Vol. 8 & Issue 4 ; Section B : Biological Sciences

Date : Aug.2018 to Oct.2018

 

Development of Liver in Swiss Mice fed with Solanum tuberosum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cuminum cyminum : From Juvenile to Adult (PND 21- 49)

Ragini Sharma and Deepika Rani

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.80110.]

  • Abstract

    The present research paper is in continuation of our previous research paper in which the importance of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation for both mother and their young ones were discussed at PND 1 and 21. It was concluded that whatever a pregnant female consumes, directly affects the liver of mother as well as the fetus, the same phenomena is also followed after lactation. The present research work was focused on the prolonged effects of high carb diet combined with cinnamon and cumin, given to mothers during period of gestation and lactation, and this also has its impact on later stages of life. Six groups were taken in the present investigation and they were group I Control (CN), group II high carbohydrate (HC), group III cinnamon group (Ci), group IV high carbohydrate + cinnamon group (HC+ Ci), group V cumin group (Cu) and last group VI  high carbohydrate+ cumin group (HC+ Cu). Microstructure of liver of pups was studied at PND 49 and it was observed that nutrition obtained by mother during gestation and lactation also influenced the liver of the pups when these pups were fed on control diet after cessation of their lactation period. Results of the present study clearly demonstrate that diet taken during pre and postnatal stages of development also affects the health status during adulthood.

Volatile Organic Constituents of Two Fractions of Leaves of Ficus vogelii and their Potential Health Implication

Igile, G.O., Okoi, U.L., Iwara, A. I., Eteng, M.U

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.81119.]

  • Abstract

    The leaf of Ficus vogelii is commonly used as a green-leafy vegetable in Northern Cross River State of Nigeria. Its ethanol extract is used by adults for well-being, while, its aqueous extract is used for weaning children and for treatment of pediatric anemia. In this study, the methanol and n-hexane fractions of the leaves were analyzed for volatile organic composition using GC-MS, in order to determine the class of constituents that may be responsible for the amelioration of anemia, and sustenance of well-being in adults. GC-MS analysis of n-hexane and methanol fractions revealed the presence of several organic constituents including, twenty one (21) volatile compounds in n-hexane fraction and, thirty five (35) compounds in methanol fraction. The dominant compounds in the n-hexane fraction included, Hexadecanoic acid (3.14%), n-Nonadecanoic acid (17.81%), Phytol (38.45%), Oleic acid (21.20%) and E-2-Octadecadecen-1-ol (4.77%); while the dominant compounds in methanol fraction  included, Glycerin (8.44%), Dimethyl sulphoxide (7.44%), 2(R), 3(S)-1,2,3,4-Butane tetrol (6.47%), 17α-OH-17 β-Cyano-Preg-4-en-3-one (3.10%), Ethyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (7.25%), Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-ol (10.11%); n-Hexadecanoic acid (15.42%) and Oleic Acid (21.40%). It was concluded that the presence of Palmitaldehyde diisopentyl acetate (2.52%) in the n-hexane fraction may contribute significantly to the pleasant flavor of the extract fraction and its nutritional acceptability. It was also concluded that the high content of oleic acid and phytol in the plant may be responsible for the cardiovascular benefits the plant confers on the populations consuming it, as both compounds are known to lower blood cholesterol lipids in adult humans. 

Carboxymethyl cellulose synthesis from wheat straw and physiological effects as food additive on some haematological and biochemical parameters of male mice

Mst. Sarmina Yeasmin, Md. Abdul Jalil, Md. Moinuddin, Nasifa Akter and Md.Abdur Rahim

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.82029.]

  • Abstract

    High purity carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was prepared by using α-cellulose extracted from wheat straw by etherification process. Presence of toxic metals in the prepared CMC was tested by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy which was within the WHO/FAO recommended value. Purity of the CMC was 99.98 % that was higher than proposed limit. Microorganisms were tested by pour plate method. No colonies were observed after incubation of different media indicating absence of microorganisms. Repeated-dose sub-chronic oral toxicity was studied in Swiss albino mice following OECD guideline 408. 24 mice were divided into 4 groups fed diets with 0 (control), 2, 4 and 8% CMC for a period of 3 months. No abnormalities showed and no animals died during the administration period. Haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at every month of the experiment. No significant differences were observed between control and treated mice with different percentages of CMC. Therefore, the present study found no toxic effect of CMC that support the safety use of CMC as additive for foods and pharmaceuticals.

Poultry Systems and Zootechnical Performances of Traditional Local Chicken in Côte D’ivoire

Nambaté FOFANA, Lydie Aya N’DRI, Dagou SÉKA, Béatrice Abouo ADEPOGOURÈNE

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.83039.]

  • Abstract

    A study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the farming system on certain breeding performances of traditional chicken. Four batches, each consisting of four hens and one cock, were bred for six months, one in semi-intensive condition with food supply and the other three in extensive condition by three different farmers where the animals are left wandering for their food need. The mean number of broods (3) per hen obtained in the improved breeding system was significantly different from that established for the indigenous farming system (1.83). The average spacing of broods was significantly reduced (66.83 days) in improved condition compared with the indigenous breeding system (114.78 days). The hatching rate was 83.49% with the improved breeding system and 74.28% with the extensive system, showing an increase by approximately 10% with the improved breeding system. The average live weight at 150 days was significantly higher in semi-intensive (1017.68 g) than in extensive (854.73 g). The survival rate of chickens at 150 days of semi-intensive farming (53 individuals) is twice as high as the survival rate of chickens in the indigenous farming condition (22 chickens). The improved breeding conditions have resulted in a considerable increase in the zootechnical performance of traditional chickens. This work opens up promising prospects for an economically profitable and sustainable breeding model that can be proposed to the actors of the traditional poultry sector.

Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica ) leaves and seeds extract On the germination of six pathogenic fungi

Raad Homod Mohammed Al-Hazmi

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.84056.]

  • Abstract

    An experiment was carried out in the Department of Arid Land Agriculture of the Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid land Agriculture of King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to study the effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica on the germination of six plant pathogenic fungi. The ethanol extracts concentrations were, 1:1, 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000   (v:v ). The pathogenic fungi were, Pythium aphanidermatum, Alternaria alternaria, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium oxysporium, Helminthosporium sp. and Thilaeviobsis sp. The fungus P. aphanedermatum germination was significantly the mostly affected by Neem seeds and leaves extracts, then F. oxysporium, and Thialeviopsis and A. alternaria. The fungus B. sorokinianae resisted the Neem extracts and showed only slight inhibition under all concentrations. The mostly effective Neem extract on the pathogenic fungi germination was the seed water extract giving the least germination percentage for all fungi, followed by the seed alcoholic extract and then comes the leaf alcoholic extract, and the mostly affected fungi were P.aphandermatum, A.alternaria, F.oxysporium and Helminthosporium. The plant extract concentration that had exerted the highest pathogenic germination inhibition is the highest concentration (1:1), and the germination inhibitory effect lessened down with reduction in extract concentration.

Evaluation of antibacterial activity, antioxidant properties of Cynara Scolymus L. aqueous leaf and pulp extracts and their effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Hanan M. EL-Ghandour, Ola A. Wahdan and Ghadir A. El-Chaghaby,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.85769.]

  • Abstract

    Cynara Scolymus L. (Artichoke) is appreciated as a medicinal plant possessing health benefits. Aqueous extracts of artichoke leaf and pulp were prepared and tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Nisseria gonorrhoeae, pseudomonas aeruqinosa and Salmonella sp.) and five Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus). Data revealed that aqueous pulp extract had moderate antibacterial activity against tested bacteria except Salmonella sp. for which the extract did not show any inhibition activity. Whereas, the aqueous leaf extract showed better activity against tested Gram-positive bacteria except for Bacillus cereus species. Also, leaf extract exhibited activity against tested Gram-negative bacteria except Salmonella sp. The total antioxidant capacities of Cynara leaf and pulp aqueous extracts׳ valued 151.15 and 63.18 ppm ascorbic acid equivalent, respectively. Gas chromatographic/ mass analysis ensured the existence of more than 40 bioactive compounds in the extracts. Biological experiment was conducted on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes is associated with inflammation and generation of excessive free radical. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C-Reactive ProteinC - reactive protein (CRP) tests were monitored as inflammation biomarkers. Supplementation with Cynara aqueous extracts led to decreased ESR levels indicating minimization of inflammatory condition. Blood glucose and ALT levels increased significantly (p=0.05) in diabetic group, while CRP was not affected and negative results were obtained in all treated groups. In conclusion, the results showed that both extracts ameliorated ESR levels reflecting the fact that they improve health status by vanishing the inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions associated with hyperglycemia

Genetic diversity of earthworm Amynthas rodericensis (Grube, 1879) (Clitellata: Megascolecidae) in Vietnam by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis

Van-Thuan Nguyen, Van-Giang Tran, Tran-Trung Nguyen, Tan-Quang Hoang, Quoc-Dung Tran,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.87083.]

  • Abstract

    In this study, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were applied to analyse the genetic diversity of samples of the Amynthas rodericensis (Grube, 1879), collected from six localities (viz., Hai Lang along Quang Tri province; Phong Dien, Hue, and Huong Thuy along Thua Thien Hue province in Vietnam). The eight primers used in RAPD analysis amplified 71 loci, all of which were polymorphic. The percentages of polymorphic loci observed in the four populations were: 71.83% (Hai Lang), 87.32% (Phong Dien), 73.24% (Hue), and 38.03% (Huong Thuy). Data for observed and effective number of alleles, Nei’s (1973) genetic diversity, and Shannon’s information index, for all the four populations were 1.6761, 1.4802, 0.2718 and 0.3971, respectively. The value for total genotype diversity among populations was 0.3631 while within populations was found to be 0.2718. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation value and the estimate of gene flow across the populations were found as 0.2515 and 1.4870, respectively. The Nei (1972) measures of genetic distance and identity between pairs of earthworm populations indicate that the population originated from Phong Dien and Hue has the highest genetic identity, while the earthworms originated from Hai Lang and Huong Thuy show the greatest genetic distance.

An Investigation and Research on Taiwan Grey Mullet (Mugill cephalus)

Hung-Jen Hu and Nan- Hung Chen

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.88491.]

  • Abstract

    The objectives of this study were to investigate and research very closely on the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) in Taiwan: distribution of wild and cultured, amount of fish catch, fry, growth, purpose of fish breeding, purpose of fish fry breeding, distinguish of grey mullet and mullet roe, import and export of grey mullet roe, the techniques of artificial propagation and progress in the grey mullet culture industry.

Phytochemistry and Antibacterial activity of aConvolvulus rvensis Linn against Escherichia coli

Shakir Ullah, Mohammad Sohail, Kiran Niaz, Siraj Khan, Maria khattak.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.89203.]

  • Abstract

    In the present research work the convolvulus arvensis was investigated for antibacterial activity and phytochemicals analysis. The results of antibacterial activity showed that the effect of different extract of convolvulus arvensis on the growth of E.coli is different. Maximum zone of inhibition was shown by acetone and chloroform extract. Ethanol exhibited 2.1cm, Methanol 2.6 cm, while the lowest zone of inhibition was showed by Water extract i.e. 1.96cm. Convolvulus arvensis antibacterial activity result indicates that acetone and chloroform have highest antibacterial activity which indicates that parts of convolvulus arvensis have antibacterial chemicals which are dissolved in the solvent and the bacterial agent has diffused in agar medium and inhibited the growth of E. coli. The lowest antibacterial activity is shown by water. The results of phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phlobatannins, saponins, phenols, terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides was found in methanolic and ethanolic extracts, while alkaloids, phlobatannins. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponins, phenols and terpenoids were found present in in the rhizome methanolic and ethanolic extracts. 

Study of Some Parameters of the Reproduction of Auxis Rochei (Risso, 1810) Capture in the Gulf Of Guinea by Ivorian Artisanal Fishermen

EDOUKOU Abekan ; AMANDE Monin Justin ; DIAHA N’guessan Constance; SORO Yaya ;  N’GUESSAN Yao ; ASSAN N’dri Florentine ; N’DA Konan,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.90523.]

  • Abstract

    The study of some reproductive parameters of Auxis rochei was initiated on specimens from Ivorian waters from January to December 2016. Data collection during this period revealed a seasonal distribution of this species in this part of the Gulf of Guinea. The sex ratio determined showed a predominance of males (1: 0.51, X2 observed = 25.39> X2 theoretical = 3.84, p <0.05). Monthly and seasonal monitoring of the macroscopic and microscopic stages of sexual maturity, as well as the GSR, HSR and K showed that this species breeds during the two cold seasons. The size of first sexual maturity determined is 24.70 cm for females, 26.36 cm for males and 25.50 cm for the species

Etude De Quelques Parametres De La Reproduction D’Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810) Capture Dans Le Golfe De Guinee Par Les Pecheurs Artisans Ivoiriens

EDOUKOU Abekan ; AMANDE Monin Justin ; DIAHA N’guessan Constance ;SORO Yaya ; N’GUESSAN Yao ; ASSAN N’dri Florentine ; N’DA Konan,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.90523.]

  • Abstract

    : L’étude de quelques paramètres de la reproduction d’Auxis rochei a été entamée sur des spécimens provenant des eaux ivoiriennes de janvier à décembre 2016. La collecte des données au cours de cette période a permis de mettre en évidence une répartition saisonnière de cette espèce dans cette partie du golfe de Guinée. La sex-ratio déterminée a montré une prédominance des mâles (1 : 0,51 ; X2 observé = 25,39 > X2  théorique = 3,84 ; p < 0,05). Le suivi mensuel et saisonnier des stades macroscopiques et microscopiques de maturité sexuelle, ainsi que le RGS, RHS et K a montré que cette espèce se reproduit pendant les deux saisons froides. La taille de première maturité sexuelle déterminée est de 24,70 cm pour les femelles, de 26,36 cm pour les mâles et de 25,50 cm pour l’espèce.

Analytical review of the study of the fungal flora of rice: case of Sigatoka (Sphaerulina oryzina)

SOURA B. Hervé ; GNANCADGJA L.S. André ; FATON O M.E. Oscar ; NANA Abel ;GNANCADJA Claude ; SAMA Hemayoro ; KOITA Kadidjatou,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.92446.]

  • Abstract

    The important development of cereal crops, of which rice has seen, at the same time, many infectious diseases causing a dramatic fall in yields. Very few studies have been conducted on cercosporiosis in Benin as a minor ailment. But nowadays it appears more and more in the rice fields and it is important to take an interest in this pathology in order to be able to control it. The purpose of this review is to summarize the work done on rice leaf spot in order to define research perspectives for a better control of this pathology by allowing the producers to be able to recognize the symptoms of Sigatoka and to adopt appropriate methods of fight. This review is based on documentation focused on the relevance of articles. The results show that rice faces many abiotic and biotic constraints. Among the biotic constraints we have diseases due to bacteria, viruses, nematodes, fungi. Among the best known and studied fungal diseases are blast, helminthosporiosis, leaf scald, faux charcoal. Cercosporiosis considered to be a minor ailment is under-researched and is generating a great deal of research for the study of this pathology. This analytical review shows that a research perspective focused on the study of Sigatoka in rice could boost rice production in Benin and ensure better productivity in the coming years, to limit its dependence on rice elsewhere.

Revue analytique de l’étude de la flore pathogène fongique du riz : cas de la cercosporiose (sphaerulina oryzina).

SOURA B. Hervé ; GNANCADGJA L.S. André ; FATON O M.E. Oscar ; NANA Abel ;GNANCADJA Claude ; SAMA Hemayoro ; KOITA Kadidjatou,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.92446.]

  • Abstract

    Le développement important des cultures des céréales dont le riz a vu apparaître, parallèlement, de nombreuses maladies infectieuses provoquant une baisse spectaculaire des rendements. Très peu d’études ont été menées sur la cercosporiose du riz au Bénin car considérée comme affection mineur. Mais de nos jours elle apparait de plus en plus dans les rizières et il est important de s’intéresser à cette pathologie en vue de pouvoir la contrôler. Cette revue analytique vise principalement à faire une synthèse des travaux réalisés sur la cercosporiose du riz  afin de définir des perspectives de recherche pour un meilleur contrôle de cette pathologie en permettant aux producteurs de pouvoir reconnaitre les symptômes de la cercosporiose et adopter des méthodes de lutte appropriées. Cette revue est réalisée à partir d’une documentation axée sur la pertinence des articles. Les résultats montrent que le riz est confronté a de nombreuses contraintes abiotiques et biotiques. Parmi les contraintes biotiques nous avons les maladies dues à des bactéries, des virus, des nématodes, des champignons…. Parmi les maladies fongiques les plus connues et étudiées sont la pyriculariose, helminthosporiose, l’échaudure foliaire, le faux charbon…. La cercosporiose considérée comme affection mineur est très peu étudiée se qui suscitent un élan de recherche en vue de l’étude de cette pathologie. Il ressort de cette revue analytique qu’une perspective de recherche axée sur l’étude de la cercosporiose du riz permettrait de booster la production rizicole au Bénin et d’assurer une meilleure productivité dans les années à venir, de limiter sa dépendance en riz venu d’ailleurs.

Psychosocial and Medical Problems of Children of Gipsy Origin with Oncological Diseases

Georgieva Ivaila and Petrova Guergana,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.94752.]

  • Abstract

    Roma constitute only 4.9 percent of the Bulgarian population, but also around 12 percent of all children aged under 9 years. We share our and compare it with the international experience, difficulties and good practices in the state policy regarding healthcare in Roma minority groups There was delayed treatment and neoplasm progression with fatal outcome in 6 of the presented 14 cases.  The lack of healthcare and disease prevention activity and the discrepancy between the healthcare and social legislation may generate social tension between medical specialists and parents of children with oncological diseases of gipsy origin.

Separate consumption of fresh cow milk and cashew apple juice effect on the rat

Yogone Bessy Jean Louis, Manda Pierre , Adou Marc and Tetchi F. Achille,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.95363.]

  • Abstract

    The cashew apple is an edible fruit. However in Côte d'Ivoire and Africa, consuming cashew apple and milk is said to be toxic. A survey based on time-lapse consumption then alternated with fresh cow’s milk and cashew apple juice was conducted to verify this assertion. A predetermined dose procedure consisting of gavaging, at doses of 300 and then 5000mg/kg body weight, of each beverage has been administrated in a single dose to 27 white rats separately and alternately. It has been divided into 9 lots of 3 female rats, per dose, order and administration interval, against one witness and they have been observed during 15 days followed by a histological analysis. Also, an investigation has permitted to reveal the frequency of consumption of cashew apple juice and the frequency of the circumstances of intoxication related to the combination of the two beverages. It appears that Cashew apple juice is much appreciated by the surveyed populations but subject to milk consumption in the previous or subsequent time. However, no medical evidence has proven cases of intoxication related to this combination. The toxicological study has revealed no mortality or clinical signs at both dose levels. In contrast, histologicals fragments of hearts, kidneys and livers have showed abnormalities at 5000mg/kg. Separate consumption of fresh cow's milk and cashew juice causes relatively low acute toxicity in a few cells of the rat.

Study the effect of Aqueous Cinnamon Extract on Ethanol Induced Gastric Peptic Ulcer in Experimental Animals

Hendawy OM and Mona A El- Bana,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.4.96477.]

  • Abstract

    Peptic ulcer disease is a break in inner layer of the stomach and/or first part of the small intestine. It‟s mostly caused by bacterial infection of Helicobacter pylori or drug induced as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) has anti-inflammatory effect as well as antioxidant activity on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. The present study was developed in wister albino rats at dosing 250 & 500 mg/kg P.O. comparing their effects with ranitidine, a standard antiulcer medication. After scarifying the animals, blood samples were collected for biomedical analysis, the stomach were cut and open to determine gastric PH and for measuring ulcer index. Pretreatment of rats with 500 mg/kg cinnamon extract neutralize the elevated level of ulcer index and Hcl content of the stomach caused by ingestion of ethanol even better than the effect caused by 250 mg/kg cinnamon and ranitidine, also decrease level of NF-ҡB, increase level of TGF- β1, level of NO & MDA were significantly decrease and level of PONI & GSH compared with ethanol treated group. Treatment of peptic ulcer with cinnamon extract has potent antiulcer effect comparable to that exerted by ranitidine, standard antiulcer medication.