Vol. 8 & Issue 3 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : May to Jul.2018

 

Milking frequency and feeding level effects on feed intake, body condition score, energy balance, and feeding behavior of late lactation dairy goats

M. Komara, M. Kimsé, M. Karamoko, O. Etchian

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.50109.]

  • Abstract

    This experiment divided in two successive periods (P1: milking frequency reduction period, and P2: feed adjustment period) investigated the effects of once-daily milking (ODM) and feeding level (ad libitum or adjusted) on nutritional status and eating pattern from dairy goat in late lactation. Dry matter intake per kg of body weight (DMIBW), body condition score (BCS), energy and nitrogen balances, and eating pattern were determined during the both periods of the study. The energy balance was increased in goats under ODM management only during P1 and was decreased in goats under feed adjustment during P2. The DMIBW was reduced when the goats were under ODM or feeding adjustment management during P2, but BCS was not modified by either ODM or feeding adjustment. The goats modified their feeding pattern during P2 under feeding adjustment, and increased their rate of intake, especially those under ODM management.

The effect of the variation in salinity on the activity of the Na+/K+ - ATPase pump in tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron

N’golo OUATTARA, Sylvain Kouassi KONAN, Yaya SORO, Kouakou YAO

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.51020.]

  • Abstract

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of salinity on the activity of the main transmembrane protein involved in osmoregulation in the gills of tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii from a hypersalé estuary (Saloum, Senegal). In a controlled environment, juveniles of S. m. heudelotii initially high TO 0.3 PSU in fresh water (ED) have been divided into two groups, a control group maintained in ED and a direct transfer of the ed to 35 psu in sea water (EM) has been performed on the other group. A portion of the fish in EM have then been acclimated to waters hypersaline (EHS) by a gradual increase of 7 psu/day up to 70 (EHS70) and 90 psu (EHS90). The activity of the enzyme was measured by the determination of the amount of inorganic phosphate and proteins released after 24, 72, 240 and 720 hours of exposure to different salinities. Between the ED and the EM, the activity of the pump has increased slightly but significantly. Of the EM to the ESH70 and the EHS90, the activity of the Na+ /K+ -ATPase has strongly increased. This continual increase significant and of the activity of the enzyme with the increase in salinity indicates an effective adaptation of S. melanotheron face to changes in salinity. The strong increase in the activity to high salinities compared to low salinities suggests a nuance in the osmoregulatory mechanisms between these two ranges of salinities in this fish.

Effet de la variation de la salinité sur l’activité de la pompe Na+/K+-ATPase chez le tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron

N’golo OUATTARA, Sylvain Kouassi KONAN, Yaya SORO, Kouakou YAO

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.51020.]

  • Abstract

    Cette étude avait pour but de rechercher l’effet de la salinité sur l’activité de la principale protéine transmembranaire intervenant dans l’osmorégulation dans les branchies du tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii provenant d'un estuaire hypersalé (Saloum, Sénégal). En milieu contrôlé, des juvéniles de S. m. heudelotii initialement élevés à 0.3 psu en eau douce (ED) ont été divisés en deux groupes, un groupe de contrôle maintenu en ED et un transfert direct de l’ED à 35 psu en eau de mer (EM) a été réalisé sur l’autre groupe. Une partie des poissons en EM ont ensuite été acclimatés aux eaux hypersalines (EHS) par une augmentation graduelle de 7 psu/jour jusqu'à 70 (EHS70) et 90 psu (EHS90). L’activité de l’enzyme a été mesurée par le dosage de la quantité de phosphate inorganique et de protéines libérés après 24, 72, 240 et 720 heures d’exposition aux différentes salinités. Entre l’ED et l’EM, l’activité de la pompe a augmenté faiblement mais significativement. De l’EM à l’ESH70 et l’EHS90, l’activité de la Na+/K+-ATPase a fortement augmenté. Cette augmentation continuelle et significative de l’activité de l’enzyme avec l’augmentation de la salinité indique une adaptation efficace de S. melanotheron face aux changements de salinité. La forte augmentation de l’activité aux salinités élevées par rapport aux faibles salinités suggère une nuance dans les mécanismes d’osmorégulation entre ces deux gammes de salinités chez ce poisson.

Bioavailability of total antioxidants from natural food products (honey, cereals, herbs and wines) based on physical-chemical characteristics

Aldina Kesić, Inela Zaimović, Nadira Ibrišimović Mehmedinović, Almir Šestan, Suad Kunosić

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.52135.]

  • Abstract

    There is an increasing interest in research on the quality of certain nutritional substances as well as the way of food preparation and the correlation of possible risks from the emergence and development of some chronic illnesses in the scientific and research sense. Healthy life and foods rich in antioxidants are the only solution to struggle against the illness of the modern age. Degenerative processes leading to aging and the occurrence of various diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis and diabetes include oxidative and other reactions in which free radicals are formed. Fighters against the harmful effects of free radicals in our body are endogenous and exogenous antioxidants. Exogenous antioxidants from food are extremely important and their bioavailability research is a very important field of the research. The subject of this study was natural food products from Bosnia and Herzegovina, honey, cereals, herbs and wine. Based on the physical-chemical characteristics of these food products, evaluation of the bioavailability of natural antioxidants in them was performed. The results have shown that these natural products are a significant source of antioxidants.

Effects of breed or sex on average daily gain of locals bovine and crossbred. Consequence on milk yield

M. Komara, B. Traoré, N. Ouattara, D. Soro and Y. Le Cozler

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.53641.]

  • Abstract

    Two meta-analysis were conducted to determine; (i) the effects of breed or sex on average daily gain of locale and crossbreds cows originating from Ivory Coast and ( ii), the effect of breed on daily milk yield of these suckled cows. The first analysis showed that the average daily gain of N’Dama breed (482 g/j) is significantly higher than average daily gain of Baoulé breed (304 g/j). Average daily gain of crossbred (Jersiais x N’Dama) cows did not differ with average daily gain of N’dama or Baoulé breeds. No difference between entire and castrated bulls was noted. The second analysis showed that daily milk yield from suckled cows of crossbred (Jersiais x N’Dama) cows (4, 94 kg/j) is higher more daily milk yield from N’Dama or Baoulé cows (2, 05 and 2, 01 kg/j, respectively). However, there is no difference between in the daily milk yield between N’Dama and Baoulé breeds. Analysis confirmed the interest of crossbreeding local Ivory Coast breeds with jersey breed, resulting in increased milk production without any deleterious effect on meat production.

Effets de la race et du sexe sur le gain moyen quotidien de bovins de races locales ivoiriennes et croisées. Conséquences sur la production de lait

M. Komara, B. Traoré, N. Ouattara, D. Soro et Y. Le Cozler

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.53641.]

  • Abstract

    Chez les bovins de race locale ivoirienne et croisée, deux méta-analyses ont été réalisées pour – 1. Rechercher les effets race et sexe (mâle entier vs castré) sur le gain moyen quotidien et -2. L’effet de la race sur la production laitière journalière de ces vaches de type allaitantes. La première analyse montre que le gain moyen quotidien de la race N’Dama (482 g/j) est significativement supérieur à celui de la race Baoulé (304 g/j). La race croisée (Jersiais x N’Dama) présente une valeur intermédiaire de GMQ (445 g/j). Aucune différence n’est observée entre taureaux et boeufs (460 vs 360 g/j ; respectivement). La deuxième -analyse montre que la production laitière journalière des vaches croisées (Jersiais x N’Dama) (4,94 kg/j) est significativement supérieure à celle de chacune des vaches de races N’Dama (2,05 kg/j) ou Baoulé (2,01 kg/j). Toutefois, la production laitière journalière des vaches des deux races N’dama et Baoulé est la même. Les analyses confirment l’intérêt du croisement des races locales de Côtes d’Ivoire avec la race Jersiaise, permettant une meilleure production laitière, tout en n’altérant pas les performances bouchères.

Protocol establishment for regeneration of Curcuma aromatic an important medicinal plant in Vietnam

Trinh Thi Ben, Le Nguyen Tu Linh, Diep Trung Cang, Tran Thi Linh Giang, Nguyen Pham Ai Uyen, Bui Dinh Thach.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.54251.]

  • Abstract

    An efficient protocol for rapid propagation of Curcuma aromatica, a threatened aromatic medicinal plant, was developed using rhizome as the explant. The rhizomes cultured Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium were supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. Shoots induction was obtained within 4 weeks, 3 mg/L Benzyl amino purine in combination with 0.3 mg/L NAA showed the most effective for shoot induction and multiplication with an average of 6.33 shoots/per explant were produced afer 4 weeks of culture. In vitro shoots were rooted on 0.5 mg/L of NAA supplemented medium. Moreover, 90.67% survival was achieved when rooted explants acclimatized ex vitro using a mixture of coir and hush ash (1:1). Thus, the optimized micropropagation protocol may offer large-scale production of plantlets to meet industrial demand for the rhizome.

Test and Analysis main Biomechanical parameters effecting on mechanical harvesting quality of Alfalfa

Zhao Chunhua, Zhang Xuekun, Simon Blackmore

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.55263.]

  • Abstract

    Purple Alfalfa which typically planted in northwest of China were chosen to perform the experiments of tensile and shear by means of 500N electronic universal testing machine. Mechanical properties such as maximum loads of stems or the junctions with Alfalfa’s stems and leaves in different harvesting parts were measured, respectively; using the same batch of materials which dry samples were tested crude protein,fiber,acid detergent lignin and pectin contents with Kjeldahl apparatus, Х1Н.Починок, and colorimetric methods, respectively; relevant changing trends were analysised. Results showed that average tensile strength of lower parts junctions with Alfalfa’s stems and leaves is 0.786N at the Speed of 20 mm/min of load addition, it is higher 26.316% than upper parts; average tensile strength of lower parts with Alfalfa’s stems is 56.22N and it is 2.1175 times higher than upper parts. Considering lifetime of cutting edge, the shear strength of tooth edge with 20°slippery cutting is 15.5852-24.762N. Upper average crude protein contents of Alfalfa complete stools is up to 24.54% and it is higher 37.63% than lower parts.Testing results of pectin and crude protein contents showed that the average error is 0.01222% compared with the linear equation result with scholar Guo Yan Li; it is important to remain pectin contents which improve the ratio of nutrition digestion during mechanical harvesting Alfalfa.These conclusions are the theoretical foundation to design and develop forage equipment such as separator equipment of stems and leaves to produce different forage products, forage crusher with high quality and harvesting high-protein equipment,It also provides the basic data for development farming database systems coupling biomechanics with forage machinery.

Species Distribution, Diversity and Conservation of Indigenous Medicinal Plants in Selected Areas of Baringo County, Kenya

Carol Jeruto Rotich and Najma Dharani

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.56471.]

  • Abstract

    The study was conducted with the main objective to determine the species distribution, diversity and conservation of indigenous medicinal plants in Koipirir, Ilchurai and Ikumae in Baringo County, Kenya. Balanites aegyptiaca (26.26%), Acacia nilotica (17.68%) and Balanites aegyptiaca (15.80%) were relatively abundant in Koipirir, Ilchurai and Ikumae respectively. Balanites aegyptiaca was the dominant species in all three areas. Ikumae had high species diversity (H’2.698) and evenness (0.849), as compared to Koipirir (H’2.447) and (E 0.769) and Ilchurai (H’2.511) and (E 0.7901).

An Experiment Comparing the Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Types as an Arab-habit on Individual and Pathogenic-bacteria, at High-altitude Area, Taif, KSA, "VISION 2030"

Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra, Samar Ahamed H. Al-Gehani and Fatimah Awwadh A. Al-Otaibi 

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.57281.]

  • Abstract

    This paper was carried out for "An experiment comparing the effect of tea (T) (Camellia sinensis) types as an Arab-habit (AH) on individual and pathogenic-bacteria (PB) at high-altitude (HA) area, Taif, KSA, "VISION 2030"". Boiling water T extract (BWTE) created benefits on digestive system (DS) as arranged (black, green, red, white and Matcha T); (B, G, R, W and MT). (BT and GT) caused constipation only, (RT, WT and MT) caused (nausea, hotness, gaseous and constipation). Gut microbiota (GM) was improved by T polyphenols (TP), BWTE supported GM as (BT, GT, WT, RT and MT). All pathogenic flora (PF) was eliminated and was reached to Zero percent. (Gt and RT) were the fastest and most powerful BWTE eliminated turbidity, which decreased to 25% / hr. BWTE components had bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli); at first hr, all T types eradicated 25%. At third hr (BT and GT) eliminated 50%, (RT, WT and MT) killed 25%. At fifth hr, (BT and GT) eliminated 75%, RT killed 50% and (WT and MT) killed 25%. At seventh hr 100% was eliminated by BT, 75% was by (GT and RT), 50% were by (WT and MT). That concluded the residents and visitors at HA area "Taif" were using (BT and GT) as essential drinking daily regularly as AH often because of that had qualities and benefits to DS. That recommend drinking (BT and GT) regularly daily, because for its preservations and positive effects on DS as reduction DS disturbances at HA area.

The Species Diversity of Butterfly (Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera) in the forest Park Area Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin Batanghari District, Jambi Province, Indonesia

Asni Johari and Anita Parwati

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.58292.]

  • Abstract

    Sultan Thaha Sultan Syaifuddin Jambi Forest Park is one of the butterfly habitat. However, illegal logging and the burning of forests that are rampant today can have an impact on the diversity of butterflies. Information on the diversity of butterflies in this region does not yet exist, so research is needed to complement data on the diversity of butterflies. The method used in this research is descriptiveexplorative. The study was conducted at the study sites that were divided into six stations based on different habitat types. Sampling is done by repeating twice. Sampling was done in fine weather using three capture techniques, namely direct capture, insect webs, and butterfly traps. Measurement of environmental parameters such as temperature, light intensity and humidity is done by using thermometer, luxmeter and hygrometer as supporting data. Found 21 species of butterflies are grouped into five families. The diversity of butterfly species is categorized as medium (1≤ H' ≤3), indicating that the ecosystem in the forest area has a good balance. This is supported by the evenness of the high-categorized butterfly species (0.6< E ≤1,0). The dominant index of the butterfly is categorized as low (0< D <0,5), so are is no dominant butterfly species.

Proximate Analysis and Phytochemical Screening of Irvingia Gabonensis (Agbono Cotyledon)

Don-Lawson D. Chioma

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.59397.]

  • Abstract

    Chemical analyses on agbono cotyledon was carried out in order to identify the various proximate(s) that constitute the agbono cotyledon as well as to establish also the forms of phytochemicals present in agbono cotyledon by simple extraction processes using three different solvents (petroleum ether, ethanol and distilled water). The results from the analysis showed that agbono cotyledon displayed the following proximates; carbohydrates, protein, lipids (fats and oil), moisture and ash. The later were established to be responsible for agbono cotyledon‘s drawability, colour, taste and aroma when used as condiment. However, values of 0.17%, 0.13%, 80.41%, 19.14% and 0.15% were obtained for the petroleum ether extract; while the data; 0.25%, 0.13%, 15.17%, 84.31% and 0.14% were recorded for the ethanol extract, and then 0.25%, 0.35%, 4.91%. 94.41% and 0.08% values were acquired for the distilled water extract with respect to carbohydrates, protein, lipids (fats and oil), moisture and ash contents. Furthermore, the phytochemical tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phytate, oxalate, saponins and steroids were observed to be present (+), highly present (++), present (+), present (+) absent(-), absent(-), present(+) and absent(-) in the petroleum ether extract, then present(+), present(+), highly present(++), absent(-), absent(-), present(+) and present(+) in the distilled water extract, but were highly present(++), present(+), present(+), present(+), absent(-), absent(-), present(+) and present(+) in the ethanol extract. The results in all showed that both proximates and phytochemicals were present at different levels in agbono cotyledon.

Development of Liver in Swiss Mice Fed with Solanum tuberosum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cuminum cyminum During Lactation (PND1 and 21)

Ragini Sharma and Deepika Rani

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.59810.]

  • Abstract

    All that which is eaten during pregnancy is of extreme importance; because what so ever is consumed during the period of gestation and lactation imposes direct effect on the development of the life developing within female; along with the liver, which is the hardest working organ. Hence the present investigation was conducted to lighten the effect of potato, cinnamon and cumin on developing liver during the period of gestation and lactation in Swiss albino mice. Animals were treated with 6 different diets during their period of gestation and lactation; on the basis of these diets different group were formed. Those different groups were group I Control (CN), group II high carbohydrate (HC), group III cinnamon group (Ci), group IV high carbohydrate + cinnamon group (HC+ Ci), group V cumin group (Cu) and last group VI high carbohydrate+ cumin group (HC+ Cu). After parturition, the liver of the pups of different groups was excised on PND 1st, and 21st to observe its architecture. It was found that HC diet leads to some order of oxidative stress due to which architect of liver was noticed to be disturbed. When HC was given with antioxidants i.e. in group IV and VI disturbed distribution of liver components was retained to normal, hence combination of HC and antioxidants gave better results in comparison to its individual effects. Thus from the results of present study, it was concluded that the use of herbal plants decreases the side effects associated with unbalanced diet during gestation and lactation.

Efficacy of neem extracts in the control of tomato insect pest Helicoverpa armigera in Southern Benin

Eloi HOUESSOU, Codjo Euloge TOGBE, Jhonn LOGBO, Elisabeth ZANNOU-BOUKARI 

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.61118.]

  • Abstract

    Helicoverpa armigera, Hübner, 1808 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major carpophagous insect pest of tomato in Benin. The damages by this insect pest and its resistance to most synthetic insecticides have necessitated the need for alternative methods to limit its damages on tomato. This study carried out in Toffo District in Southern Benin, aims to evaluate the effectiveness of neem extract (Azadirachta indica Juss.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) insect pest Helicoverpa armigera. Thus, two neem extract doses (1.5 l/ha and 2 l/ha) were compared to a chemical pesticide K-OPTIMAL (Lambda-cyhalothrin + Acetamiprid at a rate of 1 l/ha) in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results indicated that neem extract has reduced tomato fruits infestation by H. armigera from 76.72 to 77.22%. The highest infestation reduction of this pest (81.26%) and the highest fruit yield (29.13 tons/ha) were observed in the plots treated with K-OPTIMAL. The yields obtained with neem extract (26.68 and 28.38 tons/ha respectively with 1.5 l/ha and 2 l/ha) were statistically lesser than tomato treated with K-OPTIMAL. However, neem extract allowed obtaining 33.86 to 42.39% yield profit compared to control plot. Neem extract showed its effectiveness to H. armigera control by reducing infestation rates and giving high tomato yield. The neem extract economic profit is lesser than chemical control. While the use of neem extract in agriculture protects environment, human and animal health.

Effet de l’interruption de l’alimentation des géniteurs sur les performances zootechniques des alevins de Oreochromis niloticus

N’golo OUATTARA, Cyrille Ngouan KOUASSI, Yaya SORO, Kouakou YAO

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.61929.]

  • Abstract

    La présente étude a évalué les performances de deux techniques de productions de larves de Oreochromis niloticus. L'expérience a été conduite sur deux lots de géniteurs, un lot nourri sur deux semaines (G1) et l’autre sur une semaine (G2) mis en reproduction séparément dans deux étangs de 400 m2 contenant cinq (5) happas de 10 m2 chacun. Chaque happa contenait 20 mâles pour 60 femelles. Quinze (15) jours après la mise en charge, les larves et les oeufs ont été récoltés et quantifiés. La quantité des larves produite par les géniteurs G2 (1274 larves + 13595 oeufs) a été plus élevée que celle obtenue avec les géniteurs G1 (6770 larves + 52 oeufs). La suite de l’essai a été réalisée dans six (6) aquariums de 200 litres chacun avec des larves de poids moyen de 0,027 ± 0,012 g (G1) et 0,015 ± 0,001 (G2). Les poids moyens finaux observés ont été de 2,05 ± 0,538 g (G1) ; 1,39 ± 0,365 g (G2). Les quotients nutritifs ont été de 1, 22 ± 0,327 (G1) puis de 1, 76 ± 0,386 (G2). Les taux de survie ont été de 53, 33 ± 21,939 % (G1); 40,67 ± 6,766 % (G2). Selon nos résultats, la technique de production de larves utilisée chez les géniteurs G1 pourrait permettre de produire des larves de qualité pour une meilleure rentabilité de la production que celle utilisée chez les géniteurs G2.

Effect of broodstock interruption on zootechnical performance of Oreochromis niloticus fry

N’golo OUATTARA, Cyrille Ngouan KOUASSI, Yaya SORO, Kouakou YAO

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.61929.]

  • Abstract

    The present study evaluated the performances of two larval production techniques of Oreochromis niloticus. The experiment was conducted on two batches of broodstock, a two-week-fed (G1) and a one-week (G2) batch reproduced separately in two 400-m2 ponds containing five (5) happas of 10 m2 each. Each happa contained 20 males for every 60 females. Fifteen (15) days after loading, the larvae and eggs were harvested and quantified. The amount of larvae produced by G2 spawners (1274 larvae + 13595 eggs) was higher than that obtained with G1 spawners (6770 larvae + 52 eggs). The rest of the test was carried out in six (6) aquariums of 200 liters each with larvae with an average weight of 0.027 ± 0.012 g (G1) and 0.015 ± 0.001 (G2). The final average weights observed were 2.05 ± 0.538 g (G1); 1.39 ± 0.365 g (G2). The nutrient quotients were 1.22 ± 0.327 (G1) and then 1.76 ± 0.386 (G2). Survival rates were 53.33 ± 21.939% (G1); 40.67 ± 6.766% (G2). According to our results, the larval production technique used in G1 broodstock could be used to produce quality larvae for a better profitability of production than that used for G2 broodstock.

Estimation of Genetic Variability for Yield and Its Component Traits among Some Selected Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Accessions

Akinyele, M. O., Oyewale, R. O., Idowu, G. A., Bolajoko, M. H and Ishaya, E.B.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.63045.]

  • Abstract

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate nineteen accessions of sorghum grown for two cropping seasons of 2015 and 2016 at the Teaching and Research Farm of Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger state to characterize 19 sorghum accessions base on their morph-agronomic traits and determine yield with its component traits. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used for the experiment. Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf width, number of nodes, days to 50 % flowering, days to 95 % maturity, panicle length, panicle width, grain weight and 1000 seed weight and were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance (ANOVA). Based on the finding of this study, highly significant differences among accessions were found except for leaf width and number of nodes for all characters. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and high phenotypic and genotypic variability were observed between the nineteen sorghum accessions. The highest value of heritability was observed in grain weight (99 %), and the most high yielding accession was AKV11 (Kaura) with grain weight of 614g in 2015 and 514.33g in 2016. High genetic advance was recorded in grain yield and panicle length. Combined correlation coefficient for the two cropping seasons revealed that the yield components exhibited varying trends of correlation relationship between themselves, The most outstanding performance accessions for grain weight are: AKV11 (Kaura), AKV9 (Shawimpe) and AKV14 (Farafara), which could be used for Sorghum improvement programmed and recommend for farmers in the Southern Guinea Zones of Nigeria.

Medicinal Effects of Moringa Species (M. oleifera and M. stenopetala)

Abraha Teklay, Tesfaye Tolessa, Selemun Hagos and Desta Gebeya

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.64661.]

  • Abstract

    Moringa is a plant that is a native to parts of Africa and Asia, is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Moringaceae. Both M. stenopetala and M. oleifera are commonly known Moringa species that are grown in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is endemic to East Africa mainly present in northern Kenya and southern part of Ethiopia. All parts of the tree except the wood are edible, providing a highly nutritious food for both humans and animals. Moringa oleifera Lam. is the most widely known species. It is the most widely cultivated species, is a multipurpose tree native to the foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India and cultivated throughout the tropics. This multipurpose tree has been introduced to Ethiopia over the last few years and is grown at nursery sites parallel to M. stenopetala in southern parts of the country. It grows abundantly in Southwestern Ethiopia where the leaves are eaten as vegetable. For centuries, people all over the world, including traditional healers have utilized different parts of the Moringa tree as traditional medicine. The medicinal uses are numerous and have been long recognized in the traditional systems of Medicine. M. stenopetala with its related species of the M. oleifera are commonly used in folk medicines. It has a multipurpose effects of anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cancer, anti-cholesterolic, hypotensive and against to bacteria, fungus and viral pathogens.

Comparative Analysis of the Selected Secondary Metabolites Extracted from Wild and  Micropropagated Taraxacum officinale

Burcu Çetin, Muharrem Akcan, Tülin Ezgi Özen

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.66268.]

  • Abstract

    Taraxacum officinale, commonly named dandelion, is an edible plant distributed worldwide, belonging to the Asteraceae family. Due to the metabolites it contains, T. officinale has been used for medicinal purposes since the ancient times. Studies on metabolite production using plants with the methods of plant tissue culture acquire more importance every day. In this study, the metabolite contents of the Taraxacum officinale plants, naturally grown in the wild and clonally propagated in tissue culture conditions, were investigated. The micropropagation study of T. officinale was carried out in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium including 2 mg L-1 benzyl amino purine (BAP) and 2 mg L-1 indole butyric acid (IBA). For metabolite studies, dried and grounded samples were stirred in aqueous methanol solution over three hours at room temperature. The plant extract was dried and then separated into fractions with C18 reversed-phase column chromatography. The metabolites of the samples were analyzed with Q-TOF LC-MS in negative ion mode in which more than 10 metabolites were characterized from both natural and cloned T. officinale. The presence of the same metabolites in the plant extracts showed that the micropropagation of T. officinale can be potentially used as a new protocol for the production of beneficial secondary metabolites for pharmaceutical and supplemental food industries.

Upwelling and distribution density of rouvet (Ruvettus pretiosus, cocco, 1833) in the marine waters of Côte d'Ivoire

SORO Yaya, DIAHA N’Guessan Constance, AHOULOU Elie Jonathan, AMANDE Monin Justin , KONAN Kouadio Justin, BAHOU Laurent  et N’DA Konan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.66979.]

  • Abstract

    The catches of Rouvettus pretiosus, landed by artisanal marine fishermen at the different wharves of Zimbabwe, Abobodoumé and San-Pedro (Côte d'Ivoire), between 2000 and 2014 were studied in relation to fluctuations in marine seasons. . During the Great Hot Season (GSC) the average temperature was 26.13 ° C. With a fishing effort (Ep) of 376 canoes on average, 54 rouvets were landed. The Nominal Effort Catch (CPUE) recorded in the Great Hot Season was 2.88 per canoe. During the Great Cold Season (GSF), the average temperature was 22.71 ° C. With a Fishing Effort (Ep) of 425 canoes on average, 527 Rouvets were landed. The nominal Effort Catch (CPUE) recorded in the Great Cold Season was 16.85 fish per canoe. Starting from these two seasons, a workforce variance analysis with the Tukey HSD test showed a significant probability (p <5%). So upwelling has an influence on the abundance of rouvets caught in the Ivorian portion of the Gulf of Guinea.

Upwelling et densité de répartition du rouvet (ruvettus pretiosus, cocco, 1833) dans les eaux marines de Côte d’Ivoire

SORO Yaya, DIAHA N’Guessan Constance, AHOULOU Elie Jonathan, AMANDE Monin Justin, KONAN Kouadio Justin, BAHOU Laurent  et N’DA Konan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.66979.]

  • Abstract

    Les captures de rouvets (Ruvettus pretiosus) débarquées par les pêcheurs artisans marins aux différents quais piroguiers de Zimbabwe, d’Abobodoumé et de San-Pedro (Côte d’Ivoire), entre 2000 et 2014 ont été étudiées eu égard aux fluctuations des saisons marines. Pendant la Grande Saison Chaude (GSC) la température moyenne a été de 26,13° C. Avec un Effort de pêche (Ep) de 376 pirogues en moyenne, 54 rouvets ont été débarqués. La Capture par Unité d’Effort nominale (CPUE) enregistrée dans la Grande Saison Chaude a été de 2,88 par pirogues. Pendant la Grande Saison Froide (GSF), la température moyenne a été de 22,71° C. Avec un Effort de pêche (Ep) de 425 pirogues en moyenne, 527 rouvets ont été débarqués. La Capture par Unité d’Effort (CPUE) enregistrée dans la Grande Saison Froide a été de 16,85 poissons par pirogues. Partant de ces deux saisons, une analyse de variances des effectifs avec le test HSD de Tukey a affiché une probabilité significative (p < 5%). L’upwelling a donc une influence sur l’abondance des rouvets capturés dans la portion ivoirienne du golfe de Guinée.

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