Vol. 4 & Issue 2 ; Section A : Chemical Sciences

Date : Feb. to Apr.2014


Studies on Caffeine Content in Various Tea Samples: A Case Study from Kerala

Neenu Treasa Thomas, Anju George, Jiby John Mathew, Sajesh kumar N. K and Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

  • Abstract

    Caffeine popularly used in used in beverages and drugs where too much usages leads to health problems. The caffeine content among tea varies widely from the type of the tea as well as method of preparation. The objective of the study was to determine the caffeine content among five different types of tea including the two different brands. The samples includes sample 1 (organic black tea), sample 2 (green tea), sample 3 (Kanan Devan tea), sample 4 (vanilla tea) and sample 5 (Lipton tea).The caffeine content was determined using lead acetate and the subsequent extraction with ether. The moisture content ranged from 6.5 ± 0.3 to 7.5 ± 0.6 among various samples. Sample 4 has the highest ash content (7.1 ± 0.3) while sample 3 possess least (5.5 ± 0.6) among all samples. The organic black tea samples contain less amount of caffeine. The highest amount of caffeine was observed in sample 3 which has a concentration of 0.05 ± 0.008. The present in vitro investigation results shows organic tea has the least caffeine content. The study also pinpoints the indication of caffeine content in tea packets for the better selection of the products for the consumers

Seasonal Changes on Heavy Metal Contamination in the Water Samples of Selected Temple Tanks in Kanyakumari District, South India

P. Maria Pushpam, V. Umayoru Bhagan and G. Immanuel

  • Abstract

    The objective of the present study is to reveal the seasonal variation on heavy metal contamination in the water samples of selected temple tanks of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, South India. To get the extent of heavy metal contamination, water samples were periodically collected from ten different temple tanks every month for a period of one year (January 2009 to December 2009). The collected water samples were immediately acid digested in the laboratory and the concentration of the heavy metals such as iron, copper, zinc, manganese and lead were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The data obtained in every month were pooled and presented as seasonal data viz., premonsoon, South-West monsoon and North-East monsoon. The maximum mean concentration of iron (0.463ppm), copper (0.105ppm) and lead (0.221ppm) were observed during premonsoon season. But zinc (0.026ppm) and manganese (0.091ppm) exhibited their maximum value during North-East monsoon season. All the trace metals possess concentration above the permissible limit of IS: 10500 – 1991 and WHO, except zinc and manganese during the study period. The concentration of the metals followed with the sequence: iron > lead > copper > manganese > zinc.

Development of Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Cu (II) Ion using Ethambutol Hydrochloride Drug as an Analytical Reagent

B. K. Magare, A.R. Mehetre, B. K. Magar, V.N. Bhosale

  • Abstract

    A simple, selective and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed to determine micro concentration of copper from different samples by using ethambutol hydrochloride drug as an analytical reagent. The complex is stable up to 48 hrs. Then absorption is maximum at 625 nm and 9.28 pH. Beer‘s law is obeyed in the range of (8.0- 40.0) × 10-5 M. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity values were 1.875x102L/mol-1cm-1 and 1.4162μg/cm-2 respectively.

Synthesis of Closantel as Effective Reaction Media for Hydrotropes

Jagannath J. Kadam, K.George , R.S.Dhamnaskar and Manohar V Lokhande

  • Abstract

    The paper describes the synthesis of Closantel. . It is used as an anthelmintic i.e. an agent that destroys or causes the expulsion of parasitic intestinal worms so it is used as Anti-worm drug. The synthesis of Closantel was carried out using four different hydrotropes. The effect of various hydrotropes on yield, rate constant and activation energy at various temperatures and concentrations are studied.

Transition Metal Complexes using pH – metric study

Ayesha Durrani & Megha Jadhav

  • Abstract

    pH-metric study has been used for simultaneous equilibrium of metal ion with different ligands such Leucine, cystein, glycine & tyrosine. P-amino benzoic acid is used as a primary ligand where as other are used as secondary ligand in ternary complexes. The ionic strength was maintained i.e. 1.0m NaClO4 and complex formation was observed. The results were computed using SCOGS software program

Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of Mixed Ligand Complexes of Zn (II) and Mn (II) With SalicylaldehydeIsonicotinic Acid Hydrazone and Hetercyclic Base

Bharti Jain, Meena Verma & Suman Malik

  • Abstract

    The mixed ligand complexes of Zn (II) and Mn (II) with schiff base derived fromisonicotinic acid hydrazideandheterocylic base pyridine have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, magnetic moment, Conductance and thermogravimetric analysis. The complexes are colored and stable in air, having the general formula M (L) B.X [metal: Ligand: base.H2O]. The thermal behavior of complexes show that the hydrated complexes lose molecule of water first, followed by decomposition of ligand molecules in subsequent steps. The ligand and its complexes have also been tested for their antimicrobial behavior against various microorganisms and all complexes show a good activity.

Influence of Al3+ on Corrosion Inhibition of Trisodium Citrate

N.Vijaya, A. Peter Pascal Regis, S. Rajendran, M. Pandiarajan

  • Abstract

    The inhibition efficiency of trisodium citrate (TSC) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in well water in the absence of Al3+ has been evaluated by weight loss method. In presence of Al3+ Corrosion inhibition efficiency of TSC increases. A synergistic effect in observed between TSC and Al3+. This effect is more pronounced in presence of 50 ppm of Al3+ than in presence of 25 ppm of Al3+ .This is supported by synergism parameter values. Polarization study reveals that TSC-Al3+ system control the cathodic reaction predominantly. It also indicates that formation of a protective film on a metal surface. The protective film has been analysed by FTIR spectra. FTIR spectra reveal that the protection film consists of Fe2+ - TSC complex, Al3+ -TSC complex and Al (OH)3.

Experimental Study on Recovery of Copper from Electronic Waste by Electrolytic Process

Arensen Aier, D.Prabhakaran and T.Kannadasan

  • Abstract

    As we know the growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is growing enormously day by day in today’s world. Several studies are undergone for the recovery of various metals and non-metals through different process. Here in this paper a case study of recovery of copper from waste electronic waste (PCB’s) has been done by using an electrolytic process. Where in two major steps involved i.e. dissolution of metals and recovery of copper by electro deposition. With the help of laboratory setup reactor waste PCB’s were crushed, reduced in size through some preliminary treatment and was allowed to react with Conc. Nitric acid and water with a certain proportion. Where in this for dissolution process graphite rod was used as anode and a stainless steel plate was used as cathode. Dissolution was done for certain period of time and feed was taken out, dried and weighed to see the amount of metal dissolved in the solution. Next for the copper recovery the cathode electrode was replaced by a copper plate and copper recovery by electro deposition was preceded. At several intervals the copper plate was taken out and weighed to see the amount of copper deposited. In this way copper is recovered and ensures eco-friendly during the experiment, convenient and recover the metal values almost quantitatively.

Corrosion Inhibition and Biocidal Activity of Carbon Steel in Neutral Aqueous Medium

B. Balanaga Karthik, P. Selvakumar and C.Thangavelu

  • Abstract

    Weight-loss method, FT-IR were used to study inhibition efficiency in presence and absence of Zn2+ using {diethylenetriamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid)}(DTPMP) as corrosion inhibitor for Carbon steel in 60 ppm Cl-. The weight-loss method gives about the idea of corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency. The blank system that is 60 ppm Cl- gives high corrosion. If 60 ppm Cl- + 25 ppm TSC + 50 ppm DTPMP with 10 ppm of Zn2+ used as the inhibitor, which gives the maximum inhibition efficiency of 87%. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the protective film formed on the metal surface. The influence of immersion period and pH has been studied. As the immersion period increases the inhibition efficiency decreases by the continuous attack of chloride ion. pH influence the inhibition efficiency of inhibitor, as the pH increases the inhibition efficiency also increases and corrosion rate decreases. Biocide used for this study is N-Cetyl- N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which gives the 100% Biocidal efficiency. As the concentration of biocide increases the inhibition efficiency also increases and also it reduces the concentration of Zn2+ used for the formulation. The suitable mechanism was proposed to the corrosion inhibition for the above said inhibitor formulation.

Corrosion Inhibition Study of Stainless Steel in DTPMP – SG by Acidic Environment

P. Selvakumar, B. Balanaga Karthik, and C. Thangavelu

  • Abstract

    Gravimetric method is used to study the temperature effects on stainless steel corrosion in 0.5M H2SO4 solutions in the absence and presence of diethylenetriaminepenta (methylene phosphonic acid) (DTPMP) and sodium gluconate (SG). The combined inhibition efficiency offers 200 ppm DTPMP and 100 ppm SG is 91%. The synergistic effect of the inhibiting compound is calculated. The negative values of (ΔGads) in the acid media ensure the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the stainless steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm and occurs spontaneously. The thermodynamic parameters of activation energy are calculated. These thermodynamic parameters show strong interaction between inhibitor molecules and stainless steel surface.

Synthesis Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Bis-Azo Dye Containing Coordination Polymers

Hemang M. Shukla

  • Abstract

    Novel bis ligand namely 2,2'-(4,4'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(diazene-2,1-diyl))bis(4,1- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dibenzoic acid(EDAL) has been prepared and characterized. The coordination polymers based on this bis ligand with transition metal ions like Cu+2,Co+2,Ni+2,Mn+2and Zn+2 were prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, infrared spectra, electronic spectra, magnetic measurements and thermogravimetric analyses. All the coordination polymers are insoluble in acetone, ethanol, chloroform, methanol, benzene, DMF and DMSO. All the novel synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Metal Complexes of First Generation Sulfonylurea Antidiabetic Drug Chlorpropamide: Synthesis, Structural and Biological Evaluation.

Shruti S. Sarwade, W.N. Jadhav and B.C. Khade

  • Abstract

    Novel complexes of Mn (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) with chlorpropamide [4- chloro-N-(propylcarbamoyl) benzene sulfonamide], have been synthesized and characterized using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, melting point, elemental analysis and conductivity measurements. From the elemental analyses data, the complexes are proposed to have the general formula [(C10H13ClN2O3S)2 Cl2 M], M=Mn (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal complexes are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that chlorpropamide is co-ordinated to the metal ions in neutral bidentate manner with sulfonyl oxygen and enolic oxygen. From the magnetic data and electronic spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral. Antibacterial screening of the complexes were found to have varied degree of inhibitory effect against the bacteria.

A Review of Computer Software for Innovative Chemical Structure Drawing and Spectra Prediction

Manish Kaushik

  • Abstract

    In recent years there has been an increasing research emphasis on complex macromolecular systems. These include polymers and coordination compounds with precise control of structures, multicomponent systems with higher degrees of organization, they involved in confined environments, nanochemistry and nanostructures, biopolymers and bio-inspired chemistry. Successful Spectroscopic studies of these complexes require judicious applications of existing techniques and development of new or improved strategies and methodologies. In this article various Chemical drawing and Spectra prediction computer software are compared and analyzed for their role in research in complex macromolecular systems. We have compared various software like Accelrys (Symyx) Draw, ChemDraw (ChemBioDraw), DrawIt, ChemSketch, ChemDoodle, Chemistry 4-D Draw, MarvinSketch and MestreNova NMR Predict

Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic- Anoxic Conditions 1: Reactivity and Removal Kinetics

D.E. Egirani1, J.E. Andrews2, A.R. Baker2
  • Abstract

    This study investigates the reactivity and removal kinetics of mercury on single and mixed mineral systems from aqueous solution, injected with iron sulfide under sulfidicanoxic condition. The sorbents used were iron sulfide, kaolinite, montmorillonite, goethite, and their mixtures. The effects of, proton coefficient, and sorption kinetics were studied in batch mode at room temperature (23 ± 2 ◦C). Reactivity studies reveal that proton coefficient of single mineral systems are greater than one, thus indicating that the presence of thiol (≡S-H) and hydroxyl (≡Me-OH) functional groups and reactive sites enhances high level of protonation during the reaction process. Kinetic studies demonstrate two- phase reactions attributed to outer sphere complexation and inner sphere complexation. Differences exist in sorption kinetics between the single and mixed mineral phases and may be attributed to differences in the BET surface area of these mineral systems. Differences between actual and theoretical sorption is complex over time, thus exhibiting differential reaction pattern for the mixed mineral systems.

Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic- Anoxic Condition II. The Role of Solution Composition and Ageing

D.E. Egirani, J.E. Andrews, A.R. Baker

  • Abstract

    This study investigates Hg (II) removal onto binary mixed mineral sorbents injected with iron sulfide under sulfidic-anoxic condition relevant to mercury contaminated water impacted environment. Batch mode studies at room temperature investigated the effects of solution composition and ageing. Variability in Hg(II) sorption exist over the range of pH investigated, exhibiting linear sorption for iron sulfide and some of the mixed mineral systems, Also, changes in Hg(II) sorption as particle concentration (Cp) increased exist, with iron sulfide and some mixed mineral systems exhibiting a linear decrease in Hg(II) sorption as Cp increases. All single and mixed mineral systems exhibit a near linear decrease in Hg(II) sorption over the range of residence time investigated .Hg(II) step-wise sorption probably indicates reaction phases attributed to outer sphere, inner sphere complexation and intra-particle diffusion.

Characterization of Electronic Spectral Parameters of Er (III) ion with Therapeutically Important Ligands in DMSO Solvent

Annu Bajaj, Sushma Jain, Samata Jain, Ramesh Dedar

  • Abstract

    Er(III) systems with therauptically important ligands viz. Ascorbic Acid, Nicotinic Acid, Niacinamide, Dapsone, Neomycin Sulphate, para Amino benzoic were prepared on doped model pattern in DMSO solvent and examined for metal- Ligand interaction on the basis of electronic spectral parameters, (oscillator strength (P),Judd- Ofelt parameters (T2, T4, T6, T4/ T6), Nephelauxetic Ratio (β), Bonding Parameter (b1/2), Sinha’s covalency parameter (δ%), Covalency angular overlap parameter( η).The change in symmetry around Er(III) ion and M-L interaction are discussed.

Synthesis and Characterization of Unsymmetrical Tetraarylstibonium Pseudohalides

S.Jamal Haider Zaidi, Kiran Singal and Prem Raj

  • Abstract

    Several hitherto unreported unsymmetrical tetraorganostibonium pseudohalides of general formula R3R´SbX(X=NCS, N3 and SeCN); R=R, C6H5, C6F5; R'— C2H5, C8H17, C6H5, C6F5 have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, molecular weight, IR and NMR spectral data. The IR studies indicate presence of covalently bonded linear azide group (-N=N=N-) where NCS and SeCN are nitrogen bonded to the antimony atom.

Tricyclohexyl Antimony (V) Dicarboxylates

S.Jamal Haider Zaidi and Prem Raj

  • Abstract

    A series of tricyclohexyl antimony dicarboxylates of acetic acid, phenyl acetic, cinnamic monochloro and trichloro acetic acids have been prepared by two different routes to afford compounds of the type (C6H11)3SbX2Cx = substituted carboxylate variety. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, melting point an IR spectroscopy.