Vol. 8 & Issue 1 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Nov.2017 to Jan.2018

 

When present, repeats are abundant in respiratory system pathogens besides virulence associated coding DNA sequences of Mycoplasmas

Seema Trivedi

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.00119.]

  • Abstract

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) may have propensity for mutations in coding DNA sequences (CDSs) that may help pathogens develop drug resistance, enhance virulence or pathogenicity. The present study investigates presence of SSRs in CDSs of 125 Mycoplasmas. Though few CDSs have repeats, tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats are abundant but dinucleotides CG/GC are missing. CDSs of Mycoplasmas infecting respiratory system have repeat abundance. SSR sequence percentage in Felidae and Canidae blood pathogens differ significantly with others. Pathogens in humans have range of low to higher frequencies of SSRs. However, this disparity does not relate with tissue or organ infected. To study SSR distribution in CDSs associated with different functions, CDSs were grouped as: Lipoprotein, Metabolism, and Replication, Repair and Recombination”, “Restriction modification, Ribosome, Transcription, Translation, Transport and Virulence. Based on SSR sequence percentage in CDS classes; Mycoplasmas form two major clusters. Though these clusters are neither pathogen specific nor tissue/organs or host specific; most Mycoplasmas that infect Aves form the first cluster. Further, Virulence CDSs have abundance of repeats and form a distinct cluster from other CDS classes. Host or CDS class specific repeats found in this study may help investigators in developing markers for monitoring CDSs alterations in pathogens.

Differentiation and Histological Study of the Ovary in Shrimp Macrobrachium Vollenhovenii Herklots, 1857 (Decapoda Palaemonidae) Of the Bandama River in Côte D'Ivoire

Marie Anne d’ALMEIDA, Gnonleba Franck Dit Hervis BOGUHE , Komenan Daouda KOUASSI, Jean Jacques MIESSAN, Gouli GOORE-BI, Konan Gervais N’ZI et Germaine KOUASSI-ATTA

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.02035.]

  • Abstract

    In Côte d’Ivoire, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii is a common shrimp species of lagoon area. Microscopical and Histological observations of this shrimp made with the naked eye, the photographic binocular magnifying glass and the light microscope highlighted some criteria for identifying the stages of the ovogenesis. The morphology of these shrimps corresponds to the general description of the Palaemonidae shrimp. The sexual maturity of females includes 5 stages, identifiable through internal criteria. During sexual maturity occurs the differentiation of the ovary during ovogenesis. The ovary presented as orange viscous mass appears in the females of the stage I as two adjoining lobes. At the stage III ovary increases and one notes at the stage IV hypertrophy of the ovary that spreads in the whole cephalothorax of the animal. The volum of the ovary decreases at the stage V. Investigations with light microscope after histological treatment allowed following the different stages of ovogenesis. The process of the ovogenesis comprises five stages in which ovogonia change successively in oocytes and in follicles and has a single layer of follicular cells, which disappears before the eggs laying. Follicles are transformed in a telolecithal egg. It then starts directly its embryonic development.

Différenciation Et Etude Histologique De L’ovaire Chez La Crevette Macrobrachium Vollenhovenii Herklots, 1857, (Decapoda Palaemonidae) Du Fleuve Bandama En Côte D’Ivoire

Marie Anne d’ALMEIDA, Gnonleba Franck Dit Hervis BOGUHE, Komenan Daouda KOUASSI , Jean Jacques MIESSAN, Gouli GOORE-BI, Konan Gervais N’ZI et Germaine KOUASSI-ATTA

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.02035]

  • Abstract

    En Côte d’Ivoire, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii est une espèce de crevette commune des secteurs lagunaires. Les observations macroscopiques et histologiques réalisées à l’oeil nu, à la loupe binoculaire photographique et au microscope optique ont permis de mettre en évidence quelques critères d’identification des étapes de l’ovogenèse. La morphologie de ces crevettes correspond à la description générale de la crevette Palaemonidae. L’analyse macroscopique interne a permis d’établir chez les femelles une échelle de maturité sexuelle qui comporte 5 stades. Au cours de cette maturité, s’effectue la différenciation de l’ovaire ou ovogenèse. L’ovaire qui se présente sous forme d’une masse visqueuse orange, apparaît chez les femelles du stade I sous forme de deux lobes contiguës. Au stade III, on note l'accroissement suivi de l’hypertrophie de l’ovaire au stade IV. L’ovaire se répand dans tout le céphalothorax chez les femelles gravides. On note une régression du volume au stade V. Suite au traitement histologique et l’observation au microscope optique, il ressort que le processus de l’ovogenèse comprend 5 étapes au cours desquelles les ovogonies se transforment successivement en ovocytes et en follicules entourés d’une seule couche de cellules folliculaires qui disparaît avant la ponte. Les follicules aboutissent à des oeufs télolécithes. Le développement embryonnaire se réalise à partir de cet oeuf.

Evaluation of effect of white spot virus infection on nutritive quality of shrimps and human health from Majmaah province, Saudi Arabia

Hala Ali Abdel-Salam

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.03649.]

  • Abstract

    The white spot disease is highly contagious disease caused by white spot virus (WSSV). It is one of the most damaging viral diseases which causes high morbidity and mortality rates in commercially important edible crustaceans. This disease causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. This disease is not transmitted from infected shrimps or other crustaceans to human after their consumption as seafood products. However, little information is available in terms of the evaluation of the nutritive quality of edible muscles of infected organisms. So, the aim of the current study was, therefore, to estimate the concentrations of total protein percentage, level of essential amino acids, protein band electrophoresis and to detect DNA damage induced by WSSV in muscle cells of shrimps by using Comet Assay. In conclusion, regarding the results obtained in the present study in light of nutritional point of view of commercial shrimps, WSSV infection triggers alterations in biochemical components and strongly affects DNA of edible muscles of shrimps. In addition, WSSV is predicted to affect several basic cellular metabolic processes of shrimps. So, WSSV infected shrimps cannot be used as healthy food for human consumption.

Influence of physical-chemical properties of soil on bioavailability of copper in the roots of Calendula officinalis L.

Mirzeta Saletovic, Zorica Hodzic, Goran Perkovic, Aida Crnkic, Amira Cipurkovic and Sanida Bektic

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.05057.]

  • Abstract

    Determination of total and singular content of copper in soil and determination of physical-chemical characteristics of soil was performed, as well as influence of copper on growth, bioavailability and translocation of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Total and singular copper content was determined in natural soil conditions on locations Petrovo and Banovici, total content of copper in marigold roots was determined by use of AAS method and sequential extraction. BCF factor was used for assessment of dynamics and intensity of metal adoption from the soil. In our experiment, all samples had the BCF <1 value from both locations. It was concluded that marigold is not hyperaccumulator of copper.

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage – point of view by an ICU specialist and by a pediatrician

Ralitsa Marinova, Dimitrinka Miteva, Snezhina Lazova, Kamelia Tsvetanova, Filip Abadinov, Guergana Petrova

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.05868.]

  • Abstract

    Although by definition rare diseases are rare, taken all together they represent sufficient part of difficult to diagnose and treat cases. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is such rare yet serious medical emergency that often results in acute respiratory failure and death. The lung can be affected by systemic disease in different ways and every organ involvement or specific therapy could lead to life-threatening lung complications. We present two cases of patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage one in a pediatric department and the other one in ICU. Both cases despite respiratory symptoms had other organs involved. The specialists need to be aware that multisystem diseases may present initially with respiratory signs and symptoms. The correct diagnosis is crucial for prevention of life-threatening complications and for appropriate emergency treatment.

  • Abstract

Determination of Common Spices and Herbs Contamination with Aflatoxin in Al Majmaah Province

Zeinab A. Abd-Elhaleem

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.06977.]

  • Abstract

    Spices and herbs are widely consumed, due to their cooking benefits, unique flavors, colors, aromas and medicinal importance. Unfortunately, they are liable to be heavily contaminated with toxigenic fungi with subsequent production of aflatoxins (AFs). Acute and chronic exposure to aflatoxin is considered a serious health risk problem. This study aimed to determine the level of AFs in some unpacked spices and herbs sold in local markets of Al Majmmah province. 45 unpacked spices and herbs samples including ginger, turmeric, cinnamon, cardamom, cumin, black pepper, chili pepper, cloves, laurel leaves and aniseed were collected randomly from local markets of Al Majmaah province, KSA from March to June 2017. The presence of AFs was determined by HPLC. AFs mainly, AFB1were detected in 13 samples. All results were below the limit of 10 ug/kg for total AFs. AFB1 levels were below 5ug/kg except for three turmeric samples.The levels of total AFs in all contaminated samples are in the permissible European limits. For AFB1, only three turmeric samples were beyond the European limits. Regular monitoring of unpacked spices is required.

Role of Probiotic Health Drinks In Health Sector

Seema Ahuja, Navneet kaur and Tarun Goyal

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.07883.]

  • Abstract

    There is no doubt that probiotics generate one of the most promising and dynamically developing segments of food industry. There are several factors supporting the inflow of functional products like the increasing consumer awareness in combination with new advances in various scientific domains. Functional foods have been developed virtually in all food categories, however their distribution over the segments of the market is not homogeneous and product preferences may vary between markets. The development and commerce of probiotic products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. In the case of a successful product development attention should be paid both to consumer demands and technical conditions, furthermore, the legislation background should also not be neglected. Multi-national companies possess the adequate R&D activities, they know the economic potential due to their well-known products that give them the opportunity to introduce a brand new product to the market. Consumer acceptance, however, is determined by a number of factors such as primary health concerns, consumers’ familiarity with the ‘‘probiotics’’ concepts and with the functional ingredients, the nature of the carrier product, the manner of health effect communication, etc. The message of the health effect of a specific product should be transferred via credible media in a relatively simple way, so that it could be easily achieved by the consumers. As a rule, consumers seem to evaluate functional foods first and foremost as foods. Functional benefits may provide added value to consumers but cannot outweigh the sensory properties of foods. These products provide consumers a modern way to follow a healthy lifestyle, which differs from the conventionally healthy diet defined by nutrition experts. In general, the attitude both to functional foods and to their consumers is positive, so such a concept represents a sustainable trend in a multi-niche market.

Assisted Ultrasonic Extraction of Glucosydes Present in Stevia (Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni)

Gabriel Ríos Cortés, Lluvia Iris Rodríguez Lechuga, Ada María Ríos Cortés, Roger Manuel Sales Chávez, Mara Angélica Ramírez Bello, Minerva Rosas Morales

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.8997]

  • Abstract

    The goal of the present research is to evaluate the ultrasonic efficiency in the extraction of Stevia glycosides, and compare its performance with the soxhlet traditional method. In this analysis, three extraction solvents were used: water, methanol and ethyl acetate. In addition, it was found that the developed extractions using water as a solvent presented the greatest performance for the soxhlet method, as well as for the ultrasonic method. In the case of soxhlet method using water as solvent, after seven hours extraction, a yield of 23.8% was obtained, with an extract weigh of 1.19 gr. On the other hand, the sample irradiated for 2 hours with ultrasound, showed a 24.6% yield, and 1.23 gr. of extract using water as solvent. Regarding the extracted glycosides, Rebaudioside A was the major compound, yielding 1.0 gr while Stevioside yield was 0.23 gr, both from 5 gr. of Stevia by ultrasonic extraction.

Test two sex hormone values with human clinical medicine science for giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus)

Nan- Hung Chen

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.09805.]

  • Abstract

    The aims of this study were to detect the clinical chemical digital values of two sex hormones in giant grouper by treatment with the Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CLIA) of human medicine. The digital values of testosterone and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) were detected.

Genetic diversity of loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842) in Vietnam by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis

Quoc-Dung Tran, The Hung-Anh Mai, Tan-Quang Hoang, Van-Giang Tran, Thi Phuong-AnhVu 

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.10619]

  • Abstract

    In this study, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were applied to analyse the genetic diversity of samples of the Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842), collected from six localities (A Luoi, Phong Dien, Phu Vang, Phu Loc, Quang Dien, and Huong Thuy) along Thua Thien Hue in Vietnam. The six primers used in RAPD analysis amplified 91 loci, 88 (96.70%) of which were polymorphic. The percentages of polymorphic loci observed in the six populations were: 61.54% (A Luoi), 58.24% (Phong Dien), 57.14% (Phu Vang), 39.56% (Phu Loc), 63.74% (Quang Dien), and 47.25% (Huong Thuy). Data for observed and effective number of alleles, Nei’s (1973) genetic diversity, and Shannon’s information index, for all the six populations were 1.55, 1.30, 0.18 and 0.27, respectively. The value for total genotype diversity among populations was 0.2239 while within populations diversity was found to be 0.1769. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation value and the estimate of gene flow across the populations were found as 0.2100 and 1.8812, respectively. The Nei (1978) measures of genetic distance and identity between pairs of loach populations indicate thatthe population originated from Phong Dien and Quang Dien has the highest genetic identity, while the fish originated from Phu Vang and A Luoi showed the greatest genetic distance.

Comparison of the Coagulation Effect of Different Types of Laser Crown Lengthening

Rada Kazakova, Georgi Tomov, Christo Kissov, Angelina Vlahova, Rangel Todorov, Stefan Zlatev, Zlatina Tomova

  • Abstract

    Lasers are a new alternative to the classical methods for gingivectomy and crown lengthening. Three different types of lasers were used in order to examine their coagulation effect on the gingival tissues – an Er:YAG, a diode and a CO2 laser. Their advantages and disadvantages vary and the clinicians must be aware of the results in order to choose the best instrument according to the clinical case.

Diversity, Distribution and Social Structure of Monkey Species in Forest Fragments of Gbetitapea, Central-Western Ivory Coast

Victorien Kouakou Claude, Béné Jean-Claude Koffi, Kouamé Antoine N’Guessan, Célestin Yao Kouakou, Bamba Kramoko

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.12743.]

  • Abstract

    Ivory Coast is part of the tropical zone with an interesting biodiversity. However, its essentially agriculture-based economy has led to the degradation and loss of forest favorable to several export crops. The pressure on these habitats, coupled with commercial hunting, affects both the functioning of ecosystems and the survival of living animals such as primates. These fragments of persistent forests in the Gbetitapea agroforestry system could be the refuge of the remaining fauna. It is therefore important to compile a biological inventory of forest fragments for the conservation of biodiversity and primates in particular. We aim to record the primate species and highlight their spatial distributions in these forest fragments. We conducted firstly, interviews of the populations bordering these forests to get a general idea of the species of monkeys in the space and the forests that shelter them. Then, field surveys were organized in the forests identified during the interview. From these investigation, 76 primates belonging to two species (Cercopithecus lowei and Cercopithecus petaurista). Three groups of Mona monkey and one group of white-nosed monkey were recorded in the sacred forest. In the forest fragment 1 only Cercopithecus petaurista was recorded. In forest fragment 2, one species (Cercopithecus lowei) has been also identified. With the exception of bordering areas, these species are encountered throughout the forests but are more concentrated in the center of forest fragments 1 and 2. To ensure sustainable management of these forests, all stakeholders, including scientists, foresters and local populations, should be involved.

Characterization of Macro-Invertebrate settlement into the river draining Effluents from uncontrolled Akouédo Landfill (Côte d'Ivoire)

Ouattara Pétémanagnan Jean-Marie, Messou Aman, Ama Assamoi Béatrice, Koffi Kouman, Coulibaly Lacina

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.14456.]

  • Abstract

    To improve the understanding of the impact of uncontrolled Akouédo landfill upon the ecosystem of the river downstream, quality of effluent from this landfill and the settlement of macro-invertebrates in the river were studied. The study consisted to characterize the effluent drained into the river and to analyze the composition, distribution and determinism of macro-invertebrate settlement along the river. Moreover, five sampling of effluent and macro-invertebrate campaigns were conducted at five stations along the longitudinal river gradient. Effluent quality was determined using standard methods of wastewater analysis. Concerning macro-invertebrate settlement, it was analyzed using taxonomic richness, diversity index and abundance. Then, a multiple regression was used to assess the influence of effluent quality upon macro-invertebrate settlement. The effluents were heavily loaded and alkaline, goal devient slightly acid at the outlet. Dissolved oxygen increased downstream of the river while the other parameters measured decreased. The Effluent drained into the Ebrié lagoon had a higher concentration of cod in the accepted limit. Concerning macro-invertebrate, 24 taxa belonging to 19 families, six (6) Orders and two (2) classes were recorded. The class of insects was the most diversified (91.6% of taxa) with Diptera and Coleoptera as dominant taxa. Taxa recorded into this river are mostly reported for the first time in the rivers in Côte d'Ivoire. Dissolved oxygen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) significantly influenced the settlement structure of these macroinvertebrates.

Caractérisation du peuplement des macro-invertébrés de la rivière drainant les effluents issus de la décharge non contrôlée d’Akouédo (Côte d’Ivoire)

Ouattara Pétémanagnan Jean-Marie, Messou Aman, Ama Assamoi Béatrice, Koffi Kouman, Coulibaly Lacina

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.14456.]

  • Abstract

    To improve the understanding of the impact of uncontrolled Akouédo landfill upon the ecosystem of the river downstream, quality of effluent from this landfill and the settlement of macro-invertebrates in the river were studied. The study consisted to characterize the effluent drained into the river and to analyze the composition, distribution and determinism of macro-invertebrate settlement along the river. Thus, five sampling of effluent and macro-invertebrate campaigns were conducted at five stations along the river longitudinal gradient. Effluent quality was determined using standard methods of wastewater analysis. Concerning macro-invertebrate settlement, it was analyzed using taxonomic richness, diversity index and abundance. Then, a multiple regression was used to assess the influence of effluent quality upon macro-invertebrate settlement. The effluents were heavily loaded and alkaline, but became slightly acid at the outlet. Dissolved oxygen increased downstream of the river while the other parameters measured decreased. The effluents drained into the Ebrié lagoon had a higher concentration of COD in the accepted limit. Concerning macro-invertebrate, 24 taxa belonging to 19 families, six (6) orders and two (2) classes were recorded. The class of Insects was the most diversified (91.6 % of taxa) with Diptera and Coleoptera as dominant taxa. Taxa recorded into this river are mostly reported for the first time in the rivers in Côte d’Ivoire. Dissolved oxygen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) significantly influenced the settlement structure of these macro-invertebrates.

Interaction of the Testosterone with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA): UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy

Husain Alsamamra, Sawsan Abu Sharkh, Saker Darwish, Musa Abu Teir

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.15767.]

  • Abstract

    The molecular interactions between BSA and Testosterone have been successfully investigated. The absorption, distribution and metabolism of many molecules can be altered based on their affinity to BSA. BSA is often increases the apparent solubility of hydrophobic ligands in plasma and modulate their delivery to cells. In this study, the interaction between Testosterone and BSA has been investigated using UV- absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy to determine the binding constant. From UV- absorption spectrophotometry which showed a decreasing in the absorption intensity with increasing of the molecular ratios of testosterone to BSA, it is found that the value of the binding constant of testosterone to BSA, K equals 0.415*103 M-1 at 293 K. While from the Fluorescence spectroscopy there was a quenching in the intensity with increasing of the molecular ratios of testosterone to BSA and it gave the same value of the binding constant as uv-absorption spectroscopy.

Physicochemical properties and composition of safou (Dacryodes edulis) non-conventional oil from Côte d’Ivoire

Beugré Romuald Léonce Kadji, Andrée Emmanuelle Sika, Fankroma Martial Thierry Koné, Soumaïla Dabonné

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.16879.]

  • Abstract

    Safou (Dacryodes edulis) is a non-conventional oleaginous fruit which is used in many West and Central Africa country. Unfortunately, this fruit grown in Côte d’Ivoire is still unknown to the public and is the subject of very few studies. This study investigated the physicochemical properties of safou oil (D. edulis) produced in Côte d’Ivoire. Oil was extracted from two varieties of Dacryodes edulis (D. edulis var edulis and D. edulis var parvicarpa) from 3 sites (CNRA-Azaguié, Azaguié-Blida and Grand-Morié). Oil was studied using standard procedures. The result revealed that the colour of safou oil was yellow and the odor was agreeable. Safou oil was liquid at room temperature. Refractory value, specific gravity and viscosity ranged from 1.463 to 1.473, 0.901 to 0.902 and 27.50 to 28.50, respectively. Oil content, acid values, peroxide values, iodine values, saponification values and unsaponifiable matters ranged from 68.88 to 71.93%, 1.25 to 1.87 mg KOH/g, 3.48 to 4.46 meq O2/kg, 46.80 to 51.33 mg/100g, 173.16 to 215.76 mg KOH/g and 0.25 to 0.30 g/kg, respectively. The fatty acid composition revealed 42.60 to 45.45% saturated, 27.44 to 28.55% monounsaturated and 20.43 to 23.27% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Safou oil was rich in palmitic acid (38.16 to 40.16%) and oleic acid (27.44 to 28.55%). The ratio PUFA/SFA was ranged from 0.47 to 0.51. There were significant differences between the two safou varieties and between the tree sites. This study revealed the high potential of D. edulis (safou) oil in food and cosmetic industries.

Histological study of the sexual cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar of the Ebrié lagoon of Côte d'Ivoire

Kouakou Kouassi Faithful, Aman Jean Baptiste, Diaha N'guessan Constance, Otchoumou Atcho

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.18089.]

  • Abstract

    Crassostrea gasar is a bivalve mollusk living in the Ebrié lagoon. With a view to ecological and possibly economic valorization, as exploitable resource in fishing and aquaculture, we proposed ourselves in this work, to study the sex-ratio and the gametogenesis of this oyster. Thus, by the classical histology method according to Martoja and Martoja1, we made sections of gonad fragments taken from 360 animals. Observations of histological sections allowed us to separate immature and mature individuals. Sex ratio was determined by identification and enumeration of male and female individuals. The Chi-square test made it possible to compare the determined sex ratio with the theoretical sex ratio. Gametogenesis has been described from the microscopic scale of sexual maturity of Steele and Mulcahy2; Berthelin et al.3 . We obtained 22.5% immature individuals, 27.77% males and 49.72% females. That's a sex ratio of 1: 1.79. Four stages of gametogenesis have been observed. A stage of immaturity and three stages of gamete development. No cases of hermaphroditism were observed during this work. These results give an idea of the sex distribution and development of Crassostrea gasar gametes in the Ebrié lagoon.

Étude histologique du cycle sexuel de l’huitre Crassostrea gasar de la lagune Ébrié de Côte d’Ivoire.

KOUAKOU Kouassi Fidèle, AMAN Jean Baptiste, DIAHA N’guessan Constance OTCHOUMOU Atcho 

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.18089]

  • Abstract

    Crassostrea gasar est un mollusque bivalve vivant dans la lagune Ébrié. En vue d’une valorisation écologique et éventuellement économique, comme ressource exploitable en pêche et en aquaculture, nous nous sommes proposé dans ce travaille, d’étudier la sex-ratio et la gamétogenèse de cette huître. Ainsi, nous avons par la méthode d’histologie classique selon Martoja et Martoja1, réalisé des coupes de fragments de gonades prélevés sur 360 animaux. Les observations des coupes histologiques nous ont permis de séparer les individus immatures des matures. La sex-ratio a été déterminée par identification et dénombrement des individus mâles et femelles. Le test de Khi 2 a permis de comparer la sex-ratio déterminé à la sex-ratio théorique. La gamétogénèse a été décrite d’après l’échelle microscopique de maturité sexuelle de Steele et Mulcahy2; Berthelin et al.3. Nous avons obtenu 22,5 % d’individus immatures, 27,77 % de mâles et 49,72 % de femelles. Soit une sex-ratio de 1 :1,79. Quatre stades de gamétogénèse ont été observés. Un stade d’immaturité et trois stades de développement des gamètes. Aucun cas d’hermaphrodisme n’a été observé lors de ces travaux. Ces résultats donnent une idée de la distribution des sexes et du développement des gamètes de Crassostrea gasar dans la lagune Ébrié.

Polyphenols content and antimicrobial potential of extracts from leaves of Celtis australis

Soukaina El Maliki, Najoie Filali-Ansari, Said El Khyari, Ahmed El Abbouyi

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.19000]

  • Abstract

    The dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol extracts from leaves of Celtis australis, used to treat different disorders in Moroccan traditional medicine, were screened for their contents of total polyphenols, flavonoïds and condensed tannins and antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sp, Listeria ivanovii, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella sp) and three fungi (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus niger), using Ampicillin and Fluconazole as references. The antimicrobial activities of plant extracts were assessed by the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. All values are expressed as mean ± SD. The obtained results showed that the butanol extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, Bacillus sp and Salmonella sp. The other extracts exerted moderate antibacterial activity, except methanol extract that inhibited significantly Listeria ivanovii. In the same conditions, the butanol, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant and dose-dependent antifungal activity against all tested fungi, although at different extents, while methanol extract exhibits moderate effect. The plant extracts yielded important polyphenolic contents assessed by total polyphenols, flavonoïds and condensed tannins. A positive linear correlation was established between these compounds and the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts. These results are corroborating the traditional medicine use of Celtis australis which could be a good candidate for further studies.

Effect of Acute Cadmium Exposure on Body Weight, Spleen Size and the Relative Number of Spleen Cells in Mice

ADON Mousan Arsène, DIABY Vandjiguiba, KIPRE Gueyraud Rolland, KONAN Kouassi Martin, N’GUESSAN Assue Adja Julien, DJAMA Allico Joseph, DOSSO Mireille

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.20108.]

  • Abstract

    The effect of cadmium on the spleen function is still not well elucidated although the spleen is known to be an important organ of the immune system. Six male mice were used during this experiment. These mice were divided in two groups: the control non treated and the Cd-treated groups. Mice from the control group received only distilled water however the Cd-treated mice received distilled water enriched with 50 mM of cadmium sulfate. The experiment last seven days and during that period, the body weight of the mice was recorded every three days. At the end of the experiment, the mice were euthanized, the spleens extracted and weighted followed by the isolation of the spleenocytes and then counted. The relative number of the spleenocytes to the spleen weight was evaluated. The results showed a decrease in body weight, reduced size of the spleen and a significantly decreased in the relative number of spleenocytes to the spleen weight in the Cd-treated mice when compared to the non-treated control mice.

Effect of Seed Soaking with KNO3, CaCl2 and PEG on the Growth, Physiological and Biochemical Attributes of Wheat under Salinity Stress

Rimsha Zainab, Ali Raza Gurmani, Azhar Hussain Shah, Sahib Gul Afridi

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.20923.]

  • Abstract

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the consequences of seed presoaking along 3% of potassium nitrate (KNO3), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of selected wheat genotypes under salinity stress. Ten days old seedlings were tested with salinity of 150 mM NaCl. Seed pre-treatment with KNO3 and CaCl2 brought on enough increment in shoots and root dry weight over that of salt alone in throughout the tested genotypes; however increment because of KNO3 was higher than CaCl2. Wheat genotype Punjab-2011 kept up higher shoot and root dry biomass than NR-372 and NARC-2009 separately under salt stress. KNO3 and CaCl2 treatments further expanded the stimulatory impact of salts on soluble protein, sugar content and higher chlorophyll accumulation. Higher K+: Na+ proportion and chlorophyll contents were found in Punjab-2011 when contrasted with NR-372 and NARC-2009. Wheat genotype Punjab- 2011 found to be the most observable, while NR-372 medium and NARC-2009 was discovered delicate towards 150 mM NaCl. The generally less amount of accumulation of Sodium and less translocation to leaf of Punjab-2011 accompanying with high K+amassing, better transpiration rate, water use efficiency, chlorophyll content and more noteworthy leaf zone in salt stress make this variety Halophytes. The outcomes recommended that seed curing with KNO3 was more compelling than CaCl2 and PEG.

Influence of Ferulic Acid on Monosodium Glutamate Toxicity in Rats: Hematological, Clincopathological and Histopathological Studies

Gihan M. Hammoud, Asmaa A. Salem, Khaled M. ELSawy and Yasser M. Abd El-Shafea 

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.22442.]

  • Abstract

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) a flavor enhancer, one of the most worldwide used food additives and recently reported to have various toxic effects in animals and human. Ferulic acid (FA) is one of naturally occurring phenolic compound which exhibits abundant medicinal properties. An experimental study on rats was conducted for 4 weeks to evaluate possible protective effect of FA against MSG toxicity. The results revealed that the oral administration of MSG at 2 doses level (3 and 6 g/kg body weight (b.w)) resulted in dose- dependent increase in platelets count (PLT), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose and plasma lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), whereas significant dose- dependent reduction of RBCs count, WBCs count, hemoglobin (Hb) content, serum albumin and total protein (TP), plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) was recorded. Moreover, marked alterations in histology of liver, kidneys, brain, and testes were noticed as a result of MSG treatment. The severity of the lesions was MSG dose dependent. However, administration of FA (40 mg/kg b.w) alongside MSG significantly reduce toxic and oxidative effects of MSG on all investigated hematological and biochemical parameters and able to improve pathological architecture of tested organs especially with low MSG dose. It worthy to note that FA restore kidneys, testes and brain histology to normal. This study therefore supports the potent protective effect of FA against toxicity and oxidative stress induced by MSG.