Vol. 6 & Issue 1 ; Section A : Chemical Sciences

Date : Nov.2015 to Jan.2016

 

Identification of zinc (II) with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydep-hydroxybenzoic hydrozone by adopting direct and derivative spectrophotometry

G. Sumathi and T. Sreenivasulu Reddy

  • Abstract

    Highly sensitive and selective direct spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of zinc in various real samples. 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-phydroxybenzoic  hydrazone reacts with Zn (II) forming an yellow coloured soluble complex in aqueous dimethyl formamide which has a λmax at 430 nm in the pH range 2- 6. The system obeyed the Beer’s law is obeyed in the range of 0.317-3.175 μ g/ml of Zn (II).The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity are 1.58 ± 0.002×104 1 mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0040 μg/ml of Zn(II) is 0.008. The correlation coefficient (λ) of the calibration equation of the experimental data is 0.9994. Studies on effect of diverse ions showed almost all the anions, except Thiosulphate, Oxalate, EDTA and Ascorbate and a majority of the cations do not interfere. The interference from Mo (VI), Zr (IV), Th (IV) and Ti (IV) was eliminated using suitable masking agents. The direct method was applied for the determination of zinc in sheep liver and buffalo milk.

The Effect of 1, 3, 5-trimethyl-2, 6-diphenyl piperidin-4-one oxime on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Mild Steel in HCl Medium

K. Tharini, K.Raja and A.N.Senthilkumar

  • Abstract

    Corrosion inhibitive performance of synthesized heterocyclic compound, namely 1, 3, 5-trimethyl-2, 6-diphenyl piperidin-4-one oxime (TPO) was tested by the weight loss study, electrochemical methods and SEM studies in 1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) medium against mild steel (MS). The weight loss studies were conducted at three different temperatures such as 30oC, 40oC and 50oC for various concentrations (0, 25, 50,100, 200 and 300 ppm) for 2h duration. The study revealed that the inhibition efficiency had positive correlation with enhancing TPO concentration and negative correlation with raising temperature. TPO adsorbs physically over mild steel surface obeying Temkin’s isotherm. Electrochemical parameters such as corrosion potential (Ecorr), corrosion current (icorr) and Tafel slopes (βa& βc) were determined using Tafel plot. The results showed that TPO decreases corrosion current significantly and behaves as mixed mode inhibitor. AC impedance measurement as determined by Nyquist plot were utilized to calculate the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and double layer capacitance (Cdl) whose results tribute each other. SEM studies revealed the film forming ability of TPO in HCl medium .

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity (In-vitro) of Some Benzimidazole Substituted Chromen-4-ones

Kuldeep Sen and Pramilla Sah

  • Abstract

    Some new series of benzimidazole substituted chromene-4-ones namely 2- [{(3’-nitrophenyl)-N-2’’-methyl phthalyl-benzimidazol-2’’-yl}]-4H-chromen-4-one (1d), 2-[{(3’-nitro phenyl)-N-phthaly l } ] -4H-chromen-4-one(3d) and 2-[(3’-nitrophenyl)-4’-morpholino]-4H-chromene-4-one (4d) have been synthesized and screened for antioxidant activity using ferric chloride as the reductant and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant

Comparative Study for Cold Hardiness Physiological Indicators of Four Introduced Acer rubrum

Gang Chen, Yan-Nan Jin, Ting-Wu Yan, Hui-dong Zhang, Wen-Zhong You and Li-Ping Bai

  • Abstract

    We chose one-year shoots of four introduced Acer rubrum (two years old) as research subjects, selecting one-year shoots of local native tree species Acer mono (Acer elegantulum) (two years old) as control, and determined relative leakage of electrolytes (relative conductivity), soluble protein contents (10% Homogenate protein concentration), SOD activity, as well as POD activity of these shoots after different freezing treatments. Then, the Logistic equation is used to calculate lethal temperature (LT50) of these Acer rubrum. The results showed that as the temperature dropped, relative conductivity of these samples presented S-shaped, increasing, soluble protein contents were firstly decreased and then increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was firstly increased and then decreased as well as peroxidase (POD) activity. There is greatly gap in cold hardiness among these introduced Acerrubrum, with the order: #>1#>4#>3#, but they all less than local native tree species Acer mono. 1#,2#,4# can get through the winter in Liaoning. 

Halogen Oxidation of some Aldimine and Ketimine Complexes of Group 6 Metal Carbonyls

Amar Srivastava and Rohit Mohan

  • Abstract

    The halogen oxidation of cis-[(aldimine/ketimine)M(CO)4] (M = Cr, Mo or W; aldimine = N,N’-bis(4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-1,2-propanediamine and ketimine = N,N’-bis(1-(2-methoxyphenyl)ethylidene)-1,2-propanediamine) with chlorine, bromine and iodine in benzene have been studied. Halogen oxidation of cis- [(aldimine/ketimine)Cr(CO)4] yielded non-carbonyl product [(aldimine/ketimine) CrX2] (X = Cl, Br or I) but with Mo and W analogues, heptacoodinated carbonyl derivatives [(aldimine/ketimine)M(CO)3X2] (M = Mo or W; X = Br or I ) and noncarbonyl derivatives [(aldimine/ketimine)MI2] or [(aldimine/ketimine)MX4] (M = Mo or W;  X = Cl or Br ) were obtained. The complexes were characterised by conductivity, magnetic, other physico-chemical and IR spectroscopic measurements. 

Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement of Non-Newtonian Nanofluids (CMC)

Abinaya K., Thirumarimurugan M., Kannadasan T.

  • Abstract

    Development of high performance thermal systems has increased interest in heat transfer enhancement techniques. Heat transfer by nanofluids gained remarkable interest among researchers owing to its enhanced thermal conductivity. The efficiacy of nanofluids such as alumina dispersed in Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) non- Newtonian fluid in spiral type heat exchanger resulting in enhancement of turbulent heat transfer was investigated. The experiment was carried out for various flow rates and for various Reynolds number. Results show that heat transfer enhancement is promoted due to the presence of alumina but enhancement is minimized due to increase in concentration of CMC.

Understanding of Reaction Mechanism: The Second Substitution of Chlorine on Chlorobenzene by ELF (Electron Localization Function) Method

Ibrahim Mbouombouo Ndassa , François Volatron  and Bernard Silvi 

  • Abstract

    The potential energy surface of the chlorination reaction of chlorobenzene catalysed by Aluminium Chloride has been investigated theoretically with hybrid Density Functional Theory (B3LYP) in order to determine the general reaction mechanism which is a model of aromatic substitution of benzene derivatives (contains a group with a double effect: donor and acceptor of electrons). By using the ELF (Electron Localization Function) method, we’ve also evaluated the electronic population of Wheland intermediates (σ complexes) to explain and understand the orientation of the second substitution of Chlorine on chlorobenzene. The results obtained showed that, the potential energy surface of this reaction has six stationary points. These results obtained from DFT calculations have been compared with CCSD (T) method which is the most powerful post-Hartree Fock method in terms of inclusion of dynamic correlation. The ELF analysis applied on the Wheland complexes explained the traditional orientation of this reaction which said that the orientation of the second substituent in ortho and para positions depend on the stability of the intermediates complexes σ1 or σ2. 

Evaluation of Non-Conventional Household Powders for the Visualization of Latent Fingermarks

Jaskirandeep Kaur Jossan, Manavpreet Kaur and Rakesh K. Garg

  • Abstract

    Different methods have been proposed and used for the development of the fingerprints on different surfaces during the past two decades. Powder and ninhydrin methods are still the most preferred ones in forensic investigation due to their simplicity and efficiency. This paper reports the applications of various nonconventional powders for the visualization of latent finger-marks. Different substrates- Aluminum foil sheet, compact Disc, glass, plywood, fiberglass, transparency sheet and aluminum can have been selected for the present study in order to test the applicability of these powders in fingermark development on different substrates. The study makes the assessment of cheap and easily available household powders commonly employed in Indian houses for the purpose of fingermark development. The results obtained showed clear ridge details on different substrates in majority of the cases and some of them were even found to give better results in terms of clarity of ridges than those developed by using conventional powders

Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Some Heteroleptic Metal (II) Complexes of 3- {[-(Pyrimidin-2-yl) Imino] Methyl} Napthalen-2-ol

Aderoju Amoke Osowole  and Chioma Festus

  • Abstract

    Heteroleptic Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of the Schiff base, 3-{[-(pyrimidin-2-yl)imino]methyl}napthalen-2-ol (HL) and 2,2’-bipyridine were synthesized and characterized by IR and electronic spectroscopies, melting points, percentage metal analysis, conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The IR spectra indicated that the Schiff base (HL) coordinated to the metal ions using Ndonor atom of imine and O- donor atom of the napthalenol moieties, while the 2,2- bipyridine used its nitrogen atoms for coordination. The percentage metal analysis, room temperature magnetic moment and electronic spectroscopy showed that all the complexes assumed an octahedral geometry. The molar conductance measurements in DMSO confirmed the non-ionic nature of the complexes. The in-vitro antibacterial study indicated that the Schiff base, 2,2’-bipyridine and their heteroleptic metal complexes exhibited very good activities against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B. cereus, P.mirabilis and K. oxytoca, with the exception of the Ni(II) complex, proving their potentials as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. Furthermore, the in-vitro antioxidant study showed that the Schiff base, 2,2’-bipyridine and the metal(II) complexes had weak to excellent antioxidant activity with % inhibition ranges of 24.27- 98.4, suggestive of their probable anticancer activities.

Synthesis of different hydrazone compounds based onsubstituted 2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide using 2-Cyano- N'-(1-arylethylidene)acetohydrazide and substituted 2-hydroxy benzaldehyde as starting materials

Enayatollah Mottaghinejad, Seyedeh Nazanin Sadat Mansouri

  • Abstract

    Some novel derivatives of the 2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide was synthesized. 2-Cyano-N'-(1-arylethylidene) acetohydrazide and substituted 2-hydroxy benzaldehyde used as starting materials. The reaction between prepared 2-Cyano-N'-(1- arylethylidene) acetohydrazide and substituted 2-hydroxy benzaldehyde in the presence of catalytic amounts of piperidine afford the coumarin based hydrazone compounds. The reaction was performed at the reflux condition and monitored by TLC technique. Purification of the products afford the desired hydrazones in good to excellent yield. 

Preclinical Assessment of Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized Using D-Glucose by Hydrothermal Method

C. S. Vicas, K. Namratha, K. Byrappa and H. S. Yathirajan

  • Abstract

    Eloquent hydrothermal synthesis of Zinc ferrite nanoparticles was carried out using dextrose as a reducing agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering technique, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The nanoparticles obtained were of an average size of ~47 nm. Microbial toxicology, Haemolysis of blood, teratology and embryotoxicology on chick embryos were performed. The material was found to be non haematotoxic and non-teratogenic. Determination of total protein content using Bradford’s assay showed that the level remained to be insignificantly altered in the treated embryos. Synthesized ZnFe2O4 also demonstrated an excellent antioxidant property of ~90% when studied using DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The nanoparticles synthesized have shown significant inhibition of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) causing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Based on the current evidences compared with the known ferrites, it was inferred that the biocompatibility and the ability of zinc ferrite nanoparticles to inhibit the growth of the selected SSTI causing bacteria, opens the doors to a new arena for the usage of zinc ferrite nanoparticles as potent antibacterial agents for treating skin infections. They can also be considered for use as ointments and antibacterial creams.

The development of sulfonamide drug via N-alkylation of pyrazole, pyridine linked nucleus and their antimicrobial activity

Prabhunath Yogi and Ajit Joshi

  • Abstract

    The novel sulfonamide drugs 2-chloro -N-[(4 -methylphenyl) sulfonyl] -Npyridin -2-ylacetamide compounds 2 and 4 (scheme-1) were synthesized by two process. In first process 2amino pyridine reacts with chloro acetyl chloride to give 2- chloro-N-pyridin-2-ylacetamide (1) and in next step it treated with p-toluene sulfonyl chloride to achieved target molecule (2). In another process 2-amino pyridine reacts with p- toluene sulfonyl chloride to give 4-methyl-N-pyridin-2-ylbenzenesulfonamide (3) and it treated with chloroacetyl chloride and gave final compound (4). In scheme- 2 ethylacetoacetate cyclized. With hydrazine hydrate to gave 5-methyl-2, 4-dihydro - 3H-pyrazol-3-one (5). In next step compound (5) refluxed with substituted aldehyde to  achieved 4-[(4-substituted) methylidene]-5-methyl-2, 4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (6a-d). It undergo cyclized with malanonitrile and ammonium acetate to gave 6- amino-4-(4-substituted) -3-methyl-1H-pyrazolo [3, 4-b] pyridine-5-carbonitrile (7ad). In last step sulphonamide drugs (4) treated with compound (7a-d) to achieved final nucleus N-{2-[6-Amino-4-(4-substitute-phenyl)-5-cyano-3-methyl-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-1-yl]-acetyl}-4-methyl-N-pyridin-2-yl-enzene sulfonamide (8a-d). All the synthesized compounds confirmed by spectra (IR, NMR, and Mass) and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity.

Synthesis of Novel Isoxazoline Derivatives and Evaluation of their Antimicrobial Activity

G. Ravi Kumar, Sumana. Y. Kotian, Narayana U Kudva N, Kangkana Banerjee, C. S. Vicas, K. M.Lokanatha Rai,V. Ravishankar Rai,K. Byrappa

  • Abstract

    The synthesis of novel isoxazoline derivatives involved the [3+2]cycloaddition reaction between alkene and nitrile oxide generated insitu by reacting oxime with CAT. Evaluation of their antimicrobial activity yielded good results.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Isatin Azo–Imine Dyes

Ahmed A. H Al-Kadhimi, Nuhad K. E. Al–Azzawi and Abedawn I. Khalaf

  • Abstract

    Series of imine–azo dyes were synthesized from pre-prepared isatin Schiff bases (S1–S5) (containing phenolic and amine moieties) with some aryl diazonium compounds such as benzoic acid 4–diazonium chloride, 4–bromobenzene diazonium chloride, 4–nitro benzene diazonium chloride. The coupling reaction of diazonium salt with phenolic compounds was carried out in basic medium while the coupling of the amine compounds was carried out in acidic medium.All the prepared isatin azo–imine compounds were identified using a combination of: IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis

Synthesis, Characterization and Quantum Mechanical Calculations of Five Coordinated Anionic Silicates

Priya Duggal

  • Abstract

    New anionic spirobicyclic five coordinated silicon (IV) compounds having O,N; S,S and N,N moieties in structural framework were synthesized using bidentate ligands. The ligand reacted with phenylsilane in the presence of triethylamine at ~0ºC to yield penta-coordinated silicon complexes. The resulting complexes were characterized by IR and multinuclear (1H, 13C, 29Si) NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and molar conductance measurement. The geometry and penta-coordination was confirmed by comparing experimental results with theoretical studies such as Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (B3LYP) using 3-21-G and 6-31-G (d) basis sets.

Tert-Butylation of Ethylbenzene over Dealuminated Mordenite

A.M.Mammadova, S.E.Mammadov, E.I.Akhmadov

  • Abstract

    The tert-butylation of ethylbenzene over dealuminated mordenite catalysts and the main factors of determining the activity and selectivity of dealuminated mordenites were investigated. On the basis of the physico-chemical studies of dealuminated mordenites, adsorption of nitrogen at low-temperature and IR spectroscopy were showed that the combination of thermal processing with acid contributes to the creation of the microporous system and the formation of a super-microporous and mesoporous. It was established that the properties of the catalysts significantly depend on the method of dealumination. The optimal conditions for the dealumination and the subsequent processing calcination by oxalic acid at 7500C which provide maximum selectivity of mordenits in the reaction of tert-butylation of the ethylbenzene yielding 4-Tert Butyl Ethyl Benzene (4-TBEB-89.4%) were found.

Evaluation of Horseradish Peroxidase Activity Using 3-Methyl-2-Benzothiazolinone Hydrazone Hydrochloride Monohydrate and N-(1-Naphthyl) Ethylenediamine Dihydrochloride as Co-Substrates; Application In Vegetable Extracts.

B.S. Supriya, P. Nagaraja. S. Shashikanth, M.K. Ningaraju, N.A. Chamaraja,K. Byrappa.

  • Abstract

    The present investigation was done to evaluate the enzymatic activity of peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide concentration, this method is based on the intermolecular coupling of 3-Methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH) and N-(1-Naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride(NEDA). In CH3COOH/CH3COONa buffer of pH 5 MBTH was oxidized to MBTH radical cation in presence of H2O2 and POD, this was further coupled with NEDA to form intense blue coloured product which showed maximum absorbance at 620nm. This method was successfully applied to Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H2O2. The linearity of HRP was determined by rate method and fixed time method which lied between 0.0468-5.9 nM and 0.0234-1.4995nM respectively and that of H2O2 showed between 4.6090 μM82.96 μM and 0.5761 μM-18.4362 μM respectively. The Michaelis–Menten constant(Km) and Vmax for the reaction was found to be 172.4137μM and 1137 min-1respectively. The kinetic parameters like catalytic power (Vmax/ Km ) and catalytic efficiency(Keff) =1/ slope [E]0 were found to be 0.6594×10-3min-1 and 1.1533×105 M-1 min-1 respectively. Applicability of the method was tested for peroxidase activity in some vegetables and was compared with the standard method.

Method validation and residues of fipronil and its metabolites in citrus fruit and soil on Gas Chromatography- ECD by QuEChERS method.

M. Aruna, R. Madhusudhan Raju and K. Narasimha Reddy

  • Abstract

    Fipronil belongs to a new class of insecticides known as phenylpyrozole. For the determination of amount of residues of insecticide fipronil and its toxic metabolites in citrus fruit and soil by QuEChERS method was developed based on analysis on Gas chromatography with Electronic Capture Detector. The supervised field trial was carried out in Citrus farm using a fipronil 80 WG granular formulation at the rate of 60 g a.i./ha and 120 g a.i./ha. Persistence behavior of fipronil and its metabolite were studied on citrus fruit. Fipronil 80WG sprayed twice with an interval of 10 days @ 60 and 120 g a.i. /ha initiating at fruit formation stage (Pea nut stage). The citrus fruit samples collected and analyzed on GC-ECD by adopting QuEhERS method. The results revealed that the initial deposits of fipronil alone recorded 0.31 mgkg-1 and 0.59 mgkg-1 respectively and including metabolites, was 0.41mgkg-1 and 0.75 mgkg-1 in the recommended dose and double the recommended doses respectively and dissipated to Below Detectable Level (BDL) of 0.005 mgkg-1 15 days and 20 days after the last application.

Reactions of Polymer Supported Oxidizing Reagent with Aromatic Secondary Alcohols: A Facile Synthesis of Ketone

Vilas Y. Sonawane

  • Abstract

    The chemical kinetics plays an important role in elucidation of reaction mechanism. For the reaction in solution, the mechanism is framed on the basis of different kinetic parameters in which order of the reaction with respect to the different reactants is most important oxidation of organic compounds is quite important from synthetic and technological viewpoints. Polymer supported reagents have attracted growing interest because they can provide attractive and practical methods for combinatorial chemistry and solid phase organic synthesis. Many of the industrially important organic compounds like aldehyde, ketone, acids etc. can be produced by the oxidation of related substrate by using polymer supported suitable oxidizing agent like Chromic acid. A facile synthesis of ketone by polymer supported reagent with some aromatic secondary alcohols has been followed bykinetically monitoring the constant in the absorbance of reaction intermediate. The reaction followed by zero order behavior, being zero order in each reactant. A free radical scavenger does not affect the reaction rate. For all alcohols studied, it was found that, the oxidation rate constant involved in the mechanism and the activation parameters have been calculated. There is good agreement between observed and calculated rate constants of oxidation reaction under different experimental conditions. The thermodynamic activation parameters have been calculated

Synthesis, spectral, magnetic and antibacterial studies of some divalent metal complexes of 3-{[(4,6-dihydroxy pyrimidin-2-yl)Imino]methyl}Napthalen-2-ol

Aderoju Amoke Osowole and Chioma Festus

  • Abstract

    The Schiff base, 3-{[(4,6-dihydroxypyrimidin-2-yl) Imino] methyl} Napthalen-2-ol, and its Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ complexes were synthesized and characterized by percentage metal analysis, infrared(IR) and electronic spectroscopies, melting point, conductance and room temperature magnetic measurements. The percentage metal analysis showed that all the complexes analyzed as [M(L)2].xH2O, except the Co2+ complex which was analysed as [Co(L)2.2H2O]. The infrared spectral data confirmed coordination of the Schiff base to the metal ions using NO chromophores of imine N- and napthalenol O-atoms, and all metal complexes to exhibit trans-isomeric form. Electronic and room temperature magnetic measurements were corroborative of four coordinate tetrahedral/square-planar geometry for all the divalent metal complexes, except the Co2+ complex which assumed an octahedral geometry. Furthermore, the room temperature magnetic measurements indicated that the Mn2+ and Fe2+ complexes exhibited tetrahedral↔square planar geometry equilibrium, and the Cu2+ complex exhibited anti-ferromagnetism. The conductance measurements carried out in DMSO corroborate the covalent nature of the complexes. The antibacterial activities of the ligand (HL) and its divalent complexes screened invitro against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B. cereus, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca were generally good. Interestingly, the synthesized compounds exhibited broad spectrum activity against all tested bacteria proving their potentials as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents.

Azomethines and Biological Screening: Part-2. Evaluation of Biological Properties of Schiff Bases from 2-Aminobenzothiazoles and 4-Chlorobenzaldehyde

C. J. Patil, Manisha C. Patil, Mrunmayee C. Patil and Sanjivani N. Patil

  • Abstract

    The Azomethine compounds, 1b, 2b and 3b from substituted 2-Aminobenzothiazoles viz. 2-Amino-4-Nitro-benzothiazole (1a), 2-Amino-5, 6-benzobenzothiazole (2a) and 2-Amino-4, 6-dimethyl-benzothiazole (3a) with 4-chlorobenzaldehyde were synthesized. Further, these azomethine compounds were purified by column chromatography over silica Gel-G using benzene and chloroform (8:2) as eluent. The chemical structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by colour, physical constant and various spectral methods viz. UV-Vis and FTIR spectral data in addition to elemental analysis. These synthesized compounds were screened in vitro for their biological activity.

The Washing Process of Madagascar’s Coal in Sakoa by Use of Specific Solvents

E. Raharimalala Laurence, R. Andriambinintsoa Tojonirina, J. Ravelona Andry and                       B. Andrianomentsoa Hanitrinivony

  • Abstract

    For centuries, man exploits coal, and the first traces of its use as a fuel dates back to the twelfth century, real engine of the industrial revolution; coals changed the course of history around the world. In Madagascar, the coal in Sakoa basin covers an area of 400 square kilometers and all the Sakoa deposits contain a potential of 3 billion tons of coals according to studies conducted in 1950. The overall objective of our work consists in the Land coal quality control study to enhance the coals of Sakoa Basin in Toliara Madagascar: Sahavazy area, Andemby area, Mavonono area, Bevalaha area and Beroy area. The washing technical by solvents shows the quality of coal, and it found that the sulfur content has decreased by 1 to 0.3%, the calorific value increase by 4012 to 7314 kcal.kg-1 which improve the quality of coal in Sakoa. Our work has shown that after the studies, it is possible to enhance the quality of the coal in Sakoa, Toliara Madagascar for use in industrial and domestic operations, and for the development of the country in terms of energy.

Studies on Synthesis of Aromatic Schiff Bases: Part-I.Synthesis and Characterization of Ketimines from OHydroxy-Acetophenone with Substituted-Anilines

C. J. Patil, Manisha C. Patil and Mrunmayee C. Patil

  • Abstract

    Ketimine were prepared from o-Hydroxy-acetophenone with aniline, o-,m- and p-Nitroanilines using toluene as solvent by reflux, conventional method.The compounds formed were confirmed by microanalysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectra.Also their biological activity was studied and results are compared with standard drug.

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Elettaria Cardamomum L. (Manton) Essential Oil: A High Activity against a Wide Range of Food Borne and Medically Important Bacteria and Fungi

Snoussi Mejdi, Noumi Emira, Dehmani Ameni, Flamini Guido, Aouni Mahjoub, Alsieni Madiha and Al-sieni Abdulbasit

  • Abstract

    Essential oil extracted by hydro distillation from green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Manton) was characterized for its chemical composition by means of GC–MS. The antimicrobial activities were tested against a large collection of foodborne and medically important bacteria and fungi using the disk diffusion and microdilution assays. The results obtained showed the presence of twenty five components and green cardamom oil is particularly rich on oxygenated monoterpenes (88.7%) followed by monoterpenes hydrocarbons (8.2%). The main components were α-terpinyl acetate (45.6%), 1,8-cineole (26%), linalyl acetate (5.6%), linalool (5.2%), α-terpineol and limonene (2.9% both components). Moreover, green cardamom oil exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Gram positive bacteria (mean diameter= 21.77 mm), cariogenic bacteria (mean diameter= 19.51 mm) and fungi (mean diameter= 39.5 mm).The MICs values were ranging from 0.023 to 0.046 mg/ml for all bacterial and fungal strains tested. The results obtained highlighted that the E. cardamomum essential oil exhibited a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activities and this oil can be used to prevent food contamination by food spoilage organisms and food-borne pathogens and for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries.

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of Naphthylisoquinoline Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents Using Multiple Linear Regression Approach

Zakari Y. Ibrahim, Adamu A. Uzairu and Stephen E. Abechi

  • Abstract

    Malariais an infectious disease caused by protozoans, from which Plasmodium falciparum is the agent of severe and potentially fatal malaria. It developed resistance to chloroquine. Naphthylisoquinoline and their derivatives have been reported to exhibit inhibitory activities towards Plasmodium falciparum. Quantitative structureactivity relationship (QSAR) analysis of naphthylisoquinoline has been conducted  ing Electrotopological descriptors (SssCH2, minHsOH and minHBd), WHIM descriptor(Wlambda2.unity), BCUT descriptors (BCUTc-1l), logP, XlogP descriptor, Dipole moment (μ) and critical temperature (Tc). The descriptors were obtained from computational chemistry method using density functionalB3LYP/6-311G*. The generated QSAR models were based on multiple linear regression analysis. The best model pIC50 = + 5.6235 (± 0.1348) + 0.2211 (± 0.1371) SssCH2 + 0.3208 (± 0.1529) minHBd + 0.1963 (± 0.1522) XLogP + 0.3172 (± 0.1577) μ + 0.1907 (± 0.1412) Tc shows R2 value = 0.713, Q2 value= 0.606, predicted R2 value= 0.790. The results obtained could be used in future to design better antimalarial agents. 

Partial Molar Volumes and Viscosity B-Coefficients of MgCl2.6H2O in Some Multi-Component Solvent Systems at 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 And 318.15K.

K K Thakur, Munish Thakur & S K Lomesh

  • Abstract

    Density and viscosity of MgCl2.6H2O solutions in pure water, 0.01m aq. NaCl and in 2, 4 and 6% sorbitol in 0.01m aq. NaCl as solvent have been measured in order to explain the ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions at 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15K. The various thermodynamic parameters such as limiting apparent molar volume (ϕVO) and viscosity B-coefficients of Jones-Dole equation have been determined. The structure maker/breaker behavior of MgCl2.6H2O has been inferred from the signs of[∂2ϕVo⁄∂T2]P,𝑑𝐵⁄𝑑𝑇. The experimental data has also been analyzed in the light of transition state theory of solutions. It is concluded that the magnesium chloride acts as a structure breaker in pure water, 0.01m aq. NaCl and in 2, 4 and 6% sorbitol in 0.01m aq. NaCl as modified solvent systems at different temperatures. 

Synthesis of Some Derivatives of 2-(Coumarin-4-Yloxy)-N’-(Arylmethylidine) Acetohydrazide Using Nano Zno as Catalyst

Enayatollah Mottaghinejad, Maryam Tat Asadi

  • Abstract

    Coumarin-based hydrazones are important biologically active organic compounds. Hydrazone nucleus is found in natural and synthetic products of biological interest. Literature studies revealed that hydrazones and various substituted hydrazones are associated with a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant,antibacterial, antiviral, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities etc. In this paper we report the synthesis of a series of 2-(coumarin-4-yloxy)-N’-(arylmethylidine)acetohydrazide in the presence of catalytic amounts of nano ZnO particles. The products were characterized by IR and NMR techniques.The ease of reaction conditions and the good yield of products are the advantages of this research.

A Kinetic & Mechanistic Study of Rh (III) Catalyzed Oxidation of 2- Methyl Propan-1-Ol by Bromamine –T in Acidic Medium

Om Kumari, Archana Pandey, Arvind Kumar, Divya Gupta, Vikesh Kumar

  • Abstract

    The kinetic and mechanistic study of Rh(III) catalyzed oxidation of 2- methyl propan 1-ol by BAT in perchloric acid medium were carried out at 35 ºC. The reaction rate was found first order with respect to each of BAT, Rh (III) and H+ and 2-methyl propan-1-ol. þ- toluenesulphonamide shows an insignificant effect on the rate of reaction. The ionic strength of the medium was also mentioned. Activation parameters were calculated at different temperatures. The main oxidizing product of the reaction has been identified as corresponding aldehyde. The proposed mechanism is well supported by kinetic data.

Studies on Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas Oil by varying Alcohols

Sumit Nandi and Rupa Bhattacharyya

  • Abstract

    Viability of production of biodiesel (BD) from non edible Jatropha Curcas oil (JCO) using enzyme as catalyst by varying alcohols has been studied. BD has attracted considerable attention and gained significant importance as non-conventional, alternative, renewable, green energy sources for the last few decades. Optimum production of BD from JCO depends on initial raw materials along with important reaction parameters like reaction temperature, concentration of enzyme as catalyst, reaction time and molar ratio of initial raw materials. Alcohols play an important role in the transesterification reaction for optimum conversion of BD and in the present research investigation, the effect of variation of alcohol for the production of BD from JCO has been analyzed using 5% enzyme Novozyme 435 (Candida antarctica) as catalyst in the presence of solvent at 6:1 molar ratio of alcohol to JCO maintaining a temperature of 600C with 500 rpm of mixing intensity for 6hrs. The research findings show that methanol is the best option and contributes the highest yield of BD through transesterification reaction with JCO compared to other alcohols like ethanol, propanol and 1-butanol. The properties of Jatropha methyl ester are measured and are in conformity with the ASTM standards. 

Combinatorial Enumeration of Stereo and Position Isomers of [N, N]Monospiranes homopolysubstituted Derivatives.

Robert M. NEMBA, A. Nodem, J.J. Anguilé, C. E. Nemba

  • Abstract

    An algorithm is given for direct enumeration of stereo and position isomers of [n.n] mono-Spiranes homopolysubstituted derivatives with the empirical formula C2n+1H4n-q Xq where X represents a non isomerisable ligand, q is the degree of substitution and n is the carbon ring size. The counting method allows deriving integer sequences of enantiomer pairs Ac(n±, q±)and achiral skeletons Aac(n±, q±)for these series of compounds. Applications are shown for [2.2]-, [3.3]-, [4.4]-, [5.5]- monospiranes with the degrees of substitution 1≤ q ≤4n.

Phase Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis of Mixed Carboxylic-Sulphonic Anhydrides

R. Mathur

  • Abstract

    Mixed carboxylic-sulphonic anhydrides finds extensive applications for various synthetic purposes. These compounds are formed by reaction of silver carboxylate on sulphonyl chloride or by reaction of acyl chlorides or acid anhydrides on sulphonic acids. These carboxylic-sulphonic anhydrides are difficult to synthesise. This study reports successful application of phase transfer catalysts for convenient synthesis of carboxylic-sulphonic anhydrides.

  • Abstract

  • Abstract