Vol. 5 & Issue 4 ; Section A : Chemical Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2015


Removal of Methylene Red from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Technique

J. Lakshmi Jayanthi, D. Kamalakar, S. Feroz and L. Nageswara Rao

  • Abstract

    The objective of this work is the study of adsorption of dye solution methylene red using low cost adsorbent like neem leaf powder. Batch adsorption studies are carried out by observing the effect of experimental parameters, namely amount of adsorbents, dye concentration and contact time. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of dye before and after adsorption. The equilibrium time was found to be 50 min for 75 mg/L dye concentration. A maximum removal of 50% was obtained for an adsorbent dose of 0.05 gm at 75 mg/L dye concentration. The results can be used for determination of optimum conditions for adsorption of dye in aqueous solutions.

The Relationship in the Lipid Composition in Raw, Steeped and Germinated Wheat (Triticum durum) Grains

Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye, Adeolu Jonathan Adesina, Adeyinka Olubunmi Fasakin, Olubunmi Adenike Akinwumi

  • Abstract

    This study is aimed to isolate and analyse the lipids of wheat (Triticum durum) processed in various ways as raw, steeped and germinated grains. The total lipid (g/100 g), total fatty acid g/100 g and energy (kJ/100 g) were all low at respective values of 1.80-1.95, 1.30-1.40 and 48.0-51.9. Saturated fatty acid ranged from 35.6-36.0 %. Total unsaturated fatty acid values ranged from 64.0-64.4 %. The major contributor to the total SFA in the samples was C16:0 which ranged from 33.1-34.8 % in the total fatty acid composition or 93.0-96.9 % in the SFA only; major contributors to the total MUFA were C18:1 cis-6 (6.22-8.59 % total FA) and C18:1 cis-9 (6.28-8.12 % total FA) or 47.5-49.4 % (of total MUFA) respectively. Major contributor to n-3 PUFA was C18:3 (cis-9,12,15) ranging from 2.18-2.33 % (total FA) and 84.7-91.3 % (total n-3 PUFA); for n-6 PUFA, major contributors were C18:2 (cis-9,12) with values range of 40.7-43.5 % (total FA) and C18:3 (cis-6,9,12) with values of 2.39-3.72 % (total FA) or 89.6-92.1 % (of total n-6 PUFA) and 5.41-7.90 % (of total n-6 PUFA) respectively. Phospholipid levels were high at values range of 1234-1382 mg/100 g with phosphatidylethanolamine (302-369 mg/100 g or 24.5-26.7 %) and phosphatidylinositol (571-611 mg/100 g or 44.2-46.7 %) predominating. Cholesterol level was in traces in the samples: 0.00-2.05 e-2 mg/100 g range. Total sterol ranged from 325-368 mg/100 g being contributed majorly by sitosterol (235-275 mg/100 g or 72.3-77.0 %) and campesterol (58.4-68.7 mg/100 g or 16.4-18.6 %).On statistical comparisons between raw/steeped and raw/germinated grains, significant differences were observed for total fatty acids, fatty acids as food, energy, per cent energy, phospholipids, sterols and other fatty acids quality parameters. 

Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial activity of NewBinary Metal Complexes Derived from Amino Sulfo-Naphthalene Ligand.

Abdou Saad El-Tabl, Moshira Mohamed Abd-El Wahed, Mohammed Ahmed Wahba,Reham Wagdy Farid1, Shaimaa Mohammed Fahim Hashim.

  • Abstract

    New binary metal (II) complexes derived from amino sulfo-naphthalene ligand were prepared. The ligand and the metal complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, electronic, 1H-NMR, and mass spectral studies. Structural and spectroscopic properties revealed that the ligand adopted a tridentate fashion, while the metal complexes adopted a tetragonal distorted octahedral geometry around metal ions. All the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature as suggested by molar conductance measurements. Infrared spectral data indicate the coordination between ligand and central metal ion through a phenolic OH, one-imine nitrogen, one oxime-nitrogen atoms forming five-membered rings including the metal ions. The compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus funigatus, Streptococcs pneumoniae, Bacillis subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas coli and candida albicans. Neither the ligand nor its metal complexes recorded antimicrobial activity against neither Pseudomonas coli nor Candida albicans. On the other hand all compounds including the ligand showed high activity against Aspergillus funigatus,
    Streptococcs pneumoniae, Bacillis subtilis, and Escherichia coli. 

A Green facile synthesis and characterization of 2, 3-dihydroxy-1, 4-napthoquinone

Shrikaant Kulkarni, Sunil Jadhav and Shujat Quadri

  • Abstract

    Green synthesis is preferred these days over conventional one as the later one makes use of toxic, hazardous reagents which are detrimental to both human and ecology. Present work of synthesis of Binuclear octa coordinated lanthanide (III) complexes of 2, 3-dihydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone derivative by conventional and ultrasound assisted methods has been reported. Microwave synthesis has already been reported as another green option for the synthesis of the same. However, ultrasound assisted synthesis is brought about for the first time for the same cause and is found to give not only much higher yield and is atom efficient or atom economical process but also comparatively it takes much lesstime asagainst conventional one. Water as a green solvent exhibits much higher yield than conventional organic solvents like ethanol in the reaction. The ultrasound assisted synthesis yielded the highest yield when compared with the conventional methods. The resultant compounds were characterized by UV–Vis, FT-IR,1H NMR spectroscopy.

Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Composition of Calabash Nutmeg (Monodora Myrystica Gaertn.) Dunal Seed Kernel

Adeolu Jonathan Adesina, Ayinde Yusuff Gbolagade, Olatoye Rauf Abioye, Adegalu Adefusisoye Adebawore

  • Abstract

    Calabash nutmeg (Monodora myrystica Gaertn.) Dunal seed kernel was investigated for utritional compositions using standard analytical methods. The results of proximate compositions (%) are: crude fat (15.9 ± 0.91), crude protein (23.5 ± 0.75), crude fibre (12.1 ± 0.01), carbohydrate (28.6 ± 0.10), PEF (39.9), PEC (33.0), PEP (27.1) and UEDP (16.3). The essential minerals  mg/100g) ranged between 7.35 – 79.7 with Na/K , Ca/P, Ca/Mg ratio and milliequivalent ratio of [K/(Ca+Mg)] has the value of 0.558, 0.383, 1.23 and 3.33 respectively. The levels of anti-nutritional factors were generally low except phytate which was 23.5 ± 0.52 mg/100g. Amino acids were present in varying amounts with Leu (8.27 ± 0.15 g/100g) as the most concentrated essential amino acid and Glu (14.0 ± 0.62 g/100g) as the most concentrated non-essential amino acid in the sample. With respect to whole hen’s egg amino acid scoring pattern Met was the limiting AA with a score of 0.491 or 49.1 %, Met +Cys (0.797 or 79.7 %) was limiting according to FAO/WHO provisional amino acid scoring pattern whereas Lys (0.948 or 94.8 %) was limiting with respect to AA requirements of pre-school child (2 – 5y). Isoelectric point (pI), EAAI, predicted biological value (PBV %) and P-PER values were: 5.04, 1.04, 77.6 and 2.71 respectively. The sample could be a good source of protein, fat, fibre as well as essential minerals and amino acids necessary in human nutrition.

Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solutions using Schiff Base
Derivative of Isatin with Cefotaxime

Ahlam Jameel Abdulghani and Rasha K. Hussain

  • Abstract

    Gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple wet chemical reduction of AuCl4-in aqueous solutions at different conditions of concentrations, pH and temperature using Schiff base derivative of cefotaxime with isatin sodium (3- acetoxymethyl)-7-((Z)-2-(methoxyimino)-2-(2-((E)-2–oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino) thia zol-4-yl) acetamido)-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct-2-ene-2- carboxylate(ISB) without the use of other reducing or dispersing agents. The particles were characterized by Uv-visible spectrophotometry, SEM, TEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Conjugation of GNPs with the functional groups of the ligands were confirmed by FTIR spectrophotometry. The performance of Schiff base at different conditions was higher than the original antibiotic but lower than isatin.

Prediction of Ground level Ozone concentration in Ambient Air using Multiple Regression Analysis

Nidhi Verma, Aparna Satsangi, Anita Lakhani, K. Maharaj Kumari

  • Abstract

    The study was conducted to develop forecasting models for surface ozone concentration based on stepwise multiple linear regression using data collected at Dayalbagh Educational Institute; Agra (77º 26' to 78º 32' longitude east and between 26º 44' to 27º 25' latitude north in India). The predictor variables were the hourly concentrations of NO, NO2 and the meteorological variables (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation). Correlation analysis was performed using hourly averaged trace gases concentrations and meteorological data of the year 2012. O3 shows negative correlation with NO, NO2 and RH. As NO and NO2 act as precursor gases for the photochemical formation of surface O3 therefore rise in O3 concentration is associated with a drop in the level of NO and NO2. O3 concentration correlated positively with temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Three Models were constructed using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) Model 1 represents the data of the whole study period, Model 2 and Model 3 represent data of summer (March, April, May, June) and winter (January, February, December) respectively. Model performance was checked using various performance indicators such as R (Pearson correlation coefficient), MBE (Mean biased error), MAE (Mean absolute error) and RMSE (Root mean square error). The efficiency of models was also checked by using few datasets of independent variables for the years 2013 and 2014.

Metal Complexes of NO Bidentate Schiff Base Ligand as a New Class of Bioactive Compounds; Synthesis,Characterization and Cytotoxic Evaluation.

Abdou S. El-Tabl, Moshira M. Abd-El Wahed, Mohammed A. Wahba, Mohamad M. E. Shakdofa, Mohammed H. H. Abu-Setta

  • Abstract

    New series of mono-and binuclear Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II) and Tl(I) complexes with 1,2- bis(phenylamino)vinyl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol ligand have been synthesized and characterized by (1H-NMR, mass, IR, UV-VIS, ESR) spectroscopy, (magnetic moments, conductance) measurements, (elemental and thermal) analyses. The IR spectral data show that, the Schiff base behaves as a neutral bidentate or monobasic bidentate ligand bonded to the metal ions through the azomethine nitrogen atom and hydroxyl oxygen atom in protonated or deprotonated form adopting either octahedral or tetragonally distorted octahedral geometries. Molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that, the complexes are non-electrolytes. The ESR spectra of solid Cu(II) complexes (2-5) show an axial type indicating a d(X 2 -y 2) or d(Z2) ground state with a significant covalent bond character. However, Co(II) complexes (6-7), Fe(II) complex (8) and Mn(II) complexes (9-10), show isotropic type indicating an octahedral geometry. Cytotoxic evolution of the ligand and its complexes have been carried out. Complexes show enhanced activity in comparison to the parent ligand.  

The Effect of Maize Cob Biomass on the Properties of Coal Briquettes.

Onuegbu T. U, Ilochi N.O, Ikelle Ikelle, Ehiri Richard

  • Abstract

    This work studied the effect of maize cob biomass on the properties of coal briquettes. Proximate analysis of the maize cob and coal were determined. Varying samples of briquettes were produced by blending different loads of maize cob with coal in the ratio of 0:100. 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75, and 30:70 using cassava starch as binder, and calcium hydroxide as the desulphurising agent. Calorific value, porosity index, compressive strength, and bulk density of the briquettes were analysed, and compared with the control (coal briquette). The results of the analysis showed higher porosity index values, 0.26-0.37, for the bio-coal briquettes than for the coal briquette, 0.21, and lower calorific value, 23.2-25.9MJ/kg, compressive strength, 0.63-0.97N/mm2, and bulk density, 8.6x102-9.4x102kg/m3, than that of the coal briquette 26.8MJ/kg, 1.31N/mm2, and 10x102kg/m3 respectively. Also, the calorific value, compressive strength, and bulk density of the bio-coal briquettes decreased as the percentage of biomass load increased from 10% to 30%, while the porosity index increased as the percentage of biomass oad increased. The values obtained for the bio-coal briquettes are comparable to that of the coal briquettes. The results obtained showed that the physical properties of coal briquettes can be improved using maize cob biomass. 

Quantum Chemical Study of Molecular Structure,First Order Hyper Polarizability and Vibrational
Properties of 3-Halofulvenes Molecules (Fluoro,Chloro, Bromo, Iodo, and Stato Fulvenes)

Jaafar H. Ali and Abedawn I. Khalaf

  • Abstract

    Density functional theory within Gaussian 09 program was employed to investigate the electronic properties of 3-halofuvene molecules. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability of the titled molecules were computed using the B3LYP/CEP121G basis set. The chemical hardness, chemical softness, electronegativity, and electrophilicity were also studied. Full geometry optimization and the (3N-6=30) fundamental normal modes of these molecules were calculated at the same level of theory. The results showed that the 3-iodofulvene has a hyperpolarizability that is with about 22 times to that of substituted fulvene. The 3-At-fulvene has the higher polarizability and the lower hardness while the 3-Cl-fulvene has the higher electrophilicity. The 30 fundamental vibration normal modes of each molecule along with their assignments and the corresponding IR intensities were, also, carried out.

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some New Derivatives as Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP 1B) Inhibitor

Ashish Patel, T. Y. Pasha, Akhil Nagar, Viral Patel, Nirali Patel

  • Abstract

    Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases which characterized by increased blood glucose level along with polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are responsible for selective dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues and regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated as a key negative regulator of the insulin and leptin signal-transduction pathways. PTP1B inhibitors have emerged as attractive and potent pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, obesity as well as in cancer therapy. As per literature survey and referred patients, the various derivatives of 4-carboxy benzamide were prepared and confirmed by Mass, NMR, IR and by their physiochemical data. The anti diabetic activity of the synthesized compounds was tested against streptozotocin induce diabetic model. Among them 4-(3-(4-methyl phenyl)-2-(piperazine-1-yl) acrylamido) benzoic acid and 4-(3-(4-methyl phenyl)-2-(piperidine-1-yl) acrylamido) benzoic acid was more active due to presence of methyl group presence in para position and increase compound stability by lipophilic binding with enzyme while other methoxy derivatives of 4-carboxy benzamide shows moderate active due to less liphophilic binding with PTP 1B enzymes.

Determination of Thermodynamic Parameters of Substituted Azomethine Drugs Viscometrically

A. V. Kawalkar, D. S. Hedaoo and M. P. Wadekar

  • Abstract

    The present work involves the measurements of density and viscosity for aqueous solutions of the substituted azomethine drugsat different temperaturesand concentration. Thedensity and viscosity data are used to obtain and relative viscosity and specific viscosity of aqueous solutions at different temperatures. From Jones–Dole equation viscosity coefficient A and Bat different temperatures, were also obtained. The thermodynamic properties such as free energy change(ΔG), enthalpychange(ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) of substituted azomethine drugs were also studied. The results thus obtained helps to predict solute–solvent and solute–solute interactions of solute in the aqueous solution.

Spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the Bahuda estuary, East Coast of India.

Durga Prasad Behera, Sabita Paikray ,Subhasis Pradhanand Debaish Mohapatra

  • Abstract

    The aim of this study is to present the spatial and seasonal variability of the water quality based on the data of physical and chemical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), Nitrite (NO2-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), Ammonia (NH4-N), Phosphate (PO4-P), Silicate(SiO4-Si), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) during Pre-monsoon, Monsoon and Post-monsoon seasons in the Bahuda estuary during 2009-2010. Salinity variations were more conspicuous than the variations in other parameters analyzed. The sea-estuary interaction and land drainage influenced salinity distribution. Nutrients (NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P and SiO4-Si) in general showed significant spatial and temporal variations and high values were observed at the upstream stations of the estuary. Pearson’s correlation study showed that the salinity exhibited negative correlation with all nutrients and dissolved oxygen. It revealed that the estuarine zone was significantly influenced by freshwater input during monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Concentration of all the nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) was relatively high during the monsoon, whereas, and salinity were at their minimum level during this period. Higher value of Ca(0.380 g/kg) and Mg (1.253 g/kg) observed during monsoon season.Both the Ca and Mg concentration increased towards marine zone of the estuary.

Spectroscopic, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Metal Complexes of 4-(Di 1, 3-
(2-Hydroxybenzylidene) Guanidino)Benzoic Acid Ligand

Abdou Saad El-Tabl,  Moshira Abd-Elwahed, mohamed Ahmed Wahba and Moustafa Hemid Mohammed

  • Abstract

    The ligand 4-(di 1,3- (2-hydroxybenzylidene) guanidino) benzoic acid reactedwith Cr (III), Mn (II), Fe (III), Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Cd (II), Sr (II), Hg (II),Ag (I), Tl (I), ZrO (II) and UO2 (II) ions forming octahedral or square planar complexes.These complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR,UV- Vis spectra, mass spectra (ligand and its cadmium(II) complex), 1H-NMR spectra (ligand and its mercury(II) complex), magnetic moments, conductances, thermal analyses (DTA and TGA) and ESR measurements. The IR data show that, the ligand behaves as dibasic hexadentate, (2), (4), (5), (6), (12) and (13) , dibasic tetradentate, (3), (8), (9) and (10) mono-basic tetradentate, (7), (11), (14) and (15). Molar conductances in DMF indicate that, the complexes are non- electrolyte. The ESR spectra of solid Cu (II) complex (3) at room temperature show axial type symmetry, indicating a d(x2-y2) ground state with significant covalent bond character in square planar geometry. However, Cu(II) complex (2) shows broad signals in the low and high field regions indicating spin exchange interactions take place between Cu (II) ions through deprotonated hydroxyl group. Complexes of Mn (II) (5) , Co(II), (6), Cr (III), (12) and Fe (III), (13) show isotropic type, indicating octahedral structure around the metal ion. Cu (II) complex (2), Ni (II) complex (4), UO2 (II) complex (7), Hg (II) complex (8) and Fe (III) complex (13) showed inhibitory effect on liver carcinoma (HePG- 2 cell line) in comparing with the standard drug (Sorafenib), Also, Cu (II) complex (3) Ni (II) complex (4) and Cd (II) complex (10) show Antibacterial activity. Hg (II) complex (8), Cd (II) complex (10) and Tl (I) complex (11) show antifungal activity.

Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Reduction Activity of Poly(epichlorohydrin-g-Acidfuchsin)/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite

S. Sowmiya (IV-PT), S. Sowmiya (III-PT), K. Kanchana, J. Jayaselvi, M. Anitha, B. Meenarathi, R. Anbarasan

  • Abstract

    The structure of poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) is chemically modified with the help of acidfuchsin (AF)/Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanohybrid. First, the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ECH was carried out under a nitrogen atmosphere at 45oC for 24 hours in the presence of HCl as an initiator. Thus obtained homopolymer of ECH was chemically modified with the nanohybrid at 45oCunder mild stirring condition. Thus obtained fluorescent nanohybrid grafted co-polymer is characterized by various analytical techniques such as FTIR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Fluorescence emission spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and SEM. For the sake of comparison the nanohybrid is also characterized by FTIR, UV-visible, XRD and SEM like tools. The results obtained are compared with the literature values. 

Theoretical Study of Interaction Carbazole Alkaloids with Fullerene C60 as Drug Delivery

Nosrat Madadi Mahani & Asma Zangiabadi

  • Abstract

    The negative binding energies obtained using the ONIOM2 (B3LYP/6-31G:PM3) approach for the interaction between carbazole alkaloids and fullerene C60 as drug delivery. The dipole moments of complexes with C60 indicating their hydrophililic nature that is an appropriate property appealing for drug delivery in biological media. The adsorption of all drugs on the surface of fullerene was endergonic with all of the ΔGadsorption > 0. The ΔHadsorption values at B3LYP: PM3 level were negative for complexes indicating their exothermic adsorption nature. The interaction energy of complexes corrected with BSSE were measured for the interaction between carbazole alkaloids and C60.The results showed that there are weak interactions containing hydrogen bonds and Vander Waals interactions, and clearly indicated that these complexes have relatively low stability; therefore, the C60 is a suitable drug delivery molecule for carbazole alkaloids. The interaction energies and NBO analysis indicated the C60 can be utilised to improve the biological and activity of carbazole alkaloids. 

Investigation of antioxidant activity of the Schiff base: 4-Bromo-2-{1-[2-(1H-Indole-3-yl)-ethylimino]-ethyl}-phenol and its copper (II) complex

Abdulaziz Ali Alomari

  • Abstract

    The synthesis of a Schiff base ligand derived from tryptamine and 5-bromo-hydoxyaceto phenone, with its copper (II) complex is presented. The ligand and its copper complex were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, and UV-Vis. spectroscopic techniques. The complex was found to have the general formula [M(L)2]. Spectral studies reveal that this Schiff base acts as bidentate ligand and co-ordinate to the metal center through deprotonated phenolate oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms. Pseudotetrahedral geometry was proposed for the copper (II) complex. The compounds were screened for their antioxidant activity using FRAP assay in which BHT is used as a reference. Investigations reveal that the complex appears to
    be more effective antioxidant than the free ligand.

Lipid Compositions of Three Varieties of Melon Seeds Flour: Dietary and Health Implications

Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye and Abdul Ademola Olaleye

  • Abstract

    The levels of crude fat, fatty acids, phospholipids and phytosterols were investigated in the melon seed samples. The most concentrated among the fatty acids was linoleic acid (58.9-60.7%) in all the samples. The bulk of the fatty acids was unsaturated (77.8-79.7%) while the saturated fatty acids were just 14.9-22.2 %, mainly from palmitic acid (9.54-10.8 %) and stearic acid (5.16-11.2%) representing 16.0-22.2% of the total fatty acids in the samples. The values of n-6/n-3 ratios (33.5-36.8) were above the recommended 5-10. Also, the energy contributed by PUFA (61.2-63.2% of total caloric value) was more than the recommended 4%. Among the phospholipids, lecithin was highest among the samples with values of 390-421mg/100g or 55.0-57.4 %, followed by phosphatidylinositol of 171-215 mg/100g or 25.0-30.0 %. Phosphatidylserine (PS) had the lowest concentration both in Cucumeropsis mannii and big Colocynthis citrullus variety.  Cholesterol, cholestanol and ergosterol were found to be relatively low in all the samples with cholesterol occupying the list position. The values of cholesterol and cholestanol in the samples were highly varied as it was evident in the levels of coefficient of variation (CV %).

About Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Utelbayev B. T., Suleimenov E. N., Utelbayeva A. B.

  • Abstract

    The article deals with the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which allows the inability to  imultaneously and accurately determine the position and momentum of an elementary particle. Consideration of the object in terms of the unity of the micro and macro levels to evaluate and coordinate the momentum of an elementary particle.

Structural Studies on Carotenoids from Nicotine –Inhibited Culture of Micrococcus Luteus

Hussain Al –Wandawi

  • Abstract

    Using nicotine-inhibited culture of Micrococcus luteus as a source of carotenoids, UV–visible and mass spectroscopy and column and thin layer chromatography as analytical tools, several carotenoids with a wide range of structural diversity have been identified. The hydrocarbon carotenoids namely phytoene, phytofluene, £-carotene, neurosporene and lycopene were detected for the first time accompanied by several C45 and C50-carotenoids and their glycosides. The absence of "Retro-Diels Alder" (RDA) fragmentation pattern which typically leads to (M-140) on electron impact during mass spectral analysis has confirmed the γ-type structure of these C45,C50–carotenoids and their glycosides. The results obtained through this study may be invaluable on practical ground to explore the link between the C40 carotenoids and the long – chain C45 and C50carotenoids and their glycosides which enabled to propose a biosynthetic pathway (s) leading to the formation of C45 and C50 carotenoids and their glycosides in this organism . 

Coupling Reactions Involving Reactions of Aryldiazonium Salt: Part-III. Chemoselective Condensation with α-Naphthol to Synthesize Sudan-I, its Nitro Derivatives and Antibacterial PotentialΦ

C. J. Patil, Manisha C. Patil, Vivek Rane, Kunal Mahajan and C. A. Nehete

  • Abstract

    Synthesis of azo dye viz. Sudan I, 1-(Phenylazo)-naphthalen-2-ol, I and itsnitro derivatives, II-IV is reported. They are characterized by their colour, elementalanalysis, physical constant such as melting point range, TLC and spectralcharacterization viz. UV-visible and IR-spectra were studied. The nitro substitutedderivatives of Sudan I, I i.e the products, II-IV, by introducing nitro group the anilinepart at different positions are synthesized. The synthesized azo compounds were screened for the antibacterial activity against Solmonella typhi and Bacillus cereus. 

Effect of Temperature on Viscosity of Substituted Aminopyrimidine in 60% DMF-Water Mixture

M. M. Kalaskar, H. S. Chandak and M. P. Wadekar

  • Abstract

    The viscometric measurements of recently synthesized drugs viz. 2- Amino [ 4-(3-nitro phenyl) -6-phenyl-1,6-dihydro]-1,3-pyrimidine (L1) and 2-Amino [4,6-diphenyl-1,6-dihydro]-1,3- pyrimidine  (L2) were carried out at different temperature by preparing the solutions of different concentrations in 60% DMF-water solvent. The results obtained during this investigation through light on the dipole association of the compound, the intermolecular attraction between solute and solvent, polarizability and mutual compensation of dipoles.

Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Metal Complexes of Guanidinium Schiff base

Abdou Saad El-Tabl Joseph Jimmy Stephanos, Moshira Mohamed Abd-Elwahed, Emad El-Deen Metwally and Sabreen Mohamed El-Gamasy

  • Abstract

    (2E,2'E)-2,2'-(hydrazine-1,2-diylidene)bis(6-methyl-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-4(5H)-one)ligand reacts  with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Mg(II), Hg(II), Ag(I), Tl(III), Fe(III), Cr(III), ZrO(II) and UO2(II) ions to form octahedral or square plannar complexes. Their structures are characterized by elemental analyses, IR, Uv-Vis spectra,magnetic moments, molar conductances, 1H – NMR and mass spectra (ligand and its Zn(II) complex), thermal nalysis (TGA) and ESR measurements. The olar conductances of the complexes in DMF are  ommensurate with their non- ionic character. The ESR spectra of solid Cu(II) complexes show axial or isotropic type symmetry (dx2 – y2) ground state with covalent bond character. However, Co(II), Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cr(III) complexes show isotropic type. The invitro anticancer activity breast tumor cells and antifungal screening Aspergillus Niger fungi of some complexes have been investigated.

Synthesis and Characterizations of Poly(Congored) Grafted Rayon Fibre

V. Kohila1, B. Meenarathi, S. Palanikumar, T. Dhanalakshmi, R. Anbarasan

  • Abstract

    Dyeing or chemical grafting of rayon fibre with congored (CR) dye in the presence of oxidizing agent cum complexing agent, FeCl3 under different experimental conditions were carried out. The dye grafted rayon fibre was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). In order to confirm the chemical grafting,
    binding constant and number of binding sites were determined by using UV-visible and Fluorescence spectra. The FESEM images confirms the surface morphology of poly(CR) grafted rayon fibre with the simultaneous formation of Fe nano particle. 

Molecular Interactions in Solutions of Dihydropyridine Derivatives in Dimethyl Sulfoxide at Different

Shipra Baluja and Rahul Talaviya

  • Abstract

    The density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity of some dihydropyridine derivatives have been measured in dimethyl sulfoxide at different temperatures over a wide range of concentrations. These dihydropyridine derivatives have been synthesized and their characterization was done by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. From the experimental data of density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity, various acoustical parameters were calculated in order to understand the nature and strength of molecular interactions in the solutions. Further, some apparent molar parameters are also calculated which also indicates the existence of solute–solvent and/or solute–solute interactions in solutions. 

The Study of the Role of Structural Parameters onCorrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Thiadiazole
Derivatives Using DFT Method 

M. Rajendran, K. Keerthika, M. Kowsalya, D. Devapiriam

  • Abstract

    Four organic corrosion inhibitors namely 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AT),5-methyl-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 5-ethyl-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (EAT) and 5-propyl-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (PAT) has been performed using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) basis set in order to investigate the different inhibition efficiencies of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The calculated structural parameters chosen to correlate with the inhibition efficiency are the absolute electronegativity, electrophilicity, EHOMO, chemical potential, transferred electron fractions, electron donating and electron accepting powers. It has been shown that the order of inhibition efficiency of the four inhibitors studied is given as  follows, PAT > EAT > MAT > AT. The theoretical parameters calculated were found to be in agreement with the obtained experimental percentage of corrosion inhibition efficiencies (IE %). 

Aldimine and Ketimine Complexes of Group 6 Metal Carbonyls: Synthesis, Characterization and Force
Constant Calculations 

Rohit Mohan and Amar Srivastava

  • Abstract

    Several novel tetracarbonyl derivatives of group 6 metal hexacarbonyls with aldimine and ketimine derived from 4-N, N-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and 2-methoxyacetophenone with 1,2-propanediamine, cis [(aldimine / ketimine) M(CO)4] (M = Cr, Mo and W) have been synthesised using thermal reflux reactions in hydrocarbon solvents, U.V. or microwave radiations. The roducts have been characterized using spectral techniques. Force constants have been calculated using C-O stretching frequencies. Vibrational mode assignments have also been done.

GC-MS Analysis of Hexane Extract of Stems and Roots of the Ethnomedicinal Plant Cissus quadrangularis Linn.

N.Vishnuthari and  Shubashini K. Sripathi

  • Abstract

    Medicinal plants have been the most important source of life saving drugs for thousands of years. There is a widespread use of herbal remedies and healthcare preparations. Medicinal plants are considered to be nature’s gift and are the cheapest source of medicine. Mainly in traditional system of medicine, medicinal plant parts such as root, bark, wood, stem, leaves, plants and sometimes the whole plant find uses for constitutional remedies. The present study aims to finger print the GC-MS spectrum of the root ethanol extract of Cissusquadrangularis to identify the major constituent. 

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Lipid Composition of Subcutaneous Fat, Skin and Muscle of Bull

Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye , Pius Amoka Aye 

  • Abstract

    The lipid composition of the subcutaneous fat (T1), skin (T2) and muscle (T3) of bull was investigated. The crude fat had levels (g/100 g) of 6.71 (T1), 6.08 (T2) and 5.02 (T3). The total fatty acid values were (g/100 g): 6.15 (T1), 5.57(T2) and 4.60 (T3) leading to the following percentage distributions: SFA, 33.3 (T1), 32.1 (T2) and 38.7 (T3); MUFA, 36.1 (T1), 30.2 (T2) and 36.9 (T3); PUFA, 30.7 (T1), 37.7 (T2) and 24.4 (T3). For fatty acid values with complete information (36 parameters), the followings were observed T1>T2 in 21/36 (58.3 %), T1 >T3 in 20/36 (55.6 %) and T2>T3 in 15/36 (41.7 %); such favourable considerations in T1> T2 included SFA and MUFA; in T1> T3 included n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 + n-3 PUFA and MUFA+ PUFA; T2>T3 included n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 + n-3 PUFA and MUFA +PUFA. These following quality parameters have the following trends: PUFA/SFA,T2>T1>T3; EPA/DHA, T3>T1>T2; n-6/n-3, T3>T1> T2; EPSI, T2> T1>T3; AA/DGLA, T2> T1>T3 and EPA +DHA, T2> T1 > T3. Also when the fatty acids serve as food source, the following would be observed (source in g/100 g): SFA (1.78-2.04), MUFA (1.69-2.22) and PUFA (1.12-2.15). The calculated energy from the fatty acids was (kJ/100 g): 227 (T1), 206 (T2) and 170 (T3). These values resulted into the following distribution [kJ/100 g(percentage value)]: SFA, 63.7 (37.5)-75.5 (33.3); MUFA, 62.6 (36.8)-82.0 (36.1) and PUFA, 41.4 (24.4)-79.7 (38.7). The phospholipids were generally high in phosphatidylethanolamine and lecithin; general level was 416-689 mg/100 g with a general trend of T1> T2>T3. The only sterol of significance was cholesterol which formed 99.998 % of the total sterols; trend was T1> T2>T3. Significant statistical differences were noted in the energy, n-6/n-3 (LA/α-LA), AA/DGLA, all phospholipid values and cholesterol at α =0.05. For nutritional quality values, T1>T2>T3. 

Preparation, Characterization and Toxicity of Nano-Emulsion Formulations of Rotenone Extract
of Derris Elliptica

Norhayu Asib, Dzolkhifli Omar, Rita Muhamad Awang,Nur Ashikin Psyquay Abdullah

  • Abstract

    The chemical elucidation of rotenone from Derris elliptica was conducted using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometer. Rotenone and deguelin were found from the elucidation of each accession at retention time of 5.7 and 6.6 minute, respectively. Both have similar mass of 395.1489 with the empirical formula of C23H21O6.The emulsion formulations of rotenone extracts of Derris elliptica KJ579429 (Tuba Merah) were prepared using ternary phase diagrams. The formulations utilised non-ionic surfactant of alkyl polyglucoside and organo- sillicone, dimethylamide as a carrier and water with rotenone extract as active ingredient. Five formulations were obtained from the isotropic region of the diagrams. All formulations showed a particle size of less than 100nm indicating the prepared formulations were nano-emulsion formulation. The surface tension value of below 30 mN/m. The formulations were also stable at 25°C for two months and the agglomeration was observed for all formulations and stable at temperature 54°C except for formulation F5.The toxicity of rotenone was obtained from Derris elliptica evaluated through dose mortality bioassays against DBM. The leaf-dip technique was used to obtain dose-mortality response of rotenone in the nano-emulsion formulations. All rotenone formulations gave 100% mortality 72 hours after treatment at concentration of 273 μg/mL. 

Water hyacinth Leaves Extract-Zn2+ -SM: An Efficient Aqueous Ternary Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel

Kavitha N and Manjula P

  • Abstract

    The inhibition effect of Water hyacinth leaves extract (WHLE) -Zn2+ with Sodium Molybdate (SM) on mild steel corrosion in aqueous medium containing 60ppm Cl- ion was investigated by Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. In Impedance studies, the double layer capacitance decreased and charge transfer resistance increased reveals that the protective film is formed on the metal surface. Polarisation studies indicated that the inhibitor anodic reaction predominates. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study confirms the protection of mild steel by strong adsorption of ternary inhibitor formulation of WHLE –Zn2+- SM complex.

Biodiesel “A Review”

Bohare Satyam, Burnwal Pappu Kumar, Kannadasan T and Agrawal Rajat Narayan

  • Abstract

    The caducity of fossil fuels concerns for energy security and the attention towards different climatic changes is the need of the hour, due to which worldwide interest in biofuel has been noticed over a long period of time. One of them we know is “BIODIESEL”. As the diesel engine became more widely adopted in subsequent years due to its various advantages, however, petroleum diesel fuel proved to be less expensive, more effective and has become the fuel of choice for many. Due to impermanence and lack of availability, the need of sustainable source, a clean fuel is required which can act as an alternative for diesel or which can be used as a blended fuel with diesel and the search for it ends on BIODIESEL. Many types of BIODIESEL can be formed from different feedstocks. This review investigates various aspects related to it like - their properties, different blends, testing standards, and finally a conclusion on BIODIESEL as an Alternative fuel. This review also throws light on the latest development taking place on this subject and the prospect in upcoming time. 

Synthesis of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pt Metal Complexes with Ligand 3 and 5 Substituted-2-Hydroxy Acetophenone-2-
Pyridinyl Hydrazone

Suresh pal, Ajay Sharma, Gayatri Prasad, Shobha Kanwar, Pokarlal Chouhan and R.S. Chauhan

  • Abstract

    Metal complexes of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pt were synthesized with ligand substituted 2-hydroxy acetophenones-2-pyridinyl hydrazones by refluxing the solution (1 m mol) in boiling ethanol (20 ml) with a solution of metal salt (1 m mol) in ethanol (20 ml) or an aqueous solution of K2PtCl4 (1 m mol) for two hours. The coloured crystalline solids of various shades were separated from the resulting solution at room temperature. The solids were filtered off and washed with ethanol and diethyl ether then dried over P4O10 under vacuum. Synthesized complexes were characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibilities, infrared, (f), Mossbauer Spectra and ESR spectral data. Complexes were stable at room temperature and can be stored for a sufficient time without decomposing. All the complexes are freely soluble in DMF and DMSO.

  • Abstract

  • Abstract