Vol. 5 & Issue 1 ; Section A : Chemical Sciences

Date : Nov.2014 to Jan.2015


Microbiological and chemical compositions of agbarati and ogiri Igbo, popular foods of south eastern Nigerians

S. Oranusi, I. J. Okereke, B. Wesley and S.I. Okorondu

  • Abstract

    The microbial and chemical compositions of two indigenous foods of South eastern Nigeria were investigated. The TAPC of ogiri Igbo ranged from 1.2 x 1010 to 2.4 x1011cfu/g, the coliform count was 2.8 x 102 to 7.0 x 106cfu/g, and fungal count was 1.0 x 108 to 3.3 x 1011cfu/g. Agbarati had a TAPC of 1.1 x 109 to 1.2 x 1011cfu/g, coliform count of 3.9 x 105 to 2.7 x 106cfu/g, and fungal count of 1.9 x 107 to 2.4 x 107cfu/g. Species of Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Saccharomyces were prevalent in the samples. The chemical analysis of the food samples indicated the presence of saponin, tannin, alkaloid, flavonoid, oxalate and cyanide in varied amounts. The nutritional analysis revealed that agbarati and ogiri had moisture contents of 11.40 and 36.12%, Fat contents of 39.10 and 30.24 %, Fiber contents of 2.91 and 3.65%, Protein contents of 29.63 and 12.75%, Ash contents of 4.25 and 1.62% and Carbohydrate contents of 12.71 and 15.62, respectively. These traditional foods are good sources of nutrients however, their microbial loads above 106 tolerant limits and the presence of coliforms calls for concern, adequate hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) measure and effective good manufacturing

Synthesis of Arylmethylene-Butanimides and Butenamides and Evaluation of their Biological Activity

Eman Mansour ABASS*

  • Abstract

    Condensation of 2-[methyl (4-methylphenyl) methylene]butandioic anhydride1 (1) with different hydrazines, semicarbazide or different amines at different temperature in different solvents gives arylmethylenebutanimides and butenamides derivatives (2-16).Some of the products showed biological activity.

Studies in Acoustical Properties of Subsitituted Thiopyrimidines Drugs In 70% (DMF–Water) Mixture

M. P. Wadekar, A. S. Shrirao, R. R. Tayade

  • Abstract

    The study of interaction between solute-solute and solute-solvent interaction of substituted thiopyrimidines in 70% (DMF+water) solvents by measuring ultrasonic velocity and density in different concentration of solute in the range (1x10-2M to 6x10-4M) in 70% solvent has done. In the present investigation, different acoustical parameters, such as ultrasonic velocity (U), adiabatic compressibility (βs), partial molal volume (φv), apparent molal compressibility (φκ), solvation number (Sn) of substituted thiopyrimidines in 70% DMF+water mixture at 300K have been studied. With the help of experimental data, the effect of concentration of solute on different acoustical parameters in DMF-water mixtures at a constant temperature and deviation of acoustical parameter from the ideality has been studied.

Electronic Spectral Studies of Pr (III) Nucleotide Complexes

Kiran Girdhar Chaudhari

  • Abstract

    The 4f-4f transition spectra has been used as tool to elucidate the coordination of mixed ligand complexes of praseodymium [PrCl3(H2O)7], with Adenosine monophosphate [C10H14N5O7P], Adenosine diphosphate [C10H15N5O10P2] and Adenosine triphosphate [C10H16N5O13P3] study of their complexes Using comparative absorption spectroscopy involving 4ƒ-4ƒ transitions in various solvents, like distilled water The change in coordination sphere in water was observed. The 4ƒ-4ƒ transition spectra yield sharp bands which were analyzed individually by Gaussian curve analysis, the energy interaction parameters (FK,EK), Lande spin orbit coupling (ξ4f), nephelauxetic ratio (β), bonding parameter (b1/2), percent covalency (δ), oscillator strength were calculated and the Judd-Oflet intensity parameters of 4f-4f transition have been computed on computer using partial multiple regression analysis.

Assessment of Ascorbic Acid Values of Fresh, Shade and Sun-Dried Vegetables

Muhammad Ismail*, Beena Abbas, Manzoor Hussain

  • Abstract

    Green leafy vegetables are rich and suitable source of micronutrients and vitamins. The utilization of most of the vegetables is limited in the backward areas and villages due to lack of information and knowledge of its nutritive importance. In addition to this, the local inhabitants of Gilgit-Baltistan (G-B) are used to store most of the vegetables in summer by drying them for winter season because of unavailability of fresh vegetables during off-season due to harsh and severe weather conditions. This study amid to quantify the ascorbic acid (AA) contents of fresh, sun-dried and shade-dried samples of rape mustard: Brassica rapa-sylvestris, common mallow: Malva sylvestris and fenugreek: Trigonella Foenum-graecums (26.24, 6.40, and 18.40 mg/100g, respectively) by iodometry. The percent retention and loss of AA contents of sun-dried and shade-dried sample were analyzed with respect to the fresh vegetables. It was found that the sun drying caused the loss of AA more than the shade drying in all analyzed vegetables from 77.79, 21.79% in B. rapa-sylvestris; 70.51, 50.83% in M. sylvestris, and 76.08, 54.34% in T. Foenum-graecums for sun-dried and shade dried, respectively. This shows that the dried vegetables are inadequate in order to obtain recommended AA allowance daily. Therefore, it is recommended that the local community should use either fresh or shade dried vegetables as food at non-production season and encouraged the increased consumption of these vegetables to avoid many physiological disorders related to the deficiency of ascorbic acid.

QSAR modelling of the antimalarial activity of diverse set of compounds for NF54 strain of P. falciparum

Vandana Khatod, C.D. Asthana, D. Thakur, B. Shaik, S. Thakur

  • Abstract

    In this paper a data set based on the NF54 strains of P. falciparum consisting of 69 organic compounds has been taken to model the antimalarial activity using topological parameters. The data set was divided into test and training sets. The best model is found to be a five-parametric model with R2 = 0.9067. The model was tested using cross validation parameters.

Co – adsorption behaviour of green additive in potable water system

R. Sudhakaran, M. Sekar, C. Thangavelu, T. Asokan and T. Kasilingam

  • Abstract

    The inhibition performance of trisodium citrate and its co-adsorption behaviour with zinc ion on mild steel in potable water system was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that the formulation acted as a mixed type inhibitor. A synergistic effect was also observed for the studied inhibitor with Zn2+. Adsorption of used inhibitor lead to a decrease in the double layer capacitance and an increase in the charge transfer resistance from impedance measurements. A protective layer confirmed by SEM and EDX.

Antimicrobial screening of synthesized novel schiff bases containing 2-mercapto benzothiazole

Jayesh Maru, G.R.Patel, Rakesh Yadav

  • Abstract

    Novel Schiff bases are compounds in which the carbonyl group is replaced by an imine or azomethine group were synthesis by author. The intermediates were prepared by using 2-mercapto benzothiazole with N-(4-Acetyl-phenyl)-3-chloro-propionamide acetone solvent in presence of K2CO3. The Resulted product was further treated with different substituted of acid hydrazide in 1,4-dioxane to yield the titled compounds using catalytic amount of acid. New products were examined for their antibacterial effects against two Gram-positive (S. aureus and E.faecalis) and two Gram-nagative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) strains and were highly potent with lowest MIC Values 1-4μg ml- , more potent than control drugs ciprofloxacin (31.25-62.5 μg ml- ). The structural assignments of the new products were done on the basis of FT-IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis.

Refractometric Study of Substituted Thiopyrimidines in Different Binary Mixture

M. P. Wadekar, A. S. Shrirao, R. R. Tayade

  • Abstract

    Molar refraction (Rm) and polarizability constant (α) of some different substituted thiopyrimidine drugs have been investigated by measuring the densities and refractive index of solution of different percent composition in binary mixture. It could be seen that molar refraction and polarizability constant of substituted thiopyrimidine drugs increases with increase in percent composition of organic solvents. This data have been used to determine solute-solute, solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions in the system.

One Pot Synthesis of Thiazole by Using TBAB Catalyst

Vijay V Dabholkar, Mustaqeem Mohammed A, Navnath B.Shinde, Omprakash G .Yadav

  • Abstract

    Acid chloride (2) was synthesized from (1) on reaction with thionyl chloride, which further converted to respective thiourea derivatives (3) by action of ammonium isothiocyanate & aromatic primary amine. Further condensation of (3) with Phenacyl bromide yields targeted thiazole derivatives (4). The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral techniques as well as physicochemical test. Representative samples were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

Synthesis, Characterization and Structural Modification of Poly(epichlorohydrin) and Poly(1,4-dioxane)

B. Meenarathi, S. Sahana, J. Chella, R. Priya, M. Udaya, K. Bahavathiraja, M. Sankar, L. Kannammal, S. Palanikumar, R. Anbarasan

  • Abstract

    Ring opening polymerization (ROP) of epichlorohydrin (ECH) and 1,4-dioxane (DO) were carried out in the presence of acrylicacid (AA) as an initiator under nitrogen atmosphere at 45oC separately. Thus obtained polymers were further modified by poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene) (PS). The di and triblock copolymer/Ag nanocomposites were prepared and characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), particle size analysis (PSA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential measurement and gel permeation chromatography (PC) like analytical techniques. The antibacterial property of the polymer sample was tested against e-coli. The results were critically compared.

Theoretical Approach of the Binary Complexation of Hg(II)with 2,4-D, MCPA and MCPP

Habiba ELJAZOULI , Mohamed LAABD  and Abdallah ALBOURINE

  • Abstract

    The experimental study of the binary complexation of phenoxy-acetic acids 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), MCPA (Chloro-MethylPhenoxy acetic acid) and MCPP (Chloro-MethylPhenoxy-Propionic Acid) with mercuric ion Hg(II) has been completed by the characterization of the different ligands using a quantum computationsystem based on a semi-empirical method Austin Model 1 (AM1) . This review covers electronic, structural and energy aspects. We found that a more stable complexes are those with two ligands : L2Hg(H2O)2, L2Hg(OH)2 and L2Hg(OH)(H2O) (LH : 2,4-D ; MCPA ; MCPP) and on the other hand the donor effect of substituent R in α of carboxyl group increases the stability of the complexes in passing from 2,4–D towards MCPA and MCPP and thereafter the chelating power of these ligands vis-à-vis the Hg (II) ion obeys , in agreement with the experiment, with the following order : MCPP > MCPA > 2,4-D Furthermore, the rigidity of the formed coordinate-covalent bond (formerly known as the dative bond, now obsolete) : metal-ligand moving in the same direction as that of the capacity of the three herbicides complexed Hg(II) and consequently they are complexes formed with MCPP which are more difficult to degrade and eventually more harmfull to the environment.

The effect of protonation of a substrate,on a catalytic mechanism of Nicotinate-dehydrogenase

Sofani Tafesse Gebreyesus, AliMohammed Yimer and Masood Akhtar Khan

  • Abstract

    The active site of Nicotinate Dehydrogenase is somewhat similar to xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) except the equatorial sulfido group in Xanthine oxidase is replaced by sellenido group in Nicotinate Dehydrogenase. In addition, the two enzymes were reported to vary in the binding pocket amino acid residue composition. Modeling the substrate binding step using acetaldehyde as a substrate and active site terminal containing selenium in the place of sulfido terminal is mechanistically important. In order to probe the oxidation of acetaldehyde by molybdenium hydroxylases, Density functional theory with B3LYP level theory has been applied. Initially, a linear transit calculation is applied to obtain transition state structures. The exact positions of transition state structure was proved by maximum energy, inflection point in Mulliken charge profile and single negative frequency. Protonation of the carbonyl oxygen of acetaldehyde in the complexes resulted in stabilization of the transition state by around 420 kcal. But it retarded the way of dissociation of the transition state structure towards product bound complex, which was confirmed by decreased electron density and negative Mulliken charge on Hacetaldehyde along its waytowards the terminals of the active sites, low extent Mo-Oeq elongation profile, low extent of Oeq-Cacetaldehyde shortening and higher frequency

Phytochemical Investigation of Conical Prickles On The Stem Bark (Petroleum Ether Extract) Of

Zanthoxylum Rhetsa 

Dr Mity Thambi

  • Abstract

    Zanthoxylum rhetsa commonly called Mullilam is a lofty, deciduous tree with pale corky bark covered with conical prickles on stems and branches. It is commonly found in the evergreen monsoon forests of the foothills of Assam and Meghalaya and in the Eastern and Western Ghats in peninsular India. The petroleum ether extract from Zanthoxylum rhetsa was analyzed by GC-MS. Out of the compounds identified long chain aliphatic esters were dominated. The compounds present in this fraction found to possess diverse biological properties from different plant origin.

Histopathology of Mast Cells De-Granulation Inhibitory Activity of Bacopa monniera (L) BM-2 Fraction in Albino Rats

Pragya Bharadwaj, Charanjeet Kaur, D.K. Jain1 and Kapil K. Soni

  • Abstract

    In the present study, inhibition of mast cell de-granulation activity was evaluated using active fraction (BM-2) of Bacopa monniera in anaphylactic Wister albino rats. Rats of group I was served as control which was neither sensitized nor treated but sacrificed for the estimation of mast cells which were found 88.64±0.17% intact and 11.36±0.20% de-granulated. The sensitized group II showed 13.76±0.89% intact mast cells and 86.22±0.89% de-granulated mast cells. In the rats of group III which was treated with the fraction of Bacopa monniera extract (BM-2), by giving doses 50mg/kg body weight orally with Acacia gum to the rats group, the de-granulation of mast cells were found 28.45±0.61% and intact mast cells were found 71.53±0.62%. When the 100 mg/kg b.w. of Bacopa extract was given orally to rats, the de-granulation of mast cells were found 23.63±0.42% and intact mast cells were found to be 76.35±0.42%. Besides this, when these doses were compared with the dose of standard/reference drug dexamethasone 10 mg/kg/body weight, it was observed that the de-granulation of mast cells was found to be 20.63±0.53% and intact mast cells was found to be 79.35±0.53%. It appears that the de-granulation of mast cells is quite dosed dependent. It is inverselyproportional to the doses, as the doses increases, the de-granulation of mast cellsdecreases. The results when compared to the control seem to be quite significant at the rate of p < 0.001%.

Degradation of Congo red Using Fe-Loaded Montmorillonite Clay as a Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Catalyst

Indubala Kapoor and Sanyogita Sharma

  • Abstract

    Heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of Congo red over Fe-loaded montmorillonite in the presence of light has been carried out. The progress of reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of some parameters such as pH, dye concentration, amount of Fe-loaded montmorillonite, light intensity etc. has been studied.Kinetic studies shows that this reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics. A tentative mechanism for heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of Congo red has also been proposed.

Photocatalytic Activity of Lead-Chromate for Degradation of Acridine Orange

Anjana Rawal, Rakshit Ameta, Neelam Kunwar and Ritu Vyas

  • Abstract

    In the present study, the photocatalytic degradation of Acridine orange was studied in presence of semiconductor leadchromate. The progress of the reaction was observed spectrophotometrically at 490 nm. The effect of various operating variables like pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity on the rate of degradation was observed. A tentative mechanism has also been proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of dye.

Thermal Study and X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Ti(IV),Zr(IV), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Complexes with 3-(2-Hydroxy-5-methyl-phenylimino)-1, 3-dihydro-indol-2-one

Suraj B.Ade, Nana V. Shitole and S.M. Lonkar

  • Abstract

    3-(2-Hydroxy-5-methyl-phenylimino)-1, 3-dihydro-indol-2-one with used to synthesize Ti(IV), Zr(IV), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes. Metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Visible, Infra-red, TGA/DSC and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stabilities of these metal complexes were investigated by simultaneous TGA and DSC methods. The decomposition steps and thermal behaviour of metal complexes was investigated. The crystal structure of complexes was further determined by X-ray diffraction method. The XRD data was used to index the compound for orthorhombic and monoclinic system

Nutritional evaluation, phytoconstituents analysis and biological activity of the parasitic plant Orobanche crenata

Shereen A. Nada and Ghadir A. El-Chaghaby

  • Abstract

    Many holoparasitic plants such as Orobanche crenata are usually unexplored for their beneficial use. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value, phytochemical components and bioactivity of Orobanche crenata extracts. The proximate and nutritional analysis results showed that Orobanche plant can serve as a good source of nutrients. The plant was found to contain low moisture level (<8%), good amount of protein (7.3%), ash content (9.20 -10.10%), crude fiber (22.07- 23.48%) and nutritive value 244-247 Kcal/100g plant dry weight. The total antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Orobanche crenata was found to be 560 - 618 mgAE/g extract. The amount of total phenolic content in Orobanche was found to be 734-791 GAE/g extract. The GC/MS analysis of Orobanche samples revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds in the plant which may contribute to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The extracts were also found to exhibit moderate antibacterial effect against three Gram positive and three Gram negative bacteria. The results of acute lethal toxicity test showed that Orobanche extract is safe up to 8g/Kg body weight with no mortalities. In conclusion, the results of the present study implied that Orobanche crenata collected from infested Faba bean fields could be investigated as potential source of nutrients, antioxidants and antibacterial compounds that allows it to be used in food preservation.