Vol. 6 & Issue 3 ; Section A : Chemical Sciences

Date : May 2016 to July 2016

 

Synthesis, Characterization, 3D Modeling, Nano Structures, Anti- Microbial and-Anti Cancer Activity Studies of Metal (II) Chelates of a Novel Bioactive Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Sulphaquinoxaline

Tarek M.A. Ismail , Hesham M.A Soliman , Samy M. Abu-El-Wafa  and Doaa F. Sallam 

  • Abstract

    Some new solid Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) complexes of the sulpha drug Schiff base ligand (HL) derived from condensation of sulphaquinoxaline and salysaldehyde namely, 2-[4-(2-hydroxy benzylidene amino) benzene sulfonamido] quinoxaline, (HBABSQ), also new mixed ligand complexes of this ligand (HL) with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) or 1,10 Phenanthroline(1,10- Phen) with these metal(II) ions were synthesized. Structures of the new compounds were established by elemental analyses and spectral data. The results showed that most complexes have octahedral geometry but few can attain the square planer arrangement. 3D modeling of the ligand and its metal complex can be used by HyperChem molecular modeling program .Also quantum-mechanical properties like molecular orbitals and molecular energies were computed. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested for antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities. Nano Cu particles and nano Schiff-base-Cu complex were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy SEM and theirbiological activities were studied. These compounds have a great interest recently due to unique physical and chemical properties and low cost of preparation and showed higher antimicrobial and anticancer activity than the free ligand and its metal chelates

One pot, Three-Component Synthesis of functionalized Benzo[1,8]naphthyridines under catalyst in aqueous media

Rayappan Rajkumar, Paul Dhivya and Subramanian Parameswaran Rajendran

  • Abstract

    A facile and significant one pot procedure for the preparation of functionalized dibenzo [b,g][1,8] naphthyridine derivatives by three-component reaction of 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde, 1,3-dicarbonyl compound and phenyl hydrazine catalyzed by potassium carbonate in aqueous media is described. This new protocol has an interesting development of highly expedient methods for the synthesis of naphthyridine compounds and the advantages of environmental friendliness and convenient operation.

Proximate and elemental analysis of medicinal mushrooms from India for their nutritive values

B. M. Pardeshi

  • Abstract

    Present study deals with elemental analysis of medicinal mushrooms from India for their nonvolatile components including total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potash, Ca , Mn, and Mg the major elements as well as the micronutrient Zn, Cu, Fe , the minor elements by Atomic Absorption spectroscopy, using Perkin Elmer 3100 instrument. It was found that total nitrogen varies from 2.8 to 5.4% on dry weight basis. The nitrogen content of Reishi Gyanoderma mushroom studied is highest (5.40±0.2%) and lowest in-button mushroom, Total phosphorus varies from 0.06±0.05% to 1.02±0.03 % on dry weight basis. The phosphorus content of Reishi Gyanoderma mushroom studied is highest (102±0.03 %) and lowest in Shitake (0.06±0.05%) Total potash varies from-0.10±0.02% to 1.05±0.02 % on dry weight basis. The potash content of Reishi Gyanoderma l mushroom studied is highest (1.05±0.02 %) and lowest in Phellinus .Calcium content varies from 1.02±0.02 % to 2.80±0.05 %. The calcium content of Reishi Gyanoderma. Mushroom studied is highest (2.80±0.05 % ) and lowest in Button mushroom-- (1.02±0.02 %) on dry weight basis. The order of minor or trace element is found to be present in edible mushrooms under study was Fe>Cu>Zn>Mn and The overall order of all elements present for most of the samples was established as Mg > N> Ca>K>P> Fe>Cu>Zn>Mn.In general, most of the mushrooms studied had good amounts of minerals, including trace minerals.

New Methodology for Preconcentration and Detection of Ultra Trace Amount of Naphthalene and Anthrasene as Markers of Predict to Exploration of Petroleum Reservoir by Cloud Point Extraction Combined with Deferent Techniques

Jameel M. Dhabab, Zuhair A.A.Khammas, Ali Jaafar

  • Abstract

    This study is an attempt to use two compounds (Naphthalene, NAPH and Anthrasene, ANTH.) which were to recognize the leakage from petroleum reservoir to surface. This a phenomenon was using such as proximity indicator for petroleum deposits. Productive oil wells (Maysan- Iraq) were chosen with the soil and water samples to case study. The ultra-trace amounts of NAPH and ANTH were extracted by cloud point extraction (CPE) combined with UV-VIS and GC-MS techniques. The conditions of optimization for CPE were conducted with using Triton 114 (TX 114) as non-ionic surfactants. These conditions were of, of the conditions of separation used for the determination of NAPH and ANTH by GC-MS were the same conditions of CPE- UV-VIS. The results indicated that the retention times were of 6.75 and 13.72 min. After applying CPE method for NAPH and ANTH the concentration range was 0.003-2, 0.002-2 μg mL-1, LOD value was 0.2154x10-2, 6.842x10-4 μg mL-1, LOQ value was 7.1082x10-3, 2.2578x10-3,preconcentration factor was 33.33, 20 and enrichment factor was 115.1941, 26.516 respectively. Analysis of PAHs compounds concentrations in organic extract showed that the amounts of these compounds were different depending on many factors like depth, type of sample and location of sample. For example, the concentration of NAPH in Maysan Governorate near Halfaya well (1000 m) was of 1.8796 μg mL-1, while it has a value of 1.6719 μg mL-1 at 750 m and not detected at 500 and 250 m depth. The experimental results of this study indicated that the analysis of PAHs which extracted from soil and water samples can be used to predict or the Remote sensing for the presence of petroleum accumulation or indicator of pollution.

Improvement of the Corrosion Behavior of Titanium by Treating with Hydrogen Peroxide and Coating with Hydroxyapatite by Immersing in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF)

Aqeel Faleeh Hasan and Jamal Fadhel Hamodi

  • Abstract

    The aim of this research is the using of chemical oxidation technique for Titanium metal by Hydrogen Peroxide solution 5% by weight concentration for different periods (1, 2, 3) hours and preparing the metal surface to naturally coated with hydroxyapatite by immersing it with synthetic Simulated Body Fluid (SBF),in order to increase its biocompatibility and study the corrosion behavior for the obtained samples.The results obtained have shown that the passivation was increased to (-0.35) volt (OCP) and the corrosion rate decreased to 6.7*10-4 mm/y, while the untreated pure titanium have (-0.512) volt (OCP) and 3.65*10-3 mm/y corrosion rate. The XRD tests emphasize that a layer of titanium oxide have been formed on the titanium metal that increase the bonding with the hydroxyapatite layer that have been formed naturally after immersing in SBF.

Synthesis and Characterization of Zno-Cuo Nano-Composites and Its Application in Modified Carbon Paste Electrode for Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine, Folic Acid and Paracetomol

Sighanamane Ranganatha Kiran Kumar, Kumarswamy Yogesh Kumar, Ganjeenahalli Puttagiddappa Mamatha, Handanahally Basavarajaiah Muralidhara, Mylarapattana Shankaranarayana Anantha, Shivakumar Archana, Thigalarahalli Nagaraju Vinuth Raj

  • Abstract

    ZnO-CuO mixed oxide nanocomposite was synthesized via hydrothermal method and the nanopowder is used for modification carbon paste electrode (MCPE) and to study voltammetric detection of Dopamine and Paracetamol in the presence of Folic acid. In this study the ZnO-CuO modified carbon paste electrode was applied for the electrochemical determination of dopamine, folic acid and Paracetamol at pH 7.2 PBS solution with scan rate 50 mVs-1.The modified electrode is used for the determination of dopamine and Folic acid separately using cyclic voltammetry. The voltammogramsobtained during the oxidation studies revealed that nano ZnO-CuO mixed oxide exhibits better catalytic function towards the oxidation of DA, FA and paracetamol. The overlapping voltammetric response of both the biomolecules at the bare electrode gets resolved into well-defined voltammetric peaks with enhanced oxidation currents. The developed nanocomposite sensor offered high catalytic activity in sensing the dopamine, paracetamol individually and simultaneously in the presence of folic acid.

Synthesis, Characterization, Thermal, Fluorescence, In Vitro Anti-Tuberculosis, Anthemintic and Dna Cleavage Studies of Mononuclear Metal Complexes of 2h-Chromeme-2-One Schiff Base

Shivakumar S. Toragalmath, Sangamesh A. Patil Shivashankar M. Kinnal and Shailaja S. Jawoor

  • Abstract

    The mononuclear Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized with Schiff base, derived from 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and 2-hydrazino-4 (coumarin-3-yl)thiazole. The synthesized Schiff base and its mononuclear metal complexes have been successfully characterized in the light of FTIR, 1H NMR,13C NMR, UV- Visible, ESR, magnetic, thermal, fluorescence, mass and ESI-MS studies. The synthesized metal complexes completely soluble in DMF and DMSO. The molar conductance values indicate that, all the synthesized complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Elemental analysis study reveals stoichiometry of the type [ML2], where M= Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), L= singly deprotonated ligand. The bonding between Schiff base and metal ion was supported by FTIR data, through deprotonation of phenolic oxygen of coumarin and imine nitrogen atoms. The octahedral geometry of the Co(II) and Ni(II) metal complexes and square planar nature of Cu(II) complex has been confirmed by solution electronic spectral study. The thermal stability of all the newly synthesized mononuclear metal complexes have been studied by TG/DTA. The newly synthesized Schiff base and its mononuclear metal complexes have been screened for their anti-tuberculosis and anthelmintic activity against mycobacterium tubercuolsis and Pheretima posthuma respectively. The CT-DNA cleavage activity has been studied employing the gel electrophoresis method.

Studies on Some Newer 3-(H)-Quinazoline-4-One Derivatives Incorporated Azetidinones Moeities

Vipul B. Dave and M. K. Thakor

  • Abstract

    2-(2-(4-aminophenyl)-2-oxoethylthio)-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (2)was synthesized using 2-mercapto-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (1) react with 4-amino phenacyl chloride. 2-(2-(4-(substituted benzylideneamino)phenyl)-2-oxoethylthio)-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one 3(a-e) were prepared by condensationreaction between compound (2) and aromatic aldehydes. Further compounds (3a-e)with chloroacetyl chloride in presence of 1,4-dioxane undergo cyclocondensation togive final products i.e. 2-(2-(4-(3-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenylazetidin-1-yl)phenyl)-2-oxoethylthio)-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one 4(a-e). The structures of these compounds were examined on the basis of physical, analytical and spectral data.Furthermore all newly prepared compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities which suggest good to moderate antimicrobial activity against all employed strains.

Synthesis of Nano Zero Valent Iron Using Magnetic and Decantation Separation Techniques

K. Okorosaye-Orubite, U. J Chukwu and Olakunle Temidayo Clement.

  • Abstract

    This paper presents a simple, easy and convenient separation technique for obtaining nano zero valent Iron from Sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH4) and Iron (II)Chloride tetrahydrate (FeCl2.4H2O), using the wet chemistry method. Three samples, A, B, and C were prepared using molar ratio of NaBH4 and FeCl2.4H2O, 4:5, 2:3, and 3:2 respectively. Nano particles were obtained from samples A, B, and C applying the commonly used vacuum filtration and the proposed magnetic and decantation method.Vacuum filtration separation was used for sample A and B; while magnetic and decantation separation method was used for sample C. All the samples, A, B, and C were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). There was no observation of distinct peaks for sample A and B; but sample C had seven distinct peaks indicating synthesized nano zero valent iron (nFe0) particles. Sample C was further subjected to EDX, and the result revealed a distinct peak. A nano particle size of 54.28nm was obtained for sample C using Scherrer’s equation. A simple and easy to operate laboratory separation techniques are hereby suggested for the synthesis of nano zero valent iron.

Synthesis And Biological Studies of 5-{[(1H-Benzo[D] Imidazol-2'-Yl)Thio]Methyl}-3-Aryl
Isothiazole Derivatives

Narayana U. Kudva N, C. S. Vicas, V. Srinivasa Murthy, Sumana Y. Kotian, K.Byrappa2, K. M. Lokanatha Rai

  • Abstract

    A series of novel 5-{[(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2'-yl)thio]methyl}-3-arylisothiazoles 5(a-f) were synthesized by condensing 3-aryl-5-chloromethyl-isothiazole 3(a,b) and 2-mercapto benzimidazole 4(a-c) using potassium carbonate in DMF. The chemical structure of the newly synthesized compounds was characterized by spectral methods (1H, 13C NMR and LC-MS).The title compounds were screened for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and haemolytic assay. All the synthesized compounds showed less than 5% toxicity towards fresh chicken blood. Compounds 5a and 5f showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and compounds 5 (a-c) showed better activities against the fungi than 5(d-f). It was also observed that of the synthesized compounds, 5d showed better antioxidant activity than the other synthesized compounds.

A Comparative Account of the DNA Degradative Action of Honey on Burn Wound Isolates and Its Normal Flora

Ayesha N., Ayesha F. and Myrene R. D.

  • Abstract

    Even though a number of compounds with antimicrobial activity have been identified in honey, the exact mechanism of bacterial death remains unknown. Few researchers have attributed the DNA degrading activity of honey to endogenous hydrogen peroxide and polyphenols. This paper focuses on unraveling the mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Acacia and Neem honey on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn wounds; while comparing the lack of its ability to degrade DNA of Lactobacillus sp., a part of the honeys normal flora.

Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of DL-Methionine by Morpholinium Fluorochromate

Ammilal Rao, S. Panwar, Om Prakash, Shweta Vyas and Pradeep K. Sharma

  • Abstract

    The oxidation of methionine (Met) by morpholinium fluorochromate (MFC) in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) leads to the formation of corresponding sulphoxide. The reaction is of first order with respect to MFC. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics were observed with respect to methionine. The reaction is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. The hydrogen-ion dependence has the form: kobs = a + b [H+]. The oxidation of methionine was studied in nineteen different organic solvents. The solvent effect was analyzed by Kamlet’s and Swain’s multiparametric equations. Solvent effect indicated the importance of the cation-solvating power of the solvent. A suitable mechanism has also been postulated.

Influence of fungal elicitors on Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Sorghum bicolor (L.) growth under in vitro conditions

Magda M. M. Ahmed, Hussien M. Daffalla, Magdoleen G. Osman, Magdoline Mustafa Ahmed, Mohammed Mahgoub Hassan, Migdam E. Abdel Gani

  • Abstract

    In the present investigation fungal elicitors (0.0, 1.0, 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 mL/L) were evaluated for ability to induce germination of Striga hermonthica and sorghum growth. Fungal elicitors induced Striga germination in a concentration dependent manner. In presence of sorghum, the germination inducing activity of fungal elicitors was lowest at the lower elicitor concentrations. The activity, invariably, increased on increasing concentrations level (10-50 mL/L). At 50 mL/L elicitor, germination was increased to 63% and 75% irrespective to time interval. In absence of sorghum, fungal elicitors at 10 mL/L sustained the highest Striga germination then declined with increasing elicitor concentrations. In absence of the sorghum, fungal elicitors at 5-10 mL/L induced Striga germination. However, 50 mL/L of the fungal elicitor induced maximum germination in presence of the sorghum. In terms of Striga length, the maximum height was recorded at 5 and 50 mL/L elicitor in presence and absence of the sorghum, respectively. Sorghum height, in presence or absence of Striga, was considerably affected by fungal elicitor compared to the control. Among the fungal elicitor concentrations, irrespective to presence of Striga, 5 mL/L proved to be more ability to stimulate the growth of sorghum. Furthermore, fungal elicitor at 1.0 mL/L sustained the maximum root and root/shoot ratio in presence or absence of Striga. The improvement of root growth over the control was occurred only at the least fungal extract concentration and significantly decreased with increasing doses. The differential germination displayed by S. hermonthica in response to fungal elicitor merit further research and has to be taken into account in designing management strategies.

Induction of Prion Disease: Synergistic Effects of Calcium Ions and Low Temperatures

Mohammad Reza Dayer, Mohammad Saaid Dayer, Reza Golabgir Zadeh,Mahboubeh Baheri

  • Abstract

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative transmissible disorders characterized by accelerated conversion of cellular prion into misfolded isoform and its deposition in nervous tissues. Understanding the conversion mechanism is fundamental bases for developing a therapeutic strategy for these diseases. The main objective was to study probable synergistic effects of temperatures and calcium ions as suspected inducers of prion disease. In this work, using molecular dynamic method we simulated two sets of prion protein systems each at three temperatures, 30, 37 and 40°C, in the presence and absence of 0.1mM calcium ions. Our results indicated apparent synergistic effect between low temperature and 0.1mM concentration of calcium ions. Our findings provides clear interpretation for the prevalence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) between 1986 to 1993, during which meat and bone powders (with high concentration of calcium ions) were incorporated into cattle feeding regime and particularly the disease picks during the cold season of the year .

Physical Studies of Crude Oil and Comparative Analysis of the Different Kurdistan-IRAQ Crude Oil Fields

Shameran Jamal Salih and Nsar Sherko Omar

  • Abstract

    Physical analysis of crude oil samples in different fields of Kurdistan region has been evaluated and is reported in this project. Four different Kurdistan crude oils roduced in various fields namely (Khormala, Tawki, Ain zala and Taqtaq) were analyzed. All crude oil samples were evaluated using ASTM standard methods of testing, and compared to Iraqi specification of crude oils. The results showed that all fuel oils are within the Iraqi specification except that produced from Ain zala and Taqtaq which are higher in sulphur content (4.2632% w/w and 0.7818% w/w) respectively.

Determination of Essential and Harmful Heavy Metals in Some Typical Medicinal Plants Grown in Bangladesh

Md. Abdul Mannan, Farhana Mustari, Md. Shamim Hossain, Md. Khalid Hassan, Md. Kudrat-E-Zahan, A.B.M. Hamidul Haque, Shahed Zaman

  • Abstract

    Five typical medicinal plants such as Murraya koenegii, Mimusops elengi, Allamanda cathertica, Alostonia scholaris, and Abroma augusta were collected from the adjacent arear of the Rajshahi University Campus, Bangladesh. Content of essential and toxic heavy metals in the plants was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The concentrations of essential and heavy toxic metals: Ca, K, Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Cu and Pb were found to be within the recommended value. The Ca and K concentration was found in ppm level and the other element concentration was found in ppb level. Concentration of the Pb was found to be high in comparison to the other elements analyzed in the medicinal plants.

A Study on the Adsorption of Copper (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution using Thermo Chemical Activated Ananas Comosus Leaves

Arunadevi K, Venkatachalam R Arivoli S, and Marimuthu V

  • Abstract

    The effective and economic removal of heavy metals from industrial effluents is one of the important issues globally. The present study proposed the use of Activated Ananas Comosus Leaves in the removal of Cu (II) ions from synthetic aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried to fix the adsorption dosage and also to find the optimum pH. Batch adsorption studies showed that Activated Ananas Comosus Leaves was able to adsorb Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions in the concentration range 25-125 mg/L. The adsorption was favoured with maximum adsorption at pH 6, whereas the adsorption starts at pH 2 for metal ions. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of metal ions, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been reported. The applicability of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm was tried for the system to completely understand the adsorption isotherm processes. The adsorption kinetics tested with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models yielded high R2 values from 0.850 to 0.932 and from 0.991 to 0.999, respectively. The Activated Ananas Comosus Leaves was found to be cost effective and has good efficiency to remove these toxic metal ions from aqueous solution.

Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Isotherm Studies on the Removal of Rhodamine B Dye using Activated Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba Stem Nano Carbon

R. Yamunadevi, R. Venkatachalam, S Arivoli and V Marimuthu

  • Abstract

    The research of the present work was to investigate the removal of Rhodamine B dyes from aqueous solution by using Activated Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba Stem Nano Carbon (ACTNC). Generally, dyes are organic compounds used as colouring products in chemical, textile, paper, printing, leather, plastics and various food industries. The need for the treatment of dye contaminated waste water passed out from the industry. In this study, Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba Stem was studied for its potential use as an adsorbent for removal of a cationic dye Rhodamine B (Rh-B). The various factors affecting adsorption, such as initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and effect of temperature, were evaluated. The experimental data were fitted into the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The equilibrium of adsorption was modeled by using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The objective of the present work suggests the ACTNC may be utilized as a low cost adsorbent for Rhodamine B dye removal from aqueous solution.

Novel Metal Complexes Containing Multidentate Schiff base: Synthesis, Spectroscopic Investigation and Antitumor Activity

Abdou Saad El-Tabl, Moshira Mohamed Abd El-wahed, Samar Ebrahim Abd-El razek, Sabreen Mohamed El Gamasy and Omnya Ebrahim Abd El-wahab 

  • Abstract

    Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ag(I), Al(III) and Bi(III) complexes of 2,2'-(1E,1'E)-(1,1'-(4,6-dihydroxy-1,3-phenylene)bis(ethan-1-yl-1-ylidene)) bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene)dibenzoic acid have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis spectra, Magnetic moments, Conductances, 1H-NMR and Mass spectra, Thermal analyses (DTA and TGA) and ESR measurements. The analytical and IR data show that, the ligand behaves as neutral bidentate or hexadentate or monobasic tetradentate or dibasic hexadentate. Molar conductances in DMF indicate that, the complexes are non-electrolytes. ESR spectra of solid Cu (II) complexes at room temperature show axial type (dx2-y2) with covalent bond character in an octahedral environment. However, Co (II) and Mn(II) complexes showed isotropic type. Some complexes showed inhibitory activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2 cell line) compared with standard drug (Sorafenib).

Design, Synthesis and Characterization of new Task-specific Brönsted acidic hydrogensulfate Ionic liquid

Rohit L. Vekariya

  • Abstract

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new imidazolium based halogen free ionic liquid (IL) 1-Methyl-3-propane sulfonic acid imidazolium lauryl sulfonic acid hydrogen sulphate (MIM-PS-LS). By reacting 1-methyl imidazole with 1,3-propane sultone and by exchanging chloride ion with lauryl sulphate anion, IL 1-Methyl-3-propane sulfonic acid imidazolium lauryl sulfonic acid hydrogen sulphate (MIM-PSLS). The superior purity of this IL was confirmed with 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR and Mass indicating the helpfulness of this synthetic approach. The Hammett acidity (H0) shows the [MIM-PS-LS] HSO4 (0.93) has better acidity than [MIM-PS] Cl. 

Studies on Novel 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Moieties Containing Thiazolidinone Ring

Meeta A. Suthar and M. K. Thakor

  • Abstract

    Fused heterocyclic compounds (3a-h) namely 2-(5-phenyl-2-thioxo-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl)-N-(3-phenyl-5-arylthiazolo[4,5-c]isoxazol-6(5H)-yl)acetamide were prepared and then characterized. First Oxadiazolo-thiazolidinones (1a-h) on condensation with benzaldehyde give the arylidine derivatives (2a-h). Such compounds 2a-h on reaction with hydroxyl amine gives the title compounds i.e. 3a-h. All the compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity.

A Review: Fabrication of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles and Applications

Shailesh C. Kotval, Tessy John, Kokila A parmar

  • Abstract

    Nanotechnology refers to an emerging field of science that deals with synthesis of nanoparticles and nonmaterial which has a dimension of 1 to 100 nanometers. In the recent years, nano-scale materials have been found potential applications in catalysis, biological labeling, biosensing, drug delivery antibacterial activity, antiviral activity, gene therapy and DNA sequencing. Metallic nanoparticles that have immense applications in optics, biomedical sciences, drug delivery and electronics. Metal nanoparticles such as gold and silver have numerous applications in sensors, detectors and antibacterial agents. Metal nanoparticles can be synthesized chemically or biologically. Chemical and physical methods are used in the synthesis of nanoparticles, which has a severe hazardous and high toxicity for living organisms. Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is cheap single step and eco-friendly. Metal nanoparticles such as gold and silver have several applications in sensors, detectors and antibacterial agents. Among these metal nanoparticles silver have tremendous applications in different fields. This review presents an overview of silver nanoparticles preparation by green synthesis approaches and its applications in various fields.

Synthesis and Characterization of Anionic Complexes of Diorganoantimony (V) Chlorides

Parul Misra, Kiran Singhal and Prem Raj

  • Abstract

    Hitherto unknown anionic complexes of diarylantimony(V) chlorides of general formula [R3R’][Ar2SbCl3X] (RR’= C6H5, C6F5, C4H9: Ar=C6H5, p-CH3C6H4, OCH3C6H4, p-ClC6H4, p-F-C6H4 , C6H4(CH2CH=CH2) and X=Cl, Br, I, N3, NCS) have been synthesized and isolated in solid state in combination of tetraarylstibonium salts. The newly synthesized complexes have been characterized on the basis of melting points, elemental analysis, molecular weight, molar conductance and spectroscopic data.

Synthesis and Reactions of Diarylantimony (V) -Amides and -Chloroamides

Parul Misra, Kiran Singhal and Neelima Misra and Prem Raj

  • Abstract

    A series of diorganoantimony(V) amides, R2Sb(NR2)3 and chloroamides R2SbCln(NR2)3-n (n=1,2) has been prepared by the simple metathetical reaction of Ar2SbCl3 in presence of Et3N or by the interaction of Ar2SbCl3 with an appropriate sodium salt of the ligand in the molar ratio 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized on the basis of IR, 1H, 19F NMR spectra and molecular weight and conductance measurement.

Synthesis of Novel 2-((6-Methyl-2-(Methylthio) Pyrimidin-4-yl)oxy)acetohydrazide Derivatives and Their Growth Stimulant Properties

Vergush A. Pivazyan, Emma A. Ghazaryan, Roza S. Shainova, Aleksandr P. Yengoyan

  • Abstract

    The reaction of 2-((6-methyl-2-(methylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl)oxy) acetohydrazide with carbon disulfide and potassium hydroxide in ethanol medium led to potassium2-(2-((6-methyl-2-(methylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl)oxy)acetyl)hydrazine-1-carbod ithioate, which further heterocyclization and alkylation afforded a series of novel nonfused biheterocyclic systems derivatives, where pyrimidine cycle is linked with 5-S-substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles through the oxymethylene group. Corresponding 2-N-alkyl (aryl)-substituted 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles were obtained via reaction of initial acetohydrazide with isocyanates and subsequent heterocyclization. The same acetohydrazide was transformed into 2-((6-methyl-2-(methylthio) pyrimidin-4-yl) oxy) acetyl azide. By reaction of latter with various amines some N-aryl (alkyl)acetamides were synthesized. The synthesized compounds show a pronounced plant growth stimulant activity that was observed in these novel series of compounds for the first time. 

Rheological Modeling, Physicochemical, Spectroscopic and rheological characterizations of Trichilia roka (TR) Gum Exudate

Nnabuk Okon Eddy, Aliyu Mohammed Ja’o and Nafiu Sharif Usman

  • Abstract

    Trichilia roka gum was purified and analyzed and subjected to physicochemical, spectroscopic and rheological analysis. Results obtained from physicochemical analysis indicated that the gum is mildly acidic, ionic and exhibited properties that are closely related to most useful food and pharmaceutical gums. The gum has rich content of fibre, major elemental ions and other useful minerals. GCMS and XRF studies on the gum also revealed that the gum has several industrially useful minerals. The viscosity of the gum is found to be significantly affected by concentration, temperature, pH and concentration of electrolyte. Calculated value of intrinsic viscosity from Kraemer and Huggins plots were 4.67 to 8.57 dl/g while those obtained from Tanglertpaibul and Rao models were relatively low. The absence of molecular association within the gum molecule is proposed for the gum since the sum of Huggins and Kraemer constants was greater than unity. Also the gum displayed more rod like conformation and the existent of few intra and inter molecular interactions was confirmed by low activation and free energies of flow. TR gum is found to be a Newtonian gum with dilatants behavior.

Pausinystalia yohimbe; Mechanism of Relaxation of Rabbit Cavernous Tissue

Okolo R. U and Egua M. O

  • Abstract

    This in vitro study was to determine the mechanism of action of Pausinystalia yohimbe (PY) aphrodisiac effect. It entailed the use of cavernous tissue strips which were harvested from rabbits randomly selected, weighed and anaesthetized with a mixture of 25% (w/v) urethane and 1% (w/v) alpha-chloralose dissolved in distilled water and injected intra-peritoneally at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight. With rabbit cavernous tissue strips dissected, in vitro vascular studies were conducted using various physiological salt solutions, drugs (Acetylcholine hydrochloride, NG- Nito-L-Arginine Methyl Ester hydrochloride, and Methylene blue, Urethane, Alpha Chloralose ) and PY extract(in serial dilution) with responses recorded from an isometric transducer and tissue bath connected to a Grass Polygraph. The cavernous tissue strips study served to delineate the mechanism of action of relaxation responses of PY found not to be endothelium dependent but truly of the extract. These findings as well validate the folkloric and traditional use of Pausinystalia yohimbe as an aphrodisiac. It also opens the door for more research in this area (erectile dysfunction).