Vol. 3 & Issue 1 ; Section A : Chemical Sciences

Date : Nov.2012 to Jan.2013


Mechanistic Study of Phosphotungustic Acid Catalyzed Oxidation of P-Nitro Benzyl Alcohol by N-Chlorosaccharin in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium. A Kinetic Study

H.D. Gupta, S.K. Singh and Santosh Kumar Singh

  • Abstract

    Kinetic investigations in Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid catalyzed oxidation of p-nitro benzyl alcohol by N-chlorosaccharin, (NCSA) in aqueous acetic acid have been studied. Oxidation kinetics of p-nitro benzyl alcohol by chlorosaccharin in presence of Phosphotungstic acid (PTA) shows a first order dependence on NCSA and fractional order on p-nitrobenzyl alcohol and PTA. The variation of [H+] and [saccharin] (reaction product) have insignificant effect on reaction rate. Activation parameters for the reaction have been evaluated by studying the reaction at different temperature. The rate law has been derived on the basis of obtained kinetic data and a plausible mechanism has been proposed.

Synthesis and Characterization of2-[1H- benzimi - dazole-2yl-sulfanyl]-N-[(E) - (3-methylphenyl) methylidene] acetohydrazide

Ramesh Dhani

  • Abstract

    Many important biochemical compounds and drugs of natural origin contain heterocyclic ring structures. Among these e.g. Carbohydrates, essential amino acids, vitamins, alkaloids, glycosides etc. the presence of heterocyclic structures in such diverse types of compounds is strongly indicative of the diverse types of the pharmacological activity. Diversity of biological response profile has attracted considerable interest of several researchers across the globe to explore this skeleton for its assorted therapeutic significance. By using different synthetic methods new benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and further Melting points were determined by using Precision melting point apparatus in open capillaries and are uncorrected. The purity of the compounds was checked by TLC on silica gel G plates using n-Hexane, ethyl acetate (1:3) and methanol: chloroform (1:9) solvent system. The synthesized benzimidazole derivatives were characterized by IR spectral analysis. Benzimidazole is a lead nucleus for future developments to get effective compounds.

Heterobimetallic Complexes of Transition Metals - Synthesis and Characterization

Manimekalai Rakkiyasamy, Kalpanadevi Kalimuthu and Sinduja Rangasamy

  • Abstract

    Two new heterobimetallic coordination complexes NiCo2 (N2H4)2L2 and CdCo21.5N2H4.L2.H2O [L= 2, 4, dichlorophenoxy acetate] have been synthesized by simple chemical technique and characterized by their elemental composition, FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA. Thermograms of both the complexes indicated their facile decomposition at relatively low temperature range 344ºC -591 ºC to give the corresponding stable metal oxides.

Synthesis and Biological Activity of the Mononuclear Iron (III) Complexes of a Schiff Base Ligand

S. Sujatha and K. Balasubramanian

  • Abstract

    The synthesis of four binuclear Iron (III) complexes of Schiff’s base ligands of the saltrien–type derived from 1,8-diamino,3,6–diazaoctane-1,3-diamine,2- hydroxy propane and 2 equivalent of the appropriate 2-hydroxy naphthaldehyde and pyrrole 2-carboxylaldehyde derivative is reported. The complexes were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, UV, IR, EPR, Mass spectral studies. The CV data of all the complexes in DMF exhibited quasi-reversible behavior, one electron redox waves at ΔEp = 249 mV and ΔEp = 305 mV. The complexes showed significant antibacterial activity against S aureus and P.aeruginosa

Effect of Different Dose of Chemical Fertilizers on Qualitynand Nutrient Content of Chrysanthemum Varieties

N. S. Joshi M. S. Dulawat, D. M. Pathak and N. V. Patel

  • Abstract

    A field experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous soil of Horticultural Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during rabi season. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with twenty four treatments replicated three times. The treatment consisted of two varieties viz., IIHR-6 (V1), Shyamal (V2), three levels of nitrogen (100, 200 and 300 N kg ha-1), two levels of phosphorus (100 and 150 kg P2O5 ha-1) and two levels of potash (100 and 150 kg K2O ha-1). Both the varieties significantly influenced quality parameters. Higher length of pedicel, vase life of cut flower and longevity of cut flower were recorded in variety Shyamal. While both varieties had non-significant effect on nutrient contents of vegetative and flowering part of the plant. While higher uptake of nitrogen was recorded in Shyamal. Effects of varieties were found to be non-significant with respect to availability of nutrients (N, P and K). Nitrogen at 300 kg ha-1 improved the length of pedicel and longevity of cut flower but lowered vase life of cut flower. This level of nitrogen significantly improved N, P and K contents of both parts, as well as uptake of nitrogen. P2 level of phosphorus had a significant impact on length of pedicel and increased the N content of leaves and P content of both parts, as well as uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus, where as higher dose of phosphorus produced higher availability of phosphorus in the soil after completion of the experiment. Varying levels of potash failed to influence quality, nutrient content and uptake as well as availability of nutrients significantly during the experiment

Solvent Extraction of Chromium (VI) From Aqueous Acid Solutions by Tetrabutyl Ammonium Iodide

A.V.L.N.S.H. Hari Haran  and D.Murali Krishna

  • Abstract

    This paper reports the studies on the solvent extraction behavior of Cr (VI) in different acid solutions using tetrabutyl ammonium iodide in benzene as extractant. The effect of important variables like nature of diluents, concentration of mineral acids, and variation of metal ion concentration and extractant variation is investigated. The extractions are nearly quantitative with hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric and perchloric acid & are partial from phosphoric and acetic acid systems. The extracted species are

    identified. The method has been applied for the determination of chromium in chrome


Kinetic Model for the Removal of Methyl Orange (Dye) From Aqueous Solution Using Avocado Pear (Persea Americana) Seed

A.K Asiagwu, P.E Omuku & C.O Alisa

  • Abstract

    The adsorptions kinetic removal of methyl orange (dye) from aqueous solution using avocado pear (Persea Americana) seeds as the biomass was studied. Under various experimental conditions, as time increased the amount of the dyes adsorbed increased and the equilibrium was reached within 15-20min. Modification of the adsorbent by Nitric acid (HNO3) and hydroxylamine hydrochioride (NH2OH.HCl) enhanced the adsorptive capacity of the adsorbent. Adsorption parameters were modeled by Freundlich and Langmuir Isotherm equation and the corresponding constant values were determined. The kinetics of sorption was well correlated using the Pseudo-first order and Pseudo-second order to analyse the experimental data: the very high values of correlation coefficients (R2) obtained showed that these models fit the experimental data perfectly. Therefore avocado pear seed was found to be a good adsorbent for adsorptive decolorization of methyl orange (dye) from waste water

Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel In Presence of THAM and Citrate Ions

J.Jeyasundari, Y.Brightson Arul Jacob and S.Rajendran

  • Abstract

    The aim of this present work is to study the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in aqueous solution containing 60 ppm Cl- in the presence of 50ppmTris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane (THAM), 50 ppm of Zn2+ and 250 ppm of TSC solutions. Electrochemical, FTIR, UV spectral, SEM studies and weight loss study have been employed. THAM alone shows 52% IE was improved by Zn2+ and TSC. The synergistic effect of the inhibiting compound was calculated. Based on the above results a mechanism of corrosion inhibition is proposed. The surface morphology of the protective film on the metal surface was characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

Kinetics of Oxidation of Oxine by Isoquinolinium Bromochromate

M.Vellaisamy and M.Hinduja

  • Abstract

    The kinetics of 8-hydroxy quinoline (oxine) by isoquinolinium bromochromate has been studied in 50% acetic acid-water (v/v) medium. The order of the reaction has been found to be one with respect to oxidant, second order with respect to substrate and zero order with respect to hydrogen ion concentration. Decreases in dielectric constant of the medium, increases the rate of the reaction.Increases in ionic strength has no effect on the reaction rate. The reaction does not induce the polymerization of acrylonitrile. Quinoline-5, 8-quinone has been identified as a product. From the kinetic data obtained, the activation parameters have been calculated and a possible mechanism has been proposed

Studies of some Lanthanide (III) Perchlorate Complexes of Thiabendazole

S. K. Gupta, V. K. Jain, Wishu Shrivastava and A. K. Sharma

  • Abstract

    A new series of lanthanide III perchlorate complexes of thiabendazole (TBZ) have been prepared in the non-aqueous medium. Newly synthesized complexes characterized by elemental analysis, molecular weight data, electrolytic conductance, magnetic moment and IR spectral data. On the basis of above studies the general compositions have been assigned to newly synthesized complexes Ln (ClO4)3 4TBZ (Where Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Tb or Ho). Thermal studies of some complexes have also been studied.

Synthesis and Fluoroscence Study of Chlorine Substitution on Anils

Bapu R Thorat, Shaukat Ali Shaikh, Ramdas G. Atram and Ramesh S. Yamgar

  • Abstract

    Salicylaldehyde (1) and 5-bromosalicyladehyde (2) was condensed with series of chloroanilines (3a-d) forming Schiff bases (anils, 4a-d, 5a-d) which are characterised by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The absorption and emission spectra of final Schiff bases (4a-d, 5a-d) was recorded. The Schiff bases show maximum absorption at 400 nm and 800 nm. The emission spectra of 4a-d and 5a-d were recorded at 400 nm (as excitation wavelength). Chlorine substitution on anils shows blue shift in emission.

Calix[4]pyrroles as Sensors:A Review

Aparna Sharma, Sangeeta Obrai and Rakesh Kumar

  • Abstract

    Molecules with specific binding sites serve as sensors. Calix[4]pyrrole is one such class, which holds a great promise in the fields of sensors, and their unique behaviour as sensors owe to its structural flexibility. Anion binding ability of calix[4]pyrrole has been modified in a variety of ways. Introduction of electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing groups at the meso- position or at β-pyrrolic positions lead to calix[4]pyrrole with deep cavities and fixed walls which shows increased selectivity and modified binding effects. Strapping of calix[4]pyrrole is another way to modify its structural behaviour which is responsible for its binding behaviour. Choice of strap could play a profound role not only in increasing the intrinsic anion binding affinity of calix[4]pyrrole, but also in modulating the receptor anion stoichiometry, thereby modifying potentially the inherent anion binding selectivity. Calix[n]pyrroles with extended cavities have also been synthesized. Such as Calix[3]bipyrrole binds bromide substantially with high affinity than calix[4]pyrrole. Calix[4]pyrrole has also been used to produce anion sensors that can report the presence of anion by means of a colour change. The medium effect on the complexation of calix[4]pyrrole and anion has been investigated in various solvents. Calix[4]pyrrole has also been used to increase the ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte by anion complexation of the metal salt. Calix[4]pyrrole has been used to obtain optical sensors using surface plasmon resonance technique. Composite films of cellulose acetate containing calix[4]pyrrole has also been reported which has potential usage in packaging, storage and preservation. In nut shell, cailx[4]pyrrole can be modified in a variety of ways to form versatile sensors which can be used in variety of ways in various areas.

Algorithm for Direct Combinatorial Enumeration of Chiral and Achiral Graphs of Homopolysubstituted Adamantane Derivatives

Robert Martin Nemba, Anguilé Jean-Jacques, Crislain Bissielou and Patouossa Issofa

  • Abstract

    An Algorithm is given for direct combinatorial enumeration of distinct skeletons of homopolysubstituted adamantane derivatives having the empirical formula C10H16-qXq where X is a non isomerisable substituent and q the degree of substitution. The averaged weights of permutations controlling respectively the chirality and the achirality fittingness are calculated for the parent adamantane in Td symmetry and then converted into generalized formulas for computing (16 ) c A ,q and (16 ) ac A ,q which are the numbers of chiral and achiral skeletons for any adamantane molecule having a degree of homopolysubstitution 0 ≤ q ≤ 16.

Studies on Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Coordination Polymers

Purav Talaviya and J.A.Chaudhari

  • Abstract

    Novel bis ligand namely 5,5'-(6-phenoxy-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl) bis(azanediyl) di quinolin-8-ol (PBDQ), was synthesized by condensation of 5-amino 8-hydroxy quinoline with 2,4-dichloro-6-phenoxy-1,3,5-triazine in the presence of a base catalyst. This ligand was characterized by Elemental analysis, IR, and 1H-NMR. Coordination polymers of this bisligand (PBDQ) were prepared with Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) metal ions. All of these coordination polymers were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectral and diffuse reflectance spectral studies. The thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses. In addition, all of the coordination polymers have been characterized by their magnetic susceptibilities. The microbicidal activities of all the samples have been monitored against plant pathogens

Inhibition of Corrosion of Stainless Steel by Sodium Tungstate – Zn (II) System

P. Patric Raymond, A. Peter Pascal Regis, S. Rajendran and M. Manivannan

  • Abstract

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of sodium tungstate (ST) in controlling corrosion of stainless steel 410 in sea water in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by weight loss method. The formulation consists of 250 ppm of ST and 50 ppm of Zn2+ has 98% IE. It is found that the IE of ST increases by the addition of Zn2+. A synergistic effect exists between ST and Zn2+. Synergism has been confirmed by synergism parameter and F-test. The mechanistic aspects of corrosion inhibition have been studied using polarization study. Also FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+ - ST complex and Zn(OH)2. The nature of the protective film has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Correlations of Available Phosphorus and Potassium with Soil pH and Organic Matter Content at Different Soil Reactions Categories in Soils of Western Development Region, Nepal

S. Pandey, K.B. Thapa and I.B.Oli

  • Abstract

    In the year, 2011-2012 altogether 695 soil samples were taken from western development region of Nepal to analyze phosphorus, potassium, organic matter content and soil pH. From those samples, randomly 100 samples were selected in such a way that 25 samples were taken from each soil reaction classes (strongly acidic, slightly acidic, neutral and alkaline soils). For each soil reaction class, the mean of available phosphorus, available potassium, organic matter content and pH were calculated. In addition, the simple linear correlations between available phosphorus- organic matter, available potassium - organic matter, available phosphorus- pH, available potassium- pH and organic matter- pH were calculated for all the soil classes. The significance of the simple linear correlation was tested under 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance. The study revealed that the correlation of the available phosphorus to the organic matter content of the soil decreased in the order of neutral to slightly acidic to strongly acidic to alkaline soils. It is highly significant in neutral soils, while it is significant in slightlyand strongly acidic soils. However, it is non- significant in alkaline soils. The correlation of available potassium to the organic matter content of the soil decreased in the order of neutral to slightly acidic to alkaline to strongly acidic soil. It is highly significant for neutral and significant for slightly acidic soils. However, it is non-significant for alkaline and stronglyacidic soils. There is not any significant correlation of soil pH with available phosphorus and available potassium.

Efficient Synthesis and Evaluation of Some New s-Triazine Derivatives and Their Microbial Screening

Sarju . Prajapati, Shashikant . Sutariya, Rakesh . Patel and Kokila . Parmar

  • Abstract

    A new series of 2-(4-chlorophenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl)-5-thio-4-(morpholino)-6- (arylamino)-s-triazine have been synthesized. The novel compounds structure has been established on the basis of their substituted aryl amine derivatives. All the compounds were characterized by FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis. These new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity.

Trihalomethanes in Tetova's Drinking Water

Durmishi H. Bujar, Daut Vezi, Murtezan Ismaili,nAgim Shabani and Shemsedin Abduli

  • Abstract

    The formation of carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs) in the process of water disinfection by chlorine has raised concerns in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. This study aims to determine the concentration of THMs i Tetova's drinking water during the summer season and compare it with the regulation in the Republic of Macedonia, the European Union, and the World Health Organization. To this end, we have used the UV-VIS spectrophotometric method based on Fujiwara's reaction. The THMs concentration measured in fifteen different locations in June, July and August 2011. The results indicate that the summer variation is below the critical values stipulated in the state, EU, and WHO regulations (seasonal average 24.75 ± 12.33 μg/L). This study is the first of its kind on THMs in the Republic of Macedonia.

Synthesis and Characterization of Organometallic Hexacyanoferrates

S.Jamal Haider Zaidi, Premraj and Ajita Pandey

  • Abstract

    A series of organometallic hexacyanoferrate of the general formula [RnM]x [fe(CN)6]y.mH2O] where (M= Sn, Sb, Ga, Te, Pb) where n, x, y and m depend upon the valenty of M have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, melting point, spectroscopic and TGA data. The newly synthesized complexes remained unaffected by atmospheric oxygen and water.