Vol. 3 & Issue 2 ; Section A : Chemical Sciences

Date : Feb. to Apr.2013


Management of Nickel Contaminated Soil and Water Through the use of Carbon Nano Particles

Gopal Rathor , Tapan Adhikari  and Neelam Chopra

  • Abstract

    A laboratory experiment was conduct to determine the effect of Carbon Nano Particle (CNP) for the management of nickel pollutant in soil and water. Usage of carbon in nanoparticle form seems quite efficient. It has been found that Ni concentration is reduced to 75-92% in the nickel polluted soil when the soil is treated with carbon nanoparticle (250mg/10gm of soil) while nickel decontamination in water was reduced to 99.6% after treatment of carbon nanoparticle (500mg/20 ml of polluted water).It was also seen that rate of nickel decontamination increases with the increase in Ni concentration. Ni contamination also decreases the pH of water but when carbon nanoparticle is applied, it not only decontaminates water but also maintains the pH of water to normal level.

Carbon Nanotube Based Nanocomposites and their Applications- A Review

Rakesh Kumar, Sangeeta Obrai, Amanpreet Singh and Aparna Sharma

  • Abstract

    Nanocomposites are the new class of composite materials like polymer based nanocompositespresent new class of composites materials such as particle filled polymers in which at least one dimensions of the dispersed particles lies in the nano-range. Now a walled. The discoveries of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have initiated researches in many different areas and in which one of the most fascinating applications of CNT is the polymer/CNT nanocomposites. High surface area of the nanotube increases the adhesion between the dispersed fillers and the matrix to obtain high performance resulting composites.Carbon Nanotube CNTs have attracted too much interest as new nanomaterials due to their unique shape and properties such as superconductivity, light weight, high stiffness and axial strength. Because of their high mechanical strength CNTs are being considered as nano-scale fibers to enhance the performance of polymer nanocomposite materials. High mechanical, electrical and thermal property of CNTs make them ideal candidate as fillers in light weight polymer composite. Due to CNTs unusual properties they can be used in the electronic device manufacturing, electrode materials preparations and reinforcement of various composites. Nanocomposites reinforced with carbon nanotubes having extraordinary specific stiffness and strength which represent various opportunity for application in the 21st century. In this paper preparation of nano-tubes, characterization and their applications have been included.

Quantum Chemical Studies On Reactivity of Some Amino Acids towards Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Attack with Iron

P. A. Ekwumemgbo, N. O. Eddy and K. I. Omoniyi

  • Abstract

    Semiemperical and density functional methods (DFT) have been used to predict the reactivity of some amino acids (alanine, glycine and leucine) towards electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks with iron (Fe). Both methods revealed that the reactivity of the three amino acids studied decreases in the order leucine> alanine > glycine. The sites for nucleophilic attack are the carbon atom (C-7), the nitrogen atom (N- 5) and the nitrogen atom (N-5) for leucine, alanine and glycine respectively, while the sites for electrophilic attack are the carboxyl functional group for leucine, alanine and glycine respectively. Molecular orbital diagrams have been used to represent the information obtained from DFT study. The results obtained from the study indicated that DFT and quantum chemical principles can be used to predict the reactivity of leucine, alanine and glycine towards electrophilic and neuclophilic attacks.

Computation and Modeling of the Flux of Gamma Globulin Molecules onto Titanium Surface

P. A. Ekwumemgbo,J. A. Kagbu, A. J. Nok and K. I. Omoniyi

  • Abstract

    Titanium (Ti) is widely employed for various biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility. Studies of γ-globulin adsorption onto Ti are important for the development of biocompatible devices. This work examines the rate of adsorption of γ- globulin onto Ti surface. The plot of γ-globulinadsorption onto Ti versus time shows that the initial γ-globulinadsorption increased linearly with time with the rate constant obtained 0.032min-1 while the correlation coefficient (R2)is 0.9999. The experimental adsorptionrate is limited by the availability of γ-globulin molecules at the adsorbing surface, resulting in a situation in which, most γ-globulin molecule that collides with the surface sticks to it. In order to predict the factors that determine the rate of adsorption, the flux ofγ-globulin molecules onto Ti surface was computed by developing a model similar to implantation of Ti into the body for the transport-limited of γ-globulin adsorption onto Ti from flowing γ-globulin solution. It was deduced that the rate of this adsorption is determined by the wall shear rate, the diffusivity of γ-globulin and the bulk amount of γ- globulin solution. An adsorption model was developed in order to seek the factors that determine the intrinsic (qualitative) adsorption and desorption rate constants. The experimental adsorption data was likened to a simple γ-globulin adsorption model, which comprises of adsorption and desorption processes. The model incorporated the rate of diffusion through the boundary (unstirred) layer of constant thickness by solving for the Fick's law. It was deduced that the intrinsic adsorption and desorption rate constants of γ- globulin could be defined as (empirical) exponential functions of the amount of γ-globulin onto Ti surf

Estimation of Cystiene Using Sodium Nitroprusside by a Newer Photochemical Method

Shailendra Singh Rathore, Ravi Sharma, Devendra Kadam and Ajay Sharma

  • Abstract

    A newer fast, convenient and inexpensive quantitative method for the determination of Cystiene using photochemical exchange reaction of sodium nitroprusside has been investigated. Sodium nitroprusside is a photolabile complex and it undergoes photochemical ligand exchange reactions rapidly. Some recent efforts have been made to utilise such reactions for the estimation of some sulphur containing anions and electron rich organic molecules. The progress of the reaction is observed spectrophotometrically. The effects of different parameters like pH, change of concentration of sodium nitroprusside, concentration of ligands, light intensity etc. on percentage error was investigated. The efforts were made to minimise the percentage error and some optimum conditions were obtained. Such reaction can be used for the determination of Cystiene in the range of millimoles to micromoles, hence it is important to know whether such estimations can be done successfully and that to with the desired accuracy.

Synthesis and antimicrobial study of novel 2, 3-diydro -4 (naphtho [2, 1-b] furan -2yl)-2-substitued [1, 5] benzothiazepines

Sanjeevan Gaikwad, Venkat Suryawanshi, Kishan Lohar

  • Abstract

    A series of novel substituted benzothiazepines derivatives were prepared from chalcone (2a-f) which was prepared from the reaction of 2-acetyl napthofuran (1) with 4-substituted aromatic aldehydes by Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction. Substituted chalcones (2a-f) was treated with 2-aminothiophenol and piperidine in presence of ethanol to give the corresponding benzothiazepine derivatives (3a-f). The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by their IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral analyses. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi

Review on modification of sulphated polysaccharide with special reference to chlorophycean seaweeds

Ajay Sharma, Hardik Bhatt and Gayatri Prasad

  • Abstract

    Modification of polysaccharides including the sulphated ones with special reference to chlorophycean seaweeds, commonly known as green seaweeds.. Polysaccharides have been proposed as the first biopolymers to have formed on earth1 Active research on the modification of the basic polysaccharide are under way in various labs to explore the possibility of application in newer fields such as in physicochemical, biochemical, biomedical and industrial applications Horton2; Aspinall3; Kotechkov4; Fang et al.5; Mormann and Michel6; Jerez et al.7). There are several reviews and research articles in the literature on the sulphated polysaccharides (Percival and McDowell8; Siddhanta and Shanmugam9; Siddhanta and Sai Krishna Murthy10; Siddhanta et al.11; Siddhanta et al.12; Shanmugam and Mody13) of which some are on chlorophycean seaweed polysaccharides (Siddhanta and Shanmugam9; Siddhanta et al.10; Lahaye et al.14; Lahaye et al.15). Modification of polysaccharides can also be done by chemical or physical means.

Physico - Chemical Characteristics of Dye Effluent & Ground Water Samples in Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India

T. Marimuthu, S.Rajendran , M. Manivannan, R. Nagalakshmi and N. Karthiga

  • Abstract

    Physico – Chemical Characteristic of the ground water quality at Chinnandankovil in Karur City, Tamil Nadu, India was carried out during September to November 2008. Two water samples from dye effluent industry and Eight Bore well water samples representing study area were collected and almost of all the samples values were within the permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) prescribed for drinking water standards pH 7.72 to 9.2, total dissolved solids (TDS) – 310 to 6850 mg/L , Electrical conductivity (EC) – 361 to 9800 micro mho/cm, phenolphthalein alkalinity (PA) range 20 to 130 mg/L,.

Solar Desalination Using Zinc Oxide as Photocatalyst

Manisha Sindal, Narendra Singh and Ajay Sharma

  • Abstract

    Water and energy are two of the most important topics on the international environment and development agenda. The social and economic health of the modern world depends on sustainable supply of both energy and water. Many areas worldwide that suffer from fresh water shortage are increasingly dependent on desalination as a highly reliable and non-conventional source of fresh water. So, desalination market has greatly expanded in recent decades and expected to continue in the coming years. The integration of renewable energy resources in desalination and water purification is becoming increasingly attractive. This is justified by the fact that areas of fresh water shortages have plenty of solar energy and these technologies have low operating and maintenance costs. The present paper contains the effect of photocatalyst like zinc oxide (ZnO), on the rate of production of distilled water and its quality was made and it was found that the rate of production of desalinated water increased to a remarkable extent. A comparative study of different parameters like pH, conductivity, concentration anions and cations, etc. was made between raw water and desalinated water under these condition.

Phase Transfer Catalysed Synthesis of Mixed Carboxylic- Sulphonic Anhydrides

Rajendra Mathur

  • Abstract

    Mixed carboxylic-sulphonic anhydrides have long been used for various synthetic applications. Synthesis of these mixed anhydrides can be brought about by combination of various simple organic reactions. However, conventional multistep organic synthesis as is commonly known to involve cumbersome recovery and purification processes. Moreover, use of different nature of substrate-reagents involves either heterogeneous reaction system or to use an appropriate solvent which is often responsible for very slow reaction progress. The study here reports phase transfer catalysts (PTC), well established catalysts to facilitate multi0phase reactions.

Evaluation of Selenium in Soils of Kogi State - Nigeria

A.D. Oklo, R. Sha’Ato & K. Asemave

  • Abstract

    Samples of Soils of Lower Benue river Basin Development Authority Project sites of Kogi States were obtained and their selenium status determined using UV Spectrophotometric method at 520 nm wavelengths. From the results, the range of the concentrations of selenium of these locations were; 0.071 – 0.904, 0.074 – 0.295, 0.011 – 0.172 for locations A, B and C respectively. On average the results were; 0.172, 0.131, 0.085 representing A, B and C respectively. Sample no. 9 of Oguma (A) location has high concentration of selenium (Se) that portends toxicity because it has concentration exceeding the standard level of 0.5mg/kg. And the rest were below the deficiency threshold of 0.15mg/kg in Lower Benue project sites in Oguma (Bassa L.G.A.), Kogi State. All the samples in Ejule – Ojebe location (B) were deficient in selenium except samples no. 1, 2 and 4. Lower Benue project sites in Kogi State, Ofarachi (Idah L.G.A.) location (C) have concentrations of selenium lower than the 0.15mg/kg except sample no. 3. In a nutshell, these soil samples analyzed indicated low levels of Se. This will have direct link to the bioavailability of selenium in the area.

Nature and effect of dye sensitizer in solar energ conversion and storage in Photogalvanic Cell: Brilliant Green - Ascorbic acid - ALES System

Syed Shadaab Nadeem, R.K. Gunsaria and Ram Narayan Meena

  • Abstract

    Solar energy conversion through Photogalvanic effect and its storage by using photogalvanic cell was studied in Brilliant Green - Ascorbic acid - ALES System. The ascorbic acid as a reductant, Brilliant Green as dye sensitizer and Ammonium Lauryl Ether Sulphate as surfactant in aqueous solution. The photopotential and photocurrent generated were 611.0 mV and 720.0 μA respectively. The observed power of the cell was 262.40 μW at its power point. The conversion efficiency and fill factor was determined as 2.52% and 0.29 respectively. The cell performance was 180.0 min. in dark. A mechanism for the Photogeneration of electricity has also been proposed. The effects of different parameters on the electrical output of the cell and current-voltage (i- V) characteristics of the cell were studied.

BF3- Etherate Mediated Cyclization Reaction of Cholecalceferol

Sultanat and M.Mushfiq

  • Abstract

    We have investigated the cyclisation behaviour of sterols such as cholecalciferol (1), cholecalciferol acetate (2) and cholecalciferol chloride (3) with BF3 – etherate using Diels- Alder reaction which provides direct access to the cyclized derivatives 4-6 in good to excellent yield. It presents a novel intramolecular reaction catalysed by boron trifluoride etherate and broadens the scope of application.The easy work-up, higher yields and shorter reaction time is the advantages of the method presented here

Cyclopeptide Alkaloids of Zizyphus Rugosa

Jagdish P. Singh, Siddarth Raghubanshi and AbhimanyuYadava

  • Abstract

    Threecyclopeptidealkaloids,Nummularine-M, Nummularine-N and Rugosanine- C has been isolated from the root bark Zizyphusrugosa and their structures were established by spectral avidences. This is the first report of Nummularine-M and Nummularine-N in Z.rugosa. Rugosanine-C is a new 14-membered cyclopeptide alkaloid.

Adsorption and Inhibitive Efficacy of Tamanu Oil Extract on Brass (Cu-40Zn) in acid media

P. Deepa Rani and S. Selvaraj

  • Abstract

    The inhibitive efficacy of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil on brass (Cu- 40Zn) in 1N Hydrochloric acid environment is carried out by using mass loss measurements. Experiments are performed by varying immersion period, inhibitor concentration and temperature. The value of corrosion rate is significantly reduced in addition of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil in acid media and compared with those in the inhibitor free solution. The inhibition efficiency is increased with increase of inhibitor concentration but decreased with rise in temperature and exposure time. Corrosion inhibition may be due to the spontaneous physical adsorption of the main active plant constituents on the surface of brass. Experimental data fitted with the Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherms. The corrosion product on the metal surface in the presence and absence of inhibitor is analysed by UV and FTIR spectral studies. The active complex formed on the metal surface in the presence of inhibitor is also confirmed by XRD studies.

Synthesis and Study of Complexation reaction of a newly synthesized Ligand ((E)-1-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4- phenylthiosemicabazide) with some Transition Metal Ions in Acetonitrile Solution

Naser Samadi and Marzie Ahari Salmasi

  • Abstract

    The synthesis and Complexation properties of a new substituted coumarin derivetive, towards certain transition metal ions, (M, where M = Ni, cd, Zn, Cu) in acetonitrile has been reported in this work. The stoichiometries of complexes were determined using UV- Visible spectroscopy studies. The stability constants of complexes were influenced by parameters such as the type of metal, ligand, counter ion or solvent. The formation constants of the complexes were determined for the synthesized ligand with several metallic cations, in acetonitrile solution by UV - Visible spectrometry.

Charge Transfer Complexes of Recently Synthesized Mixed AzaThia Crown Ether and Pyridine Based Mixed AzaThia Crown Ether with Iodine and DDQ in Chloroform Solution

Naser Samadia and Mahsa Rahimi Sadr

  • Abstract

    The interaction of two recently synthesized mixed azathia crown ether 1,7- dithia–10-aza-12-crown-4, and pyridine based mixed azathia crown ether with iodine and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) have been examined in chloroform. Thermodynamics of these reactions are studied spectrophotometrically, and the formation of both 1:1 and 2:1 ([L]/[I2]) and [L]/[DDQ] complexes with iodine and DDQ was established. The complex formation constants Kf were determined by computer fitting of the absorbance-mol ratios data. Formation of the CT complexes of macrocycles with iodine and DDQ was confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopies.

Gravimetric estimation of Zinc as Tetrammine Zinc (II) Tetraisotniocyanatodianilinechromte(III)

S.Jamal Haider Zaidi

  • Abstract

    Gravimetric estimation of Zn in presence of other cations and anions can be carried out by precipating it as tetreisothioyantodiamiline chromate (II).