat is found in exon of Type I keratin gene KRT31, while additional repeats are present in introns. Some repeats are longer in the human genes whereas some indicate reduction in length compared with orthologues. Many repeats are present in regions that are known for intronic variations. This study revisits the comparisons of structural organization of human hair keratin genes and compares them with the orthologues. The SSRs found here could be useful for monitoring variations in human hair keratin genes that may happen due to hypermutable nature of SSRs.

Screening of Potential Heavy Metal Tolerant Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from the Rhizosphere of Castor (Ricinus communis) Fields

Nishat khatoon, Mazharuddin Khan, Mohamed Yahya Khan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.103744]

  • Abstract

    Phosphorous is one of the most vital micronutrients required for the growth and development of plants. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria enhances P availability in soil through dissolving inorganic P pool. 17 phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of Castor (Ricinus communis), fields of Nalgonda district, Telangana State, India, on NBRIP agar. PSB1, PSB9 & PSB16 showed highest solubilization 370, 408 and 415μg/ml and belongs to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella. 9 efficient PSB strains were further screened for their phosphate solubilization under heavy metal stress. 6 different heavy metals (Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, Ni & Cr) each with 4 concentrations (50, 100, 200 & 400μg/ml) were used. PSB9 showed tolerance to all heavy metals and solubilized the TCP under highest concentration i,e 400μg/ml, except for Ni and Cr where it shows the growth. PSB11 and PSB13 are considered as most vulnerable to heavy metals as it do not show phosphate solubilization under metal stress. The presence of heavy metals above critical concentration not only harmfully affects the human health but also the environment. Hence the results obtained suggest that, the isolated PSB9, a Pseudomonas strain can be used as a source to supply phosphorous to the plants in heavy metal contaminated soil.

Test two sex hormone values with human clinical medicine Science for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus)

Nan- Hung Chen

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.114551]

  • Abstract

    The aims of this study were to detect the clinical chemical digital values of two sex hormones in common carp and crucian carp by treatment with the Chemiluminescecent Immunoassay (CLIA) of human medicine. The digital values of luteiinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were detected

Study of Phenotypic Correlations of Some Selected Fine Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Genotypes

Md. Omar Kayess, Md. Shoebur Rahman, Md. Jalil Uddin , Bibekananda Adhikery, Md. Kajal

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.115260.]

  • Abstract

    An experiment was conducted at the research field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur to evaluate the phenotypic correlations between some traits and yield components of nine fine rice cultivars and also to determine the most effective factors on its yield. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The nine fine rice cultivars namely Salsira, Binni pakri, Bolder, Joitha kathari, Ukni modhu, Salna, Radhuni pagol, BRRI 49 and Katarivog were evaluated. Analysis of variability parameters elucidate that the phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for most of the trait studied. The plant height, non-filled grain number/panicle and yield showed high heritability and spikelet length showed low heritability. Yield displayed positive significant correlation with of spikelet length and days to 50% flowering but showed non-significant correlation with other traits.

Some Observations on Oriental Hornet (Vespa orientalis) in Jodhpur (Rajasthan), India

Seema Trivedi

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.116167.]

  • Abstract

    This paper presents observation of Oriental hornets (Vespa orientalis) in Jodhpur (Rajasthan) around their nest apparently made primarily by pulp/mud that had several openings. Some hornets were hovering over these openings and the brood cells. Studies on V. orientalis report that this fanning could be for cooling of the nest. There were some larvae/pupae lying on ground beneath the nest. It could not be confirmed however, whether these larvae/pupae fell accidentally or were purposely thrown out of the nest. Hornet sting does cause severe pain, which is more than honeybee or wasp sting. Immediate use of “Astheline” (salbutamol) inhaler spray on sting affected area and subsequent relief indicates a possible use of this spray as a first aid. However, this needs further confirmation. This paper also suggests further studies on uses and phylogeny of hornets based on perusal of published reports. Perusal of published reports on morphology and molecular data phylogenetic analysis indicate that morphological differences in hornets are possibly due to differences in environmental niche. Comparative studies on hornets from India (particularly from Rajasthan) and other regions of the world may help in confirmation of these findings.

  • Abstract

  • Abstract

Anatomie et Histologie De L’hépatopancreas Chez La Femelle Du Poisson Brachydeuterus Auritus (Haemulidae, Valenciennes, 1832) En Côte D’ivoire.

Komenan Daouda KOUASSI , Marie-Anne d’ALMEIDA, Jean Jacques MIESSAN, Valentin N’DOUBA ,Silvain YAO , Goueh GNAHOUE

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.116883]

  • Abstract

    Brachydeuterus auritus est une espèce de poisson qui présente un fort potentiel d’exploitation en Côte d’Ivoire. La présente étude porte sur l’échelle de maturité et la différenciation de  ’hépatopancréas. La démarche méthodologique a consisté à une description macroscopique de l’hépatopancréas en fonction des six stades de maturité sexuelle. L’étude microscopique a consisté à fixer les hépatopancréas, à les déshydrater, à les imprégner, à les inclure, à réaliser les coupes qui seront colorées en vue d’une observation. Au plan anatomique, l’hépatopancréas est constitué de deux lobes inégaux. L’organe présente une coloration, des granulations et une vascularisation qui varient en fonction des stades de développement. Au plan histologique, chez la femelle l’hépatopancréas est un organe mixte constitué du foie et du pancréas. Le parenchyme hépatique est un tissu homogène, formé d’hépatocytes qui sont des cellules polygonales. En outre, on distingue dans le parenchyme des tissus hématopoïétiques et des centres mé anomacrophages, répartis près des vaisseaux sanguins et des voies biliaires. Lescentres mélanomacrophages sont constitués de cellules accumulant des pigments. Au sein de l’organe, le pancréas se différencie de façon centripète. Il est constitué de cellules exocrines et des îlots de Langerhans. La physiologie des deux entités à savoir le foie et le pancréas détermine la physiologie de l’organe. L’hépatopancréas intervient dans la reproduction, la digestion et la défense. Il apparaît comme un organe qui contrôle de nombreuses fonctions et joue un rôle important dans la physiologie des poissons tant dans l'anabolisme que dans le catabolisme

Anatomy and Histology of the hepatopancreas in the female of the Fish Brachydeuterus auritus Haemulidae, (Valenciennes, 1831) in Cote d'Ivoire

Komenan Daouda KOUASSI , Marie-Anne d’ALMEIDA, Jean Jacques MIESSAN ,Valentin N’DOUBA  Silvain YAO 2Goueh GNAHOUE

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.116883]

  • Abstract

    Brachydeuterus auritus is a species of fish which presents a strong potential for exploitation in the Ivory Coast. The present study focuses on the scale of maturity and the differentiation of the hepatopancreas. This scale has in females six stages. During sexual maturity, we note the growth of fish. The differentiation of the hepatopancreas is also carried out during this maturity. The anatomical plan, the hepatopancreas consists of two lobes uneven. The component presents a coloration, granulations and a vascularization which vary according to the stages of development. The histological plan, in the female the hepatopancreas is a joint body consisting of the liver and pancreas. The hepatic parenchyma is a homogeneous fabric, formed of hepatocytes which are polygonal cells. In addition, it distinguishes in the parenchyma of the hematopoietic tissues and centers mélanomacrophages, distributed near the blood vessels and bile ducts. The mélanomacrophages centers are composed of cells accumulating pigments. Within the body, the Pancreas differentiates centripetally. It is composed of exocrine cells and islets of Langerhans. The physiology of the two entities to know the liver and the pancreas determines the physiology of the body. The hepatopancreas intervenes in the reproduction, the digestion and the defense. It appears as a body to control many of the functions and plays an important role in the physiology of fish both in the anabolism that in the catabolism.

  • Abstract

Influence of environment on haemagglutinin activity and protein content of selected seaweeds from Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, India

Mangaiyarkarasi Ravirajan and Natesan Peyar Nadimuthu

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.118489.]

  • Abstract

    Marine organisms are the potential source for bio chemical molecules. A variety of bio- active chemicals available among seaweeds, which is an important group of organisms in marine environment. The seaweeds available in the Gulf Of Mannar Biosphere Reserve (GOMBR), India, also showed intra and inter annual variations in their chemical composition. A total number of six seaweeds have been collected from the GOMBR in different seasons. Total protein content and haemagglutinin assays were carried over. The results showed the total protein content in greater variations during different seasons, with the maximum content during the summer season and the minimum content during the post monsoon season. Likewise, in the different blood groups, the haemagglutinin activity of the seaweed extracts showed pronounced variations, registering the minimum activity during the post monsoon season and the maximum activity during the summer season. Thus, the haemagglutinin activity of the seaweeds varied greatly corresponding to the protein content in different seasons. It suggests that protein content of the seaweeds is one of the important determining factors for the haemagglutinin activity. Further, it is concluded that the summer season is the best season for collecting seaweeds from GOMBR, for the extraction of protein and haemagglutinin.

DPPH free radical scavenging activities of leaf, stem bark, root, flower and fruit of Blighia unijugata Baker (Sapindaceae) extracts

Ajiboye, Clement Odunayo, Moronkola, Dorcas Olufunke, Adesomoju, Akinbo Akinwumi

[DOI: 0.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.119097.]

  • Abstract

    Ethno-medicinally, extracts of Sapindaceae species in Nigerian folk’s medicine have been utilized to address various health disorders for which free radicals have been implicated. The increasing quest for plant based novel compounds of medicinal relevance led to the comparative investigation of the antioxidant activities of extracts of five parts of Blighia unijugata. Samples were collected and authenticated (Department of Botany) at University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria and separated into leaf, stem bark, root, flower and fruit. Flower and fruit were extracted separately in methanol (labeled MBuFlMeOH and MBuFsMeOH respectively), the leaf, stem bark and root extracts were obtained sequentially first with 100% hexane (MBuLfHex, MBuStHex, and MBuRtHex), and then with equal mixture of ethyl acetate and methanol (MBuLf 1:1, MBuSt 1:1, and MBuRt 1:1). Antioxidant activity evaluations was done using DPPH assay. Their 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were determined by regression analysis on Microsoft excel. % inhibitions of DPPH for the eight extracts were between 32.26% - 96.56% which is comparable to values obtained for the standards (Vitamin C, Anisole and Vitamin E) used (63.36% - 97.09%). IC50 values for DPPH scavenging activities of the eight extracts studied gave the following trend: MBuLf 1:1>MBuSt 1:1>MBuFs MeOH>MBuRt Hex>MBuRt 1:1>MBuFl MeOH>MBuSt Hex>MBuLf Hex, with their corresponding IC50 values being 0.0277 > 0.0284 > 0.0301 > 0.0317 > 0.0320 > 0.0342 > 0.0360 > 0.0400 (mg/ml) respectively. All the five parts studied are potential good sources of free-radical scavenging compounds; this supports the ethno-medicinal application of Blighia unijugata as
    anti-ageing agent.

Comparative Evaluation of Inter Surface Gap of Three Composite Restorative Materials-Sem Analysis

Dr. Jesudass Govada, Dr. Sridhar Reddy Erugula, Dr. Prasan Kumar, Dr.B. Rajendra Prasad, K.T. S. S. Rajajee, Rosaiah Kotikalapudi

[DOI: 0.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.119804.]

  • Abstract

    To evaluate and compare the intersurface gap in class V cavities restored with three different tooth-colored restorative materials using the scanning electron microscope. Thirty extracted premolars were randomly selected for this study. Standardized classV cavities were prepared and then divided into three equal groups. Group I was restored with nanofiller composite, Group II was restored with hybrid composite and group III with polyacid modified composite. They were then subjected to thermocycling, sectioned and examined under scanning electron microscope. An intersurface gap for each section was recorded and data was analyzed. Lowest intersurface gap was recorded in group I and highest leakage recorded in Group III. Nanofiller composite resins provide a better sealing than the hybrid and polyacid modified composites.

Assessment of Beneficial Effect of Propolis against Cadmium Induced Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats

Gihan M. Hammoud, Asmaa A. Salem and Khaled M. ELSawy

[DOI: 0.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.120524.]

  • Abstract

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd) an inorganic toxicant cause serious health and environmental problems as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. The present study aimed to assess the possible attenuation role of propolis on Cd toxicity in rats using hematological, biochemical and histopathological approach. Twenty four adult male rats were divided into four groups (the first group was kept as control (G1), second group (G2) received proplis by gavage (300 mg/kg body weight (b.w)), third group (G3) received Cd by gavage (5 mg/kg b.w) in form of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and fourth group (G4) received propolis +Cd) for 4 weeks. Hematological parameters revealed that Cd ingestion resulted in significant decrease of RBCs count, hemoglobin concentration
    (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), leukocytosis and increase platelets count. While, biochemical study revealed significant reduction in serum albumin and total protein (TP), plasma reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) whereas serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose and plasma lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly increased. Moreover, histopathological examination of Cd treated rats revealed marked alterations in liver, kidneys, brain, and testes. Fortunately, synergistic administration of propolis and Cd resulted in significant amelioration of negative effect of Cd on the investigated hematological and biochemical parameters. Moreover, propolis administration was able
    to protect tested organs against Cd toxicity. It was concluded that propolis exhibit remarkable protective effect against cadmium toxicity

Anatomie et Histologie de L’hépatopancréas Chez Le Mâle du Poisson, Chloroscombrus chrysurus de Linnaeus, 1766 (Carangidae) en Côte D’ivoire

Jean-Jacques MIESSAN, Marie-Anne D’ALMEIDA, Komenan Daouda KOUASSI, Sylvain YAO, Valentin N’DOUBA, Goueh GNAHOUE

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.122538.]

  • Abstract

    La démarche méthodologique a consisté à une description macroscopique de l’hépatopancréas en fonction des six stades de maturité sexuelle. L’étude histologique a nécessité la fixation, la déshydratation, l’imprégnation, l’inclusion, la réalisation des coupes des hépatopancréas et leur coloration en vue de leur observation. Au plan macroscopique, la taille et la couleur de l’hépatopancréas varient, par contre, son aspect et sa forme reste inchangée durant la croissance du poisson. Il est constitué de deux lobes, le lobe hépatique gauche toujours plus développé que le lobe hépatique droit. L’étude microscopique de l’hépatopancréas du mâle a révélé qu’il est constitué de parenchyme hépatique et du pancréas. Le parenchyme hépatique est composé essentiellement d’hépatocytes et des vaisseaux sanguins. Les hépatocytes de forme polygonale, sont disposés en cordons autour des capillaires sinusoïdes. Le pancréas constitué des îlots de Langerhans (pancréas endocrine) et des acini séreux pancréatiques (pancréas exocrine) envahit progressivement le parenchyme hépatique pour former l’hépatopancréas.L’hépatopancréas est un organe essentiel dansla physiologie du poisson. Il intervient dans la nutrition, la reproduction et le métabolisme général.

Anatomy and Histology of the hepatopancreas among the male fish, Chloroscombrus chrysurus of Linnaeus, 1766 (Carangidae) in Cote d'Ivoire

Jean-Jacques MIESSAN, Marie-Anne D’ALMEIDA, Komenan Daouda KOUASSI,Sylvain YAO, Valentin N’DOUBA, Goueh GNAHOUE

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.122538.]

  • Abstract

    The methodological approach has been to a macroscopic description of the hepatopancreas in function of the six stages of sexual maturity. The histological study has need the mounting, dehydration, the impregnation, inclusion, the achievement of the planes of the hepatopancreas and their coloration in view of their observation. At the macroscopic plan, the size and the color of the hepatopancreas vary, by contrast, its appearance and shape remains unchanged during the growth of the fish. It is composed of two lobes, the liver lobe left always more developed than the hepatic lobe right. The microscopic study of the hepatopancreas of the male has revealed that it is constituted of hepatic parenchyma and pancreas. The hepatic parenchyma is composed essentially of hepatocytes and blood vessels. The hepatocytes of polygonal shape, are prepared in cords around the capillaries sinusoids. The Pancreas consisting of the islets of Langerhans (endocrine pancreas) and serous acini (pancreatic exocrine pancreas) gradually invaded the hepatic parenchyma to form the hepatopancreas. The hepatopancreas is an essential organ in the physiology of the fish. It intervenes in the nutrition, reproduction and the general metabolism

Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles, Antibacterial Screening and Larvicidal Activity of Phyllanthus amarus
Sujithra Devi. R,, Anbumalarmathi. J* and Aruna Sharmili. S [DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.123947.]
  • Abstract

    The present work deals with the synthesis of copper nanoparticles from the Phyllanthus amarus. Copper nanoparticles were synthesized from fresh leaves of Phyllanthus amarus using different concentrations of copper chloride such as 1, 3 and 5 mM. The nanoparticles formed were characterized by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and SEM analysis. The size of the nanoparticle was 74–540 nm. Leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus were prepared using different solvents such as acetone, ethanol and water. The antibacterial activity of P. amarus leaves and stem on E.coli, P.mirabilis, B. cereus were evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The maximum zone of inhibition of 20 mm for against P. mirabilis, B. cereus in acetone extracts of leaf and stem were observed. The ethanol and aqueous extract showed a zone of 17 mm and 14 mm for the same. The synthesized copper nanoparticles were active against all the three microorganisms tested and the zone of inhibition ranged from 3 mm to 23mm. The acetone and ethanol extract of leaf, stem, leaf & stem showed 100% lethality against Artemia larvae and the copper nanoparticles expressed 90% lethality at the concentration of 20 μg/ml against larvae

In vitro Phytochemical and antimicrobial Activity of Walnut (Juglansregia L.)Husk

Abdul rehman, Omm-e-hany,Asia Neelam, Zaira Tariq and Aamir Alamgir

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.14856.]

  • Abstract

    The aqueous extracts of different concentration of walnut’s husk were investigated for their phytochemical & antibacterial properties. The husk extracts were made using the simple infusion, decoction infusion and microwave infusion. The different concentration of extracted extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity, which were shown in the results of our study. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of Alkaloid, Phenols, Flavanoids, Protiens and Amino acid, Saponins, Quinones, Terpenoids. Antibacterial potentials were evaluated using the agar disk diffusion method. The extracts were inactive against all the gram negative bacteria which were used in current study but on other hand it inhibits the gram positive bacteria effectively on different concentration. The walnut, leaves , bark and its stem’s extracts have unique quality to inhibit the fungal and bacterial growth but on the other hand we observed that walnut husk has different property as compare to its inner seed, husk extract were enhancing the growth of some fungal strains which we tested during our study.

Studies on the Production and Optimization of Pectinase by Aspergillus Niger NCIM 616 using Mixed Substrate under Solid State Fermentation

B.Tejaswi and K. Jaya Raju

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.125768.]

  • Abstract

    Pectic substances are complex high molecular mass glycosidic macromolecules found in higher plants. They are present in the primary cell wall and are the major components of the middle lamellae, a thin extracellular adhesive layer formed between the walls of adjacent young cells. Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes. Pectinases are one of the most widely disseminated enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. In the present study, the production of pectinase using Aspergillus niger NCIM 616 was carried out under solid-state fermentation using mixed substrate. Sapota (Manilkara zapota) seed powder and pumpkin (cucurbita) seed powder, were selected and mixed in different ratios for fermentation medium. The maximum production was obtained at the ratio of 2.5:2.5(Sapota seed powder: Pumpkin seed powder). Different parameters optimization processes were investigated on SSF namely fermentation time (5thday), temperature (350C), pH (5.0), and moisture content (80%), inoculum volume (2ml), inoculum age (5thday) and nutrient supplements possessing sucrose as carbon source and Sodium nitrate as nitrogen source. The produced enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate salt precipitation and dialyzed, and showed maximum activity (280.82U/ml).After the partial purification the enzyme was immobilized and showed maximum pectinase activity (260.15U/ml). This activity is less the than free enzyme activity because the immobilization process blocks some active sites of the enzyme. Reuse of immobilized beads showed stable activity upto 14thcycle and later decrease of the enzyme activity is observed. This may be due to leakage of enzyme

Copper-Induced changes in the expression of Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) and its role in anthocyanin production in Plantago ovata Forsk.

Pratik Talukder, Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.126979.]

  • Abstract

    Copper is one of the most important micronutrients of plant but enhanced accumulation of it can cause toxic effects on plant. Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase plays pivotal role in anthocyanin production via phenylpropanoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. This present study is focused on elucidating the importance of Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in production of anthocyanin and also its role in withstanding copper induced toxicity in Plantago ovata. Hence, this study describes how copper stress induces higher expression of DFR and thereby increases the anthocyanin production to withstand stress. Partial cds of DFR gene was isolated, sequenced and its expression pattern was studied under copper stress. Anthocyanin content was measured to get an idea about the effect of copper toxicity on its accumulation. Copper in plant cells is kept at lower concentrations because at higher concentrations it acts as a cytotoxic stress factor. Correlation between induction of DFR expression and anthocyanin synthesis to protect plant against copper induced oxidative stress was observed. This study would enable to understand the genetic regulation of DFR induction due to copper toxicity. The up regulation of its expression under copper stress confirms its important role in anthocyanin production. This study also depicts the protective role of anthocyanin in plants against copper stress.

Blood chemistry profile of Bali cattle fed silage rice straw and biosupplement of selected rumen and termites lignocellulolytic bacteria consortium

Partama, B. G., I M. Mudita, I G. L. O. Cakra, A. A. P. P. Wibawa, T. I. Putri

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.128088.]

  • Abstract

    The study aimed to determine blood chemistry profile of Bali cattle fed rice straw and biosuplemen fermented by selected (superior) rumen and termites lignocellulolytic bacteria inocullant has been carried out in the Simantri Farmers Group “Winangun Kertih" Banjarangkan Village, Klungkung District, Bali Province. Twelve bali cattle were uses in this experiment with Randomized Block Designed four treatments and three blocks. The first treatment was bali cattle fed biosupplement without fermented inoculant bacteria consortium (SB0), while the other three treatments were fed biosupplements fermented by selected 1 (BR23T14), selected 2 (BR24T13), and selected 3 (BR34T12) lignocellulolytic bacteria inoculant. Basal feed for all bali cattle was rice straw fermented by the best inoculant formula of lignocellulolytic bacteria inocullant coded BR23T14. The results showed that fed biosupplements fermented selected 1 and 2 inoculant formula of lignocellulolytic bacteria consortium (treatments SB1 and SB2) increased 29,80% and 21,38%; 52,09% and 36,08% respectively for totally cholesterol and High Density Lipoprotein/HDL blood concentration of bali cattle compared with SB0. The blood glucose of bali cattle significantly increased by 26,11% on treatment SB1, whereas given SB2 and SB3 were not significant different compared with SB0. Meanwhile in variable blood urea, triglyserides, and Low Density Lipoprotein/LDL, all treatments were not significant different (P>0.05). It was concluded that given
    biosupplement fermented selected inoculant formula of lignocellulolytc bacteria consortium of bali cattle rumen and termites can increasing blood glucose, totally cholesterol and HDL concentration of bali cattle.

Samatha Talari and RamaSwamy Nanna

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.128993.]

  • Abstract

    The species of Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacaceae) is an endangered medicinally important forest tree. It is known as Kalpavriksha as all the parts of the tree such as leaves, seeds, flowers, fruit pulp, bark and roots are used in the preparation of food products, medicines, fuel, timber and fodder. The leaves and fruit pulp of A. digitata are known to be rich in many mineral nutrients such as calcium, iron, vitamin A and C. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate the amount of vitamin C in leaves and fruit pulp of A. digitata and also to compare their percentage with fruits of orange and lemon. The results revealed that the fruit pulp was found to possess more amount of vitamin C than in leaves of A. digitata and Orange but less than the Lemon fruit

Comparative Evaluation of the Phytochemical Constituents and the Antioxidant Activities of Five Moroccan Pepper Varieties (Capsicum Annuum L.)

Naima Zaki, Aziz Hasib, Kaoutar Charf Eddine, Fatima Dehbi, Hicham El Batal, Aaziz Ouatmane

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.129406.]

  • Abstract

    The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive constituents and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of five pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. Phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and ascorbic acid were quantified in the pericarp of the peppers studied. The antioxidant activity of their extracts was evaluated by the method of radical scavenging of DPPH•. The solvents used for the extraction of these metabolites are water, methanol and ethanol at 75%. Preliminary results have shown that the composition of the peppers in bioactive elements varies depending on the type pepper and the solvent extract. The hot and sweet red pepper showed high vitamin C content (respectively 34.49 and 33.4 mg / 100 g FW) followed by hot green pepper, sweet green pepper and yellow pepper. It was also found that capsaicin vary significantly (P<0.005) among peppers studied. Capsaicin contents ranged from 6, 78 to 32, 50 mg/100 FW. The maximum capsaicin content was noticed in hot green and hot red peppers. The highest contents of phenolic compounds, flavonols and flavonoids were in sweet and hot red peppers. The highest radical scavenging activity (IC50) was observed in red and yellow peppers for ethanolic and methanolic extracts.

CAD / CAM dental implant planning and surgical guide fabrication

Angelina Vlahova, Viktor Hadzhigaev, Christo Kissov, Georgi Todorov, Rada Kazakova5 Stefan Zlatev

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.130714.]

  • Abstract

    Modern Prosthetic Dentistry and Dental Implantology can benefit from the use of digital technologies, in particular CAD / CAM. The aim of this study is to present dental implant planning and surgical guide design and fabrication. Preliminary implant planning is the key of the final Prosthodontics success.

Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles, Antibacterial Screening and Larvicidal Activity of Phyllanthus amarus

Sujithra Devi. R, Anbumalarmathi. J and Aruna Sharmili. S

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.131523.]

  • Abstract

    The present work deals with the synthesis of copper nanoparticles from fresh leaves of Phyllanthus amarus using different concentrations of copper chloride such as 1, 3 and 5 mM. The nanoparticles formed were characterized by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and SEM analysis. The size of the nanoparticle was 74–540 nm. Leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus were prepared using acetone, ethanol and water. The antibacterial activity of P. amarus leaves and stem on E.coli, P.mirabilis, B. cereus were evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The maximum zone of inhibition of 20 mm was observed in the acetone extracts of leaf and stem against P. mirabilis, B. cereus in acetone extracts of leaf and stem were observed. The ethanol and aqueous extract showed a zone of 17 mm and 14 mm for the same. The synthesized copper nanoparticles were active against all the three microorganisms tested and the zone of inhibition ranged from 6 mm to 23mm. The acetone and ethanol extract of leaf, stem, leaf & stem showed 100% lethality against Artemia larvae whereas the copper nanoparticles expressed 90% lethality at a concentration of 20 μg/ml.

High incidence of Parkinson disease in patients with chronic hypoxia

Talib F. Abbas

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.132430.]

  • Abstract

    The cost of Parkinson’s disease is substantial, including reduced quality of life, lost productivity, and increased health care expenditures. The lung diseases are the trigger cause of Parkinson and other neurodegenerative diseases; many cohort studies approved the relation worldwide, but southern cities have special identity of sandy weather at most of our time, rather than a type of work in cement factories. The increasing number of lung disease incidence was elevated at last 10 years ago rapidly, which increase the probability of relation, therefore, we stepped the time engine to approve the highly incidence of Parkinson disease and chronic ischemia. The experiment had conducted 10 patients with PD and measured the parameters in relation to hypoxia like hemoglobin content, iron, and uric acid, and compared the results with normal control using unpaired t-test. P-value ≤0.005 was considered to be statistically significant. The hemoglobin content in blood of Parkinson disease patients are expressed a significant inhibition with P≤ 0.05, compared to normal control (13 g/dl). While, the blood ferratin content of iron is considered the bridge line which connect the lung with the other parts of body. Hypoxia inducible factor -1 has ability to regulate a series of genes that control the iron homeostasis. The results of research have indicated significant sinking in iron level compared to normal control (100 ng/ml). It's clear declining in level of uric acid in Parkinson's patients comparing with normal control (6.3 mg/dl). It has been approved that lung disease increases the risk of Parkinson disorder via many metabolic and genetic pathways mainly the hypoxia; the situation that support using of iron tablet as drug of suggestion in mild cases rather than levodopa with its suppression side effect.

Assessing the toxicity of NSO (Neem Seed Oil) and NSKP (Neem Seed Kernal Powder) to a bruchid

V.T. Noble Singh and S. Sam Manohar Das

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.133137.]

  • Abstract

    Bruchid pests are controlled in the field and in storage systems using chemical pesticides. Apart from chemical pesticides, botanical derivatives are also used in the management of bruchids. Neem oil and neem seed kernal powder prepared from fresh neem seeds are used in this study. These neem products are found to be very effective compared to commercial preparations. The protocol for the preparation of these neem products can be conveniently used by farmers in rural areas. The results of this study showed that Callosobruchus maculatus F. adults were more susceptible while young whereas the older adults were more resistant.

Thyroid Peroxidase Autoantibodies and Thyroid Hormones in Children with Type1 Diabetes Mellitus in Najran Area, Saudi Arabia

Dr Elhashimi E. Hassan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.133843.]

  • Abstract

    Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is a group of inflammatory thyroid disorders with either hyperthyroid, euthyroid or hypothyroid state. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The association of AIT and type 1 DM has been described with varying frequencies, but there is still debate about the situation of thyroid function in the Saudi children with Type 1 DM in Najran area. This study was aimed to evaluate the thyroid antibodies; anti-Thyroid Peroxidase (anti-TPO) and also thyroid hormone status in children with type-1 DM in comparison with apparently healthy controls. A clinical-based descriptive, analytical study was conducted during the period from March 2015 to August 2017. 132 patients with Type 1 DM (76Males & 56 females) were selected as a test group compared with a control group which included 72 apparently healthy volunteers (40 males, 32 females), patients and controls were from Najran University Hospital & the King Khalid Hospital in Najran City- Saudi Arabia. Blood specimens were collected from both groups and serum levels of anti-TPO, TSH, FT3, FT4, HbA1c & FBG were estimated. Age and gender of the test group were matched with the control group. The mean of serum levels of TSH (μlU/ml) & anti-TPO (U/ml) in diabetic patients (2.66 ± 1.67), (84.92 ± 126.88) was significant increased than control groups (1.82 ± 0.88), (15.93 ± 31.29) respectively. (p <0.001). While the means of FT3 & FT4 not shows significant difference. The results revealed a highly significant positive correlation between the serum levels of anti-TPO (U/ml), and the level of TSH (μlU/ml) in the diabetic group(r = 0.297, P ˂ 0.001). Moreover, there is no significant correlation between anti-TPO (U/ml) and FT3 (pmol/l) & FT4 (pmol/l) in type 1DM. Our data indicated that, early detection of thyroid auto antibodies (anti-TPO) & TSH provides a prognostic value for the prediction of autoimmune Thyroiditis in type I diabetes mellitus patients.

Genetic diversity of Malaysian rice landraces based on SSR markers link to submergence tolerance gene in rice

Shahril Ab Razak, Nor Helwa Ezzah Nor Azman, Rahiniza Kamaruzaman, Shamsul Amri Saidon, Muhammad Fairuz Mohd Yusuf, Siti Norhayati Ismail & Norzihan Abdullah

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.134450.]

  • Abstract

    Submergence stress is one of the major constraints in rice productivity which affects more than 15 million hectares of cultivated rice area in South and Southeast Asia. Malaysia encounters the same problem especially in the east coast region of Peninsula. A major gene controlling submergence tolerance has been identified and mapped at Chromosome 9 and known as Sub1 gene. Seven SSR markers tightly linked to Sub1 gene were used to assess genetic diversity of selected Malaysia rice landraces. Two improved varieties (MARDI SIRAJ 297 and MR288) and one control variety (Swarna-Sub1) which harbors Sub1 gene was included in the analysis. Analysis of seven SSR markers showed the number of alleles ranged from two (RM8303) to six (RM219) with an average of 3.857 alleles per locus. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0.2284 at RM24071 to 0.5376 (RM219) with an average of 0.3622 per locus. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA method showed that the cultivars were clustered into two major groups namely Group A and Group B. Group A consisted of all landraces rice except Chelum. Interestingly, MARDI’s improved varieties (MR288 and Mardi Siraj 297) and Chelum were clustered together in Group B with Swarna-sub1 even though they showed low genetic similarity (0.277) to Swarna-sub1. These three cultivars might have slight tolerance against submergence stress. However, physical screening must be conducted to confirm their tolerance against submergence stress. This study provides a preliminary insight towards a genetic diversity of Malaysian rice landraces in terms of submergence tolerance trait for future sustainable in rice production.

Application of Low-Dose Laser Irradiation and 3D-Observation Methods for Detection and Assay of Features for Cell Differentiation Directions: A Pilot Study

Iskra V Sainova, Ilina Valkova, Tzveta Markova, Elena Nikolova, Angel Baldzhiev, Angel Alishev, Marin Nenchev

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.7.4.135160.]

  • Abstract

    The main idea is directed to development of maximally safe and assessable methods for derivation of various normal mature cell types from stem/progenitor cells by application of appropriate laboratory incubation techniques. The last could vary, depending both of the respective tools of stem/progenitor cells, as well as of the respective wished mature cell type. For this goal, 3T3 normal mouse embryonic cells were incubated in cultural fluid, supplemented by previous cultivation of malignant mouse myeloma cells in it (after centrifugation and filtration). In short-term pre-cultivation in these conditions, signs of early myeloid differentiation were observed. Separated sub-populations of these cells were treated with cryo-protector Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), freezed, thawed and re-cultivated in fresh cultivation medium. In de novo-pre-cultivation of 3T3 sub-populations in cultural fluid, supplemented after previous incubation of the so derived osteoclast-like cells in it, signs of osteoblast-like differentiation were noted, which was confirmed by the observed mineral depositions, as well as by the observed destruction of the last in co-cultivation of cells from both sub-types derived (cultural fluids plus cell suspensions). The differences between the cells, derived from common precursors, could be explained with the existence of able to differentiate in various directions stem-like cells in the general 3T3 cell line, depending of the respective incubation conditions. As one of the key components in normal cells differentiation on the one hand and suppression of malignant transformation on the other (including by derivation of immune cell lineages), was proposed the reduced form of tri-peptide Glutathione – GSH. For a better determination of presence and/or localization of respective molecules in the complex structures, by intra- and extra-cellular inter-molecular interactions, underlining the described changes, low-dose laser irradiation and 3D-visualization techniques were developed and tested. These data gave a possibility about more precise identification of the changes, and inter-molecular interactions in the composition of complex inter-molecular structures, on both intra- and extra-cellular levels. According to the results obtained, besides the factors of cultivation and the components of extra-cellular matrix, the role of cell receptors and organic detergents on the cell differentiation direction, but also of intra-cellular fusion in the formation of osteoclast-like cells, was shown. Hence, in agreement with the literature findings, a probability about the influence of DMSO on gene transfer was proposed, by activation of fusion between separate cells, as well as between cells and viral particles.

  • Abstract