Vol. 8 & Issue 2 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Feb. to April2018

 

Complex treatment in patient with Wilson’s disease

M. Avramova, V. Zidarova, Kr. Markova, R. Cholakova, M. Drangov, St.Hristov  , Sv. Bachurska,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 301-309,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.1.30109.]

  • Abstract

    Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by a mutation in the ATP 7B gene, it is a membrane-bound copper-transporting ATPase. The distorted copper excretion increases its serum concentration and leads to an accumulation within the body. Multi-organ manifestations are observed from the liver, the nervous system, kidneys, eyes and heart.
    Case report: We present a patient at the age of 46, with Wilson’s disease, she visited the clinical halls of FDM-Plovdiv, requiring complex treatment for the recovery of the chewing apparatus. A treatment plan was drawn up after diagnosis, including tooth extraction under local anesthesia, whereas she underwent a CBC and biochemistry with an INR test, due to the rest of hemorrhage in these patients. Material for a histological test was sampled during the extraction, aimed at establishing the presence of copper in the mucous membrane and bone. Recovery of speech, function and aesthetics was performed with detachable and fixed denture constructions that contain no copper. The disease is incredibly rare, approximately 1 in 40 000, with serious damage to the liver and the nervous system, which requires an in-depth analysis and discussion of the treatment plan, for its realization, as well as not allowing any complications during its implementation.

Mycotoxins and food preservation using essential oils extracted from plants grown in Rwanda

Daniel UMEREWENEZA, Théoneste MUHIZI, Théoneste KAMIZIKUNZE,
Jean Pierre NKURUNZIZA,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 310-321

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.31021.]

  • Abstract

    We report the incidence of mycotoxins in some foodstuffs consumed in Rwanda and study on preservation of some of the analysed foodstuffs using naturally available products. Food samples were taken from various locations in Rwanda and analyzed for mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analysis was carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS, Agilent) and GCMS was used for essential oils chemical profiling. Preservation against mycotoxin producing fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus,Fusarium oxysporum and Penicilium digitatum was also attempted. Results showed that aflatoxins are the most frequent in the analysed foodstuff flours with a frequency of 100%, 89%, and 33% in soybean, wheat, and sorghum samples, respectively. The highest total concentrations of mycotoxins in wheat flours were 34.4 μg/kg, 215.8 μg/kg and 5.0μg/kg for aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A, respectively. C. citratus essential oil was the most effective against R. nigricans (1.0mg/ml) and least effective against A. niger (5.2mg/ml). C. citratus essential oil showed lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values than O. gratissimum essential oil. A. flavus and A. parasiticus were used to evaluate the antiaflatoxin activity whose results showed that, at the concentration of 4 μl/ml of C. citratus essential oil showed a completed inhibition to aflatoxin production for A. flavus and A. parasiticus whereas the essential oil of O. gratissimum showed weak antiaflatoxigenic activity. Therefore, the essential oil of C. citratus can be considered as better potential food preservative against food spoilage fungi than the essential oil from O. gratissimum.

Effect of mutagen (benzyl-N-hydroxy carbamate) on mycological production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger NCIM-683

Subedar Yadav,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No.2; 322-328

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.0322-0328.]

  • Abstract

    The effect of mutagen (benzyl-N-hydroxy carbamate) on mycological production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger NCIM-683 has been assessed. It has been found that the mutagenic compound under trial has effect on mycological production of citric acid and enhances the yield of citric acid to an extent of 7.153 g/100ml which is 4.301% higher in comparison to control fermentor flasks i.e. 6.858 g/100ml in 8 days of optimum incubation period, 1.8 pH and 30 0C temperature with 20% (w/v) molasses solution.

Detection the two sex hormone digital values with human clinical medicine science in milk fish (Chanos chanos)

Nan- Hung Chen,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 329-336

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.32936.]

  • Abstract

    The aims of this study were to detect the clinical chemical digital values of the two sex hormones in milk fish by treatment with the Chemiluminescecent Immunoassay (CLIA) of human medicine. The digital values of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were detected.

The Modern Rapid Laboratory Diagnosis Methods for Helicobacter pylori Infection with Submit the Infections Prevalence in High-altitude Area,"VISION 2030 G", Taif, KSA

Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April - 2018, Vol. 8, No.2; 354-358.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.35458.]

  • Abstract

    This search had provided for witness "The modern rapid Lab. diagnosis methods for Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection with submit the infections prevalence in high-altitude (HA) area, "VISION 2030 G", Taif, KSA", HP infection makes severe abdominal pains and digestive system side effects. Many Lab. methods used to diagnose recent and old HP infection for the emergency treatment-plan (TP) beginning, that protocol reduced the diagnosis time and accelerated TP beginning. The evaluation mean taken time and target of under-study Lab. methods found as ascending arrangement in the 1st for 15 minutes mean were for (S-Ags and S-Abs-IgG) which were for recent and old HP infection, 2nd for 30 minutes mean was for UBT, which for recent and old HP infection and 3rd for 150 minutes mean was for S-Abs-IgG Titer, which for old HP infection only. The evaluation mean of HP infection at HA by under-study Lab. methods, the most obvious were in ascending levels as in (S-Ags test, UBT, S-Abs-IgG and S-Abs-IgG) resulted (56.3%, 52.1%, 48.7% 40.9%). That concluded the importance of HP diagnosis tests available in KSA, were compered in time and results. That recognized the importance of (diagnosis tests, TP beginning and prognosis). That recommended for more recent test and new TP to decrease HP infection. This also concluded the importance of HP infections prevalence in HA were different than normal altitude (NA) area, due to presence of enhanced factors in HA area. That recommended for "MOH-Preventive Medicine" to spot on attention for individuals living in HA area.

Periodic Pediatric Check for "Group A Streptococcus" Asymptomatic Infections to Maintain Pediatric Public Health at High Altitude Area, "VISION 2030 G",Taif, KSA

Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April - 2018, Vol. 8, No.2; 359-363.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.35963.]

  • Abstract

    This paper confirmed "Periodic pediatric check for "group A Streptococcus" asymptomatic infections (GAS-AIs) to maintain pediatric public health (PPH) at high altitude (HA) area, "VISION 2030 G", Taif, KSA", GAS is the most common bacterial infections in the pediatric sector (PS), leads to (complications and death). Serological test Cell Reactive Protein (CRP) resulted 37%, Anti-Streptolysin O (ASO) was 23%, the positive ASO samples were classified to first positive group was 13%, represented more than 1/2 of the positive samples, contained 200 International Unite (IU)/mL and less), which estimated as negative. The second positive group was 10% represented less than 1/2 of the positive samples, contained more than 200 IU/mL and positive for the patient. This positive were divided into two groups, A group represented 8% as 4/5, contained 400 IU/mL and B group was 2% as 1/5, contained 800 IU/mL. From the results, it concluded must be considered the HA area climate characters had effects on the PS which increased GAS-AIs, it must be use the periodic method to detect GAS-AIs by the new serological and rapid tests. As well as that will help to: (diagnosis, reduce complications and faster treatment). Also the use of modern vaccine was amend to protect PS and community health (CH) from GAS-AIs. That recommendations were foxed for PS follow-up and use of modern modified vaccine for GAS-AIs. "Health Education and Preventive Medicine Unites-MOH" must be modified and used suit programs for family and pediatric medicine in CH to decrease and protect PPH from GAS-AIs.

Impacts of feeding fermented soybean on gut morphology and microbes in broiler chicks

Alshehri A.N.Z, Ahood Aleidan and Kamal A.Attia,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 364-372,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.36472.]

  • Abstract

    :The present examination intended to research the impacts of fermented soya bean application in broiler diet on the creation of the gastrointestinal microbes and some gut histomorphological parameters. Eighty commercial Ross x Ross male broiler chicks were utilized and arbitrarily designated into 2 dietary groups; soyabean - based deit (SBM-deit) and fermented Soyabean based deit (FSBM-deit). The control birds were sustained a corn-SBM based eating regimen, and the treatment bolstered with a corn-FSBM based eating routine (1.5 %). Two nourishing stages were utilized, starter (0 to 21 d) and grower (21 to 49 d) stages. Toward the finish of the period (49d), samples of intestinal content (crop, proventriculus + gizzard, ileum and caeca) were gotten and immediately utilized for assurance of digesta pH and developing microorganisms utilizing specific media including the aggregate anaerobic microbes, coliform organisms, streptococci and lactobacilli . Different intestinal tissue samples were likewise collected for histomorphological studies including villus height and crypt depth .In all (gastro-intestinal compartments, the arrangement of gut microbes were observed to be changed reliably. The quantity of coliforms were altogether diminished and the quantity of Lactobacilli were fundamentally expanded, in crop, proventriculus + gizzard and ileum. In the caeca, the quantity of Streptococci were altogether brought down. Feeding FSBM enhanced the stomach acid barrier. Both villi at the mid-jejunum and mid-ileum were higher when contrasted with SBM-bolstered chicken. Nonetheless, no significant contrasts were found in crypt depth for all cases considered. Conclusively, FSBM-diet may improve feed to gain ratio and gut health in broilers. All the more particularly, the villus height of small intestinal tissue was more prominent and the organization of the microorganisms inside the gastro-digestive system was valuably moved

Development of Methods for Identification of Protein Composition in Mammalian Sperm Fluid, and Comparison with Other Biological Materials. A Pilot Study

Iskra V Sainova, Ilina Valkova, Tzveta Markova , Elena Nikolova, Angel Baldzhiev, Angel Alishev, Marin Nenchev

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2 ; 373-379

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.37379.]

  • Abstract

    The main goal of the current study was connected with general investigation on the protein composition (types of proteins and eventual protein-protein interactions) in mammal sperm fluid as a biological material, for which is proposed to be supplemented with different molecules from the living action of the male germ cells. For a better determination of presence and/or localization of respective molecules in the complex structures, by intra- and extra-cellular inter-molecular interactions, underlining the described changes, low-dose laser irradiation and 3D-visualization techniques were developed and tested. The protein content was subsequently compared with that of biological materials, containing various normal cell types in early stages of maturation and differentiation, and from nuclear extract (NE) of malignant cells, respectively. Label-free tandem mass spectrometry assay, combined with liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) was applied, and its usability for such investigations was proved. The results obtained could give a possibility about more precise identification of the changes, and inter-molecular interactions in the composition of complex inter-molecular structures, on both intra- and extra-cellular levels.

Assessment of Fungitoxicity Effects of Leaf Extracts From Two Botanicals Against Black Pod Disease of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.)

Ademiluyi Benson Oluwafemi and Ojo Babalola Olaposi,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 380-388.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.38088.]

  • Abstract

    Loss due to black pod disease is one of the main constraints to Cocoa production in Nigeria. The uses of synthetic Fungicides have been employed over the years in managing this disease but this study assessed the efficacy of crude extracts obtained from the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana and Tithonia diversifolia in the control of black pod disease of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). The Fungi (Phytophthora megakarya) associated with black pod disease which were naturally infected and obtained from the plantation of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Idi Ayunre, Ibadan were isolated using poison method and grown on naturally prepared Carrot Dextrose Agar (CDA). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of five selected botanicals namely Acalypha wilkesiana and Tithonia diversifolia were tested against a moderately virulent strain of P. megakarya at various concentrations (10g/100ml, 20g/100ml and 30g/100ml) using the poison technique. The pathogen was also inoculated into three varieties (N38, C77 and F3 Amazon) of cocoa pods to determine its pathogenicity. All experiments were carried out under the laboratory conditions. The results obtained showed that not all the tested concentrations (10g/100ml, 20g/100ml and 30g/100ml), significantly (P<0.05) reduced the mycelia growth of the fungi in vitro. Absolute value of 100% inhibition on P. megakayar was obtained with 30g/100ml aqueous extract of T. diversifolia and ethanol extract of 10-30g/100ml of T. diversifolia. The result showed the presence of antifungal substances in the different extracts’ growth and spore germination in vivo. The result also showed that as the concentration increases so also the inhibition rate increased. The percentage inhibition rate of A. wilkesiana aqueous extract ranges from 54.63% - 78.15%. Ethanol extracts of A.wiklkesiana ranges from 34.70%- 53.72%. Complete absolute inhibition was recorded on 30g/100ml aqueous and ethanol extract of T. diversifolia. This study revealed that plant extracts have proved very effective in the control of black pod disease of Cocoa and could be exploited as a substitute to synthetic agrochemicals.

Contraceptive effects in hematological and biochemical parameters of healthy women at Al- Samawah city

Talib F. Abbas,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 389-395,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.38995.]

  • Abstract

    The mechanism of negative feedback inhibition of estradiol or estrogen on the pituitary hormones has been used to fake the pregnancy that is a principle of contraceptive mode of action. Although, contraceptive pills used in widely range, no studies were carried out about effect of contraceptive pills administration in healthy women in samawah city. Therefore, the study had been concentrated on some biochemical and hematological parameters of women who administrated pills for six months at age between 30-40 years old. The results revealed no changes in Hct, WBCs, and RBCs values significantly, while there are significant increases in Hb content and iron level in blood of oral contraceptive women than the control groups with probability value P≤0.05. Lipid profile showed significant increases in cholesterol and triglyceride (TAG) had recorded in woman feeding the contraceptives in regular times, compared with control group P≤0.05. Consequently, there were highly recorded contributions of oral contraceptives and the metabolic products, since it had been elevated significantly when it's compared to control group P≤0.05. The sugar and uric acid were the values of interest in the present study. In order to evaluate having oral contraceptive and determine the risks among healthy women in AlSamawah city, the present study had recommended that the women should be screened for lipid profile and blood pressure before starting contraceptives course and followed up regularly to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Plant Derived Semisynthetic Analogues as Anti-cancer Agents

Babar Ali, Mohammad Rashid, Shamshir khan, Makhmur Ahmad, Shahid Karim,Nimer Fehaid Alsabeelah, Asif Husain, Ravinesh Mishra,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2 ; 396-433,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.39633]

  • Abstract

    Worldwide cancer is considered as one of the main cause of death in human beings and a variety of biological sources has been developed for the treatment but no medicine is found to be fully effective and safe. It has prompted the research efforts to identify the anti-tumor compounds. Plants have proved to be an important natural source of anti-cancer therapy for several years and and day by day the anti-cancer property of various plants is being identified. Medicinal plants have the ability to produce remarkable chemical structures with diverse biological activities. Plant-derived natural products have been used by human societies for millennia, and their biological source is most likely available and can be employed for production, have been considered as valuable sources for anticancer agents. Natural compound analogue or its derivative is being used for the treatment of cancer. This review highlights the potential of semi-synthetic compounds, analogues as candidates for anticancer agents. Some of plant derived compounds, analogues, or combination therapies are currently under different phase of clinical trials. These anti-cancer compounds have been found to be clinically active against various types of cancer cells. Further research in this area may lead to better treatment of cancer.

Phytochemical and Biological Activity of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze Cultivated in Egypt

Mostafa EM , Abdelhady NM and El-Hela AA.

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 434- 443

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.43443.]

  • Abstract

    The present study was carried out aiming investigation of phenol and flavonoid contents of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze herb (Lamiaceae) and screening of their antioxidant potentials where chemical investigation resulted in isolation and identification of several terpenoid and flavonoid compounds viz., cholesterol, β-sitosterol, uvaol, ursolic acid and keampferol, quercetin, hyperoside, rutin respectively, their structural elucidation were established on the basis of NMR and MS spectral analyses. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were assessed using colourimetric methods as well as HPLC technique where their calculated values were 250 mg % and 48 μg % respectively meanwhile HPLC investigation revealed the existence of ninety phenolic acids and twenty-four flavonoids where their majors were as follows; coumarin (72.1 mg%), ferulic acid (22.79 mg%), rutin (3826.90 μg%) and luteolin-6-arabinose-8-glucose (628.20 μg%). The antioxidant activity of the total extract was evaluated by colourimetric method using 2, 2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method where the gained results suggested Agastache foeniculum herb as one of the promising natural antioxidants.

A novel optimization method for preparing carboxymethyl cellulose with higher yield from wheat straw

Mst. Sarmina Yeasmin, Md. Abdul Jalil, Md. Moinuddin, Nasifa Akter, Nazim Uddin Ahmed, Md. Saifur Rahman and Husna Parvin Nur,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 444-460,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.44460]

  • Abstract

    Locally collected wheat straw sample was analyzed for chemical composition such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectic matters, fatty & waxy matters. Cellulose extracted was 48% used for the synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) under heterogeneous condition with ethanol as the supporting medium. Effects of cellulose size, time, temperature, alkali dosage and concentration of monochloroacetic acid on the yield of CMC products were investigated. Yield of CMC in gram was calculated from per gram powdered wheat straw sample as waste. Prepared CMC was characterized in terms of degree of substitution (DS), molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity and water absorption capacity at various particle sizes. All parameters were increased with decreased cellulose particle sizes. Infrared (IR) Spectrophotometer was used to investigate the change of functional group from raw straw powder to cellulose and cellulose to CMC. The absence of peaks at 1515 and 1248 cm-1 indicated the removal of lignin from cellulose and the presence of strong absorption band around 1400-1700 cm-1 confirmed the presence of carboxyl group (-COO). The degree of crystallinity and surface morphology were determined by XRD and SEM analyses. The optimized conditions for CMC preparation were NaOH concentration 7.5 mol/L, MCA concentration 12.69 mol/L, reaction time 3 h,reaction temperature 60oC and cellulose particle size 64 μm gives CMC with higher yield, 1.21g/g and higher DS, 2.5.

Assessment of Eucalyptus microtheca leaves extracts as, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

Abdelhalim A. Hamza Awatif, A.Fagier, Nuha E. Mohamed, Eiman E. Diab,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2 ; 461-474,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.46174]

  • Abstract

    The aim of the study is to assess the bioactive compounds of Eucalyptus microthica leaves, such as essential oils, glycosides and flavonoids which show a variety of biological activities, such as those of antibacterial, antioxidants, HIV inhibitors and others. Antimicrobial properties of eucalyptus species are continuously being reported from different parts of the world. The powdered leaves of Eucalyptus microtheca was extracted using 80% methanol. The metabolic extract was sequentially fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The obtained extracts of Eucalyptus microtheca leaves were screened for their antimicrobial activities against four standard bacteria (Bacillus subtitles, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and one fungi (Candida albicans) using in vitro agar well diffusion method. Following bioactivity guided fractionation the ethyl acetate phase at a concentrations (5mg/ml) was significantly active against Staphylococcus aureus (19mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17 mm). Furthermore, the chloroform extracts of the leaves at concentration of (5mg/ml) showed activity against E.coli (11mm), there is no activity against tested fungi were observed. Phytochmical profiling was carried for all the three fractions of Eucalyptus microtheca leaves by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The TLC chromatogram revealed the presence of Flavonoids, Phenolic acids, Coumarins, and terpenoids in all fractions, flavonoids and Phenolic acid are mainly accumulated in ethyl acetate fraction where the Terpenoids are accumulated in Petroleum ether fraction.The total phenolic contents of Eucalyptus microtheca leaves methanolic extract was 287.8mg GAE/g the high contents of phenolic content indicated that this plant contribute to the high antioxidant activity.The radical scavenging activity of fractions was screened by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the antioxidant results were expressed as concentration of inhibition (IC50).The Ethyl acetate fraction give highest activity 79% with IC50 9.3 μg/ml while Chloroform give inhibition 48% , the Petroleum ether give lowest inhibition 19%.

Antioxidant Potentials of the Methanol Seed and Leaves Extracts Of Chytranthus Macrobotrys (Gilg) Exell & Mendonca

Faleye Francis Jide and Ajayi Christianah Bidemi

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2 ; 475-481,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.47581]

  • Abstract

    The antioxidant potentials of crude methanol seed extract (CMS/ME) as well as methanol and ethyl acetate leaves soluble fractions of Chytranthus macrobotrys Gilg, were studied. The antioxidant potentials of extract/different fractions were evaluated using different in vitro antioxidant models. In addition, total amount of polyphenolics compounds, Ferric-ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent absorbance capacity (TEAC) and Inhibition of Fe (II)-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation of crude extract and its different fractions were determined. From the two fractions of the ethyl acetate extract of C. macrobotrys leaves (CML/EE); fractions D2 and D3, fraction D2 possessed total antioxidant capacity with the highest TEAC value, 15356.7 ± 1.75 μM TE/g and FRAP value, 185.76 ± 1.59 μM AAE/g. Polyphenol and flavonol were most prominent in CML/ME with values (4393.21 ± 8.04mg/g, 12966.07 ± 10.19mg/g) respectively

Biological activity of the aqueous and methanolic Salvia officinalis extracts

Furdos, N.Jafar,

JCBPS; Section B; February 2018 – April 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2; 482-489,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.2.48289.]

  • Abstract

    Salvia officinalis is medical plant used since a long time for treatment of bronchitis, cough, mouth inflammation, skin disease and many other diseases. To detect the biological activity of methanolic and aqueous Salvia officinalis extracts and compare their effectiveness. Both aqueous and methanolic Salvia officinalis extracts was prepared and their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity was tested .Results were analyzed using SPSS version. In vitro antibacterial activity show that the methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis was significantly inhibited bacterial isolates than aqueous extract, also most of yeasts affected by extracts with the superiority of methanol extract .It has been shown that the hydrogen peroxide scavenging was greater in the case of methanol extract of S.officianlis and lower in the case of aqueous extract this assay carried out with compared to the (Butyalted hydroxyl toluene) BHT as antioxidant stander material.