Section B : Biological Sciences

Current Volume 9 & Issue 1 (Section B : Biological Science)

Current Issue Date 01-11-2018 to 28-02-2019

Nutritional value of some indigenous Cucurbitaceae oilseeds and physicochemical properties of their oils

Sharmin Akter Lisa, Md. Alamgir Kabir, Md. Azmal Hossain & Selina Khan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.00109.]

The present study was carried out to explore the nutritional potential of seeds of six Bangladeshi vegetables from Cucurbitaceae family and to investigate the physicochemical properties of their extracted oil. The seeds of six cucurbit vegetables- Cucurbita maxima, Lagenaria siceraria, Momordica charantia, Benincasa hispida, Trichosanthes anguina and Cucumis sativus were collected from local seed market of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The seeds were analyzed to assess their nutritional value whereas the seed oils were extracted from the seeds followed by analysis of quality and characteristic parameters. Moisture, protein, fat and ash of the seeds were found 6.35-8.24%, 14.94-25.73%, 16.99-33.68% and 2.24-3.84% respectively. A considerable amount of minerals; Ca (21.25-25.58 mg/100g), Mg (1.14-3.94 mg/100g), Mn (1.51-2.34 mg/100 g), Fe (9.71-20.27%) and Zn (1.88-5.74 mg/100 g) were present in the seed samples. These results indicate that the seeds may be served as alternative nutritive food. Acid value (0.66-5.47 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (2.85-5.76 meq O2/kg), iodine value (91-117), saponification value (175-192 mg KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter (1.05-2.13%), refractive index at 40⁰C (1.4634-1.4903), relative density at 20⁰C (0.9159-0.9201) and color in Lovibond scale (Y=3.0-20.0 and R=1.0-20.0) were determined of the extracted seed oils. As the characteristic parameters of the studied seed oils complies with some conventional oils such as soybean oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil etc, they can be an additional source of edible oil in Bangladesh.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

The dietary components have measureable effect on blood constituents. Haematological values are extensively used to determine systemic relationship and pathological evaluation of general health conditions and in diagnosis of various types of animal diseases. In the present study, effect of different combinations of diet on morphological changes in blood cells of pups and numerical changes in blood cells of their mothers were studied. Thirty six Swiss albino mice divided into 6- groups of 6 –mice in each, served as subjects for this study. Animals in these six groups were fed with different diets according to the experimental protocol. Group-1 Control diet (control), group- 2 High fat (sesame seed), group- 3 Emblica officinalis, group- 4 High Fat + Emblica officinalis, group- 5 Foeniculum vulgare and group- 6 High Fat + Foeniculum vulgare. After parturition the blood sample of mothers were taken from all experimental groups and RBC and WBCs count were assessed. Blood smear of pups were prepared on post-natal day (PND) 1, 21 and 49. In all studied groups statistically highly significant (P<0.01) changes were observed in RBC and WBC count of mother at all PND when compared to control. On the other hand no major morphological and structural changes were observed in blood cells of the pups on different post natal days. It can be concluded that various combinations of diet given during gestation and lactation have substantial effects on blood cells of mother and their developing foetus, and this dietary impact on pre and post-natal development remains till adulthood.

Diet of Caranx crysos (Mitchill, 1815) catch by purse seiner in Atlantic Ocean

N’GUESSAN Yao, AMANDE Monin Justin, DIAHA N’guessan Constance, OUSSOU Koffi Hervé, EDOUKOU Abekan, ANGUI Kouamé Jean-Paul, N’DA Konan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.02433.]

The diet study included specimens of Caranx crysos caught by seiners in the East Atlantic Ocean. A total of 579 stomachs were examined. 501 stomachs were against 78 full. Which corresponds to the vacuity equal to 86.53%. The index of vacuity varied during the year. The highest values of this index were observed in April, June and July are 100%. The lowest was recorded in January with 16.67%. The vacuity recorded in males (59.08%) is greater than that of females (40.52%) (𝑋² = 17.33, p <0.05). Indeed, the index of vacuity varied in individuals at different sexual stages. Stage VI individuals have zero, while stage III have the highest vacuity at 93.1%. Analysis of the 78 full stomachs revealed that C. crysos diet consisted of teleost, gastropods, cephalopods, crustaceans, annelids and phytoplankton. On the basis of the indices of relative importance (IRI), teleost constitute the preferential preys of C. crysos with % IRI = 59.33. The gastropods are their secondary prey (% IRI = 38.16). Cephalopods (% IRI = 0.26), crustaceans (% IRI = 2.23), annelids (% IRI = 0.003) and phytoplankton (% IRI = 0.014) are occasional prey items. The diet of males identical to that of females. However, the diet of C. crysos varies according to the sexual stage of the individuals. C. crysos is classified as a piscivore.

The present study was aimed to clarify the consequences of exogenous administration of bovine lactoferrin and / or insulin on motor nerve conduction velocity in experimentally induced diabetic male rats. Fifty male rats (200±20 g) were used.Diabetes was elicited by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats having blood sugar level exceeding 300 mg/dl were thought of as diabetic rats.Experimental rats were divided into five groups,control (non-diabetic),and four diabetic rat groups as diabetic (non-treated),insulin-treated, lactoferrin-treated,and insulin+lactoferrin-treated groups.Individual fast blood sugar level was measured for all rats at one month interval/3 months. At the end of experiment, dissection of sciatic nerve - gastrocnemius muscle unite preparation was performed and the motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test was done for 5 rats / group. Data analysis disclosed elevated blood sugar level everywhere the experimental periods in untreated rats. Glucose level in rats treated with insuline alone or combined with lactoferrin was considerably diminished. treatment with Lactoferrin alone was clearly having a hypoglycaemic impact , though it didn't returne the level to its control or rats treated with insuline alone. NCV was considerably diminished in untreated diabetic rats. In rats treated with insuline alone or combined with lactoferrin, NCV was considerably redoubled. Treatment with lactoferrin alone was related to an improvement in NCV, though it had been insignificant. Notably, combination treatment was related to a pronounced increase for the NCV as compared with those treated with either insuline or lactoferrin alone. In conclusion , lactoferrin administration in diabetic rats combined with insuline treatement was related to an improvement in nerve perform , lactoferrin combined with insuline improved considerably the delay in nerve conduction velocity.

Proximate and Elemental Composition of Baobab Fruit (Adansonia digitata L) Pulp

Ibrahim Yaagoub Erwa, Mahgoub Ibrahim Shinger, Omer Adam Omer Ishag, Alshifaa Mohammed Ali, Rana Emad Ahmed and Afra Altayeb Mohamed

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.04251.]

Herein the baobab fruit pulp analysis was carried out to evaluate the proximate composition, vitamin C and mineral elements content. The proximate analysis of the pulp revealed a low crude protein content (2.38 ± 0.70 %), crude fat (0.52 ± 0.28 %), moisture (8.75 ± 1.07 %) and high carbohydrate content (77.47 ± 1.08 %), relatively high ash content (5.83 ± 0.87 %) and crude fiber (5.05 ± 0.97 %). A high content of vitamin C was observed (263.27 ± 24.07 mg/ 100 g). The elemental analysis showed that potassium is the most abundant element in the baobab fruit pulp (586.01 mg/ 100 g), followed by calcium (344.07 mg/ 100 g), magnesium (196.37 mg/ 100 g), sodium (5.99 mg/ 100 g), iron (4.81 mg/ 100 g), manganese (0.88 mg/ 100 g) and copper (0.60 mg/ 100 g). The present study shows that the baobab fruit pulp is very rich in vitamin C, carbohydrate, fiber and essential minerals, thereby demonstrating that baobab pulp could contribute to meet the recommended daily intakes of these nutrients.

Pumpkin (Curcubita pepo L.), black powder and pesticide as eco-friendly medium for chemical control of termite in a living environment

Ayesa A.S., Ajewole T.O, Ajakaye A.S.,Idowu C.F. ,Odebode-Osinowo E.,Soetan O.O, Amali H.A., Anthony A.C., and Aiyegoro A.A..

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.05260.]

Pumpkin is a very important plant which its usefulness have not been fully exploited. It is used in this study as a medium to pesticide and black powder to avoid soil contamination for agricultural use when combating Termites.Chrisland University was randomly used as the source of termite. Soil analysis before and after the experiment was carried out. Composition of three treatments was used (Curcubita pepo, black powder and Chlorpyriphos 20%). Dried sticks were inserted in each mound building of the termites to ascertain their presence or absence. The dried sticks were left for two weeks allowing the termites to feed before application and other dried sticks were inserted after three weeks of treatment application. Sticks inserted before treatment application were eaten up by termites which showed their heavy presence. Also, sticks inserted after three weeks of experiment were not eaten up which showed eradication of the termites. This method showed the efficacy of the composite treatment and their eco-friendly nature. This study revealed that this method can be suggested to farmers in their agricultural environment in controlling termites and prevention of their mound building because of their effectiveness and fast result.

Distribution of Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails in Abu Usher Locality, Aljazeera State, Central Sudan

Mohamed A. Ismail, Waleed S. Koko, 

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.06167.]

Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic disease that infects man and animals in tropical and sub-tropical regions, It is the second most prevalent parasitic disease in the world ranked after malaria regarding the number of people infected and those at risk. More than 90% of the cases are occurring in Africa. It is caused by Schistosoma (s), a genus of digenetic trematode worms. This study was undertaken to investigate the annually distribution of Biomphlaria pfeifferi snails (the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni) and cercaria shedding in the Abu Usher agricultural project in Aljazera State, Central of Sudan.The snails were collected using scooping technique from the major, medium and minor canals of Abu Usher Agricultural project in Aljazeera State and then taken to the laboratory of the International University of Africa for shedding of cercariae.  The higher snails population was found during the months March, April and May (540, 621 and 517 snail) respectively, followed by June and July (411 and 221 snail) respectively. While zero population i.e no snail observed during the period August to December and increased again at January 31 and February 264. This density was signifigantly (P < 0.05) higher in medium canals rather than minor and major canals. The shedding of cercaria proportion with snail population started from February 1.9% and reach the peak at May 11.2% of snail was found infected with cercariae and decrease to 8.6% in July and then disappear during the period from August to January. This study indicated the population of Biomphlaria pfeifferi snails is higher by the end of winter and beginning of summer at April and May as well as cercaria shedding  in Central Sudan. During this period we advise the people to avoid direct contact with water from canals.

Effect of JACADUR compost on soil fertility and turnip production (Raphanus sativus)

Khamsa DIAKHATE, Mamoudou Abdoul TOURE, Sékouna DIATTA

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.06881.]

Land degradation is a major problem for Senegalese producers. It results in a continuous decline in agricultural yields leading to an increase in poverty and the vulnerability of populations. To cope with this situation, a group of producers from the village of Keur Matouré Gning (Thiès, Senegal) uses JACADUR composting (Jardin des Cases Durables) which is an agroecological practice inspired by the technique of JACADUR planks initiated by the NGO Agrecol Africa. This work aims to study the relevance of this peasant practice on the chemical properties of the soil and the yield of the Chinese turnip. Thus a pilot test of composting is set up. An agronomic test is also installed with the Chinese turnip as culture, according to 4 doses of composts. The results obtained compared to the control (T0), an increase of 0.75 unit on the pH-water value, of 21% on the organic matter content, of 12.1% on the carbon content, of 0 , 3% on the nitrogen level, 4.9% of the CEC, and 14.3ppm of the phosphorus level, with the T3 compost dose. A significant effect of compost is also noted on yield variables such as bulb size, yield and growth variables ie leaf width and neck diameter. The T3 compost dose gives the best results for all measured variables, except for neck diameter.

Effet du compost de JACADUR sur la fertilité du sol et la production du navet (Raphanus sativus)

Khamsa DIAKHATE, Mamoudou Abdoul TOURE, Sékouna DIATTA

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.06881.]

la dégradation des sols constitue une problématique majeure pour les producteurs sénégalais. Elle se traduit par une baisse continue des rendements agricoles entrainant une augmentation de la pauvreté et de la vulnérabilité des populations. Pour faire face à cette situation, un groupement de productrices du village de Keur Matouré Gning (Thiès, Sénégal) utilise le compostage JACADUR (Jardin des Cases Durables) qui est une pratique agroécologique inspirée par la technique des planches JACADUR initiée par l’ONG Agrecol Afrique. Ce travail vise à étudier la pertinence de cette pratique paysanne sur les propriétés chimiques du sol et le rendement du navet chinois. Ainsi un essai pilote de compostage est mis en place. Un essai agronomique est aussi installé avec comme culture le navet chinois, en fonction de 4 doses de composts. Les résultats obtenus montrent par rapport au témoin (T0), une augmentation de 0,75 unité sur la valeur du pH-eau, de 21% sur la teneur en matière organique, de 12,1% sur le taux de carbone, de 0,3% sur le taux d’azote, de 4,9% de la CEC, et de 14,3ppm du taux de phosphore, avec la dose de compost T3. Un effet significatif du compost est aussi noté sur les variables de rendement tels que le calibre des bulbes, le rendement et sur les variables de croissance à savoir la largeur des feuilles et le diamètre au collet. La dose de compost T3 donne les meilleurs résultats pour toutes les variables mesurées, excepté pour le diamètre au collet.

Phytochemical Screening and Quantitative Screening for Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Taxus wallichiana Collected from Various Districts of Nepal

Sudina Bhuju, Janardan Lamichhane, Rajani Shakya, Nita Thapa, Dhurva P. GauchanSudina Bhuju, Janardan Lamichhane, Rajani Shakya, Nita Thapa, Dhurva P. Gauchan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.08293.]

For the detail study on any plant species, primarily knowing its major phytochemical components has become vital prior to starting the research. The availability of phytochemical compound, phenolic and flavonoid content vary plant to plant and species to species. Therefore, the present study investigates the phytochemical content, total phenolic and flavonoid content in Taxus wallichiana collected from different districts of Nepal. The needles and bark pieces of T. wallichiana collected from 11 sites of Nepal were air dried and extracted using various solvents for phytochemical screening. Further, total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined from the extracts. The major phytochemical compounds found were alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins, coumarin and quinone. Lignin, saponin and resin showed low presence whereas starch was completely absent. Acetone, 50% ethanol and methanol were proven best solvents for all the three screening whereas hexane and ether proved to be less effective. Both phenolic and flavonoid content was found to be high in bark samples compared to the needle ones. Among the districts, not much difference in the quantity was accounted for. There wasn’t much difference in both phenolic and flavonoid contents between male and female plants, however female plants showed high flavonoid content than male. Also, female needle samples showed higher phenolic and flavonoid content than male needle samples. T. wallichiana, mostly renowned as anti-cancerous plant is rich with various phytochemical constituents and contains prominent amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in its bark as well as needles.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combined effect of nitrogen fertilization with urea (46% N) and the association with a legume, cowpea (Vignaunguculata) on fodder yield and feed value of 3 potential dual-purpose millet accessions (SL 423, SL 28 and SL 169), Souna 3 and Thialack 2 varieties. The study was conducted at the Agriculture Technical Application Center of the Higher National School of Agriculture of Thies (Senegal). An experimental device in completely randomized blocks comprising five treatments: a control; 3 doses of urea (0.5N, N and 1.5N with N = 150 kg of urea at 46% N) and an association with cowpea was used. Each type of treatment was repeated 3 times in the 5 millet populations, for a total of 75 experimental units of 8 m2 each. At maturity, green forage samples were taken from each experimental unit immediately after mowing and subjected to bromatological analyzes. The application of urea on millet plots proved to be interesting in view of the important results obtained in terms of aerial biomass and its chemical composition. The analysis of the results showed that the nitrogen fertilization significantly influenced (P <0.001) the forage yield and the chemical composition of the millet stems. The combination of millet with cowpea did not have significant effects on aboveground biomass yield, but positively influenced the protein value of millet stalks. The SL 169 and the Thialack 2 variety gave the best fodder yields, while for the Total Nitrogenous Materials, the SL169 and the SL 423 show the best results at 225 kg urea per hectare.

Studies on The Antimicrobial Activities of Two kinds of Clove oil on Some Clinical Pathogenic Bacteria

Alzahrani K. K. , Alghabban A. M. , Alfadily W. A., Ghabban E. S.  and Algohari S. H. .

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.10718.]

In the present investigation, we studied the effect of two kinds of Clove oil collected from pharmacies against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The results showed that C. O. 2 had higher inhibitory activities against all tested bacteria than C. O. 1. The highest inhibition zones were for C. O. 2 against E. coli and S. aureus ssp.2 with diameters 22.33 and 21.67 mm respectively. C. O. 1 was less effective against all tested bacteria. The highest inhibitory activities for C. O. 1 was against S. aureus ssp.2 with inhibition zone 14.67 mm.The results of MIC for both of C. O. 1 and C. O. 2 showed that C. O. 2 was more active than C. O. 1 against all tested bacteria. The highest inhibition zone for S. aureus ssp.1, S. aureus MRSA and P. aeruginosa were 23.33, 20 and 24 mm respectively at the concentration 0.18 µml/ml, and the highest inhibition zone for S. aureus ssp.2, E. coli and K. pneumonia were 23, 24.33 and 20.33 mm respectively at the concentration 0.14 µml/ml.The highest inhibition zones caused by C. O. 1 at the concentration 0.18 µml/ml for E. coli and P. aeruginosa were 20.67 and 22.33 mm respectively. S. aureus MRSA was inhibited at the concentration 0.14 µml/ml with a diameter of 14.67 mm. At the concentration 0.12 µml/ml, the inhibition zones for S. aureus ssp.1, S. aureus ssp. 2 and K. pneumonia were 17, 21.33 and 18.33 mm respectively    

This paper was discharged practical comparison for cinnamon to known the effects of available used cinnamon at "Taif" high-altitude (HA) area. That were included Cinnamomum tamale (Indian cinnamon), Cinnamomum cassia (Chinese cinnamon) and Cinnamomum burmannii (Indonesian cinnamon). The work was on pathogenic bacteria (PB) and digestive system (DS) behaviour. The Indian type did not affect DS, Chinese type had negative 1%, and Indonesian type had negative (1% and 2%). The result before cinnamon boiled water extract (CBWE) used was high and was decreased after use in descending manner in type (Indian, Chinese and Indonesian). Indian type was the safest type in DS sterilization, it had ability to eliminate DS-PB. Cinnamon dipped in previous boiled water extract (CDPBWE) were effective than CBWE revealed from results and differences, so it's more effective on DS-PB. The most DS-PB were isolated, that were completely eliminated by Indian type as positive 100%, Chinese type had negative 5% and Indonesian type had negative 7%. CDPBWE was eliminated completely DS-PB in positive 100%. That concluded cinnamon water extract (CWE) was improved DS, it was found by comparison, the most respected typed were as in type (Indian, Chinese and Indonesian). CDPBWE was stronger than CBWE in union, saving and elimination of DS-PB. Drinking CWE one cup daily will protect DS and safe individuals and communities health at HA area. Cinnamon is cheap and available, it recommended to take for healthy persons CWE daily for DS maintenance to preserve health, all keep individual and community health at HA area

Effect of incorporation of cashew kernels in the diet on the reproduction performance of the sow in Côte d’Ivoire

YAO Koffi Sylvanus Aubert, (PhD), TRAORE* Beh, (PhD), KIMSE Moussa, (PhD)

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.12837.]

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cashew nut kernels almond refusals (Anacardium occidentale) on the reproductive performance of the sows. Thus, thirty young sows resulting from the crossing (Large White x Pietrain) x (Landrace x Duroc) were selected for this experiment. The animals were been nourished ad libitum with different diets according to the incorporation rate of cashew nut almond rejections. The study showed that the incorporation of the cashew nut kernel residues has no depressive effect on reproduction performance. Furthermore, the productivity of the sows was been improve by 1.25 (P <0.05). The piglets mortality was been also improved for an incorporation rate of 9% in nursing sow feed rations. In conclusion, cashew nut refusals can therefore been incorporated at a rate of 9% in sow feeding.

Le but de cette étude a été de déterminer l’effet des rejets de l’amande de la noix de cajou de l’Anacardium occidentale L sur les performances de reproduction des truies. Trente (30) cochettes ont été sélectionnées pour cette expérience. Ces animaux issus du croisement (Large White x Piétrain) x (Landrace x Duroc) ont été nourris ad libitum avec des aliments reproducteurs, différents les uns des autres par le taux d’incorporation de rejets d’amandes de noix de cajou. L’étude révèle, que l’incorporation des résidus d’amandes de noix de cajou n’a aucun effet dépressif sur les performances de reproduction. Mieux, cela améliore la productivité numérique des truies de 1,25 (P<0,05) et reduit la mortalité des porcelets à un taux d’incorporation de 9 % dans les rations alimentaires des truies allaitantes.Les refus de traitement des noix de cajou peuvent donc être incorporés à un taux de 9% dans l’alimentation des truies

Diet of Sarda sarda (Bloch, 1793) from Guinean Gulf, Côte d’Ivoire

ANGUI Kouamé Jean Paul, DIAHA N’guessan Constance, AMANDE Monin Justin, SORO Yaya, EDOUKOU Abekan, ASSAN N’dri Florentine, N’GUESSAN Yao et N’DA Konan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.13851.]

In the Gulf of Guinea, a study of the Sarda sarda diet was conducted for two years (2015 and 2016) at the landing dock of artisanal fishermen. The preferential prey consumed by the specimens did not vary according to sex, maturity stages and seasons. Stomach content analysis revealed that on 635 stomachs examined, 267 were empty (42.04%) and 368 stomachs contained food, hence a repletion index of 2.26%.The index of relative importance (% IRI) combining the different percentages of occurrence, numeric and weight were used to analyze the importance of the different items identified. In total, four groups of prey were identified. Sarda sarda preferentially feeds on fish (96.34%). Complementary prey is composed of Malacostracae (2.59%) and Cephalopods (1.07%). Other foods are accidental prey.

Régime alimentaire de Sarda sarda  (Bloch, 1793) du golfe de Guinée, Côte d’Ivoire

ANGUI Kouamé Jean Paul, DIAHA N’guessan Constance, AMANDE Monin Justin, SORO Yaya, EDOUKOU Abekan, ASSAN N’dri Florentine, N’GUESSAN Yao et N’DA Konan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.9.1.13851.]

Dans le golfe de Guinée, une étude du régime alimentaire de Sarda sarda a été menée durant deux ans (2015 et 2016) au niveau des quais de débarquements des pêcheurs artisans. Les proies préférentielles consommées par les spécimens n’ont pas varié en fonction du sexe, des stades de maturité et des saisons. L’analyse du contenu stomacal a permis de constater que sur 635 estomacs examinés, 267 étaient vides (42,04%) et 368 estomacs contenaient des aliments, soit un indice de réplétion de 2,26 %. L’indice relatif d’importance (% IRI) combinant les différents pourcentages d’occurrence, numérique et pondérale ont été utilisés pour analyser l’importance des différents items identifiés. Au total, quatre groupes de proies ont été identifiés. Sarda sarda se nourrit préférentiellement de poissons (96,34 %). Les proies complémentaires sont composées de Malacostracés (2,59 %) et de Céphalopodes (1,07 %). Les autres aliments dont des os d’animaux constituent les proies accidentelles.

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