Vol. 6 & Issue 4 ; Section A : Chemical Sciences

Date : Aug.2016 to October 2016


Volumetric Study of Biologically Active Indole Derivatives in Aqueous and Micellar Media

Anil Kumar

  • Abstract

    Voltammetry study of some indole derivatives has been studied with particular reference to linear sweep voltammetry using pyrolytic graphite electrode in aqueous and micellar media. It was found that these types of compound i.e. 5-Hydroxy indoles can be determined in the concentration range 0 to 1.0 mM in aqueous medium. At higher concentration adsorption of these compound caused diminished peak current values. In presence of ionic and non-ionic surfactant i.e. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), Cetyl tri methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and Tween -40, the peak current values decreased and hence determination becomes difficult.

Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Acids by HPLC, in two Wild Edible Plants viz. Solanum gilo and Solanum kurzii Collected from North-Eastern Region in India

Tapan Seal, Basundhara Pillai and Kausik Chaudhuri

  • Abstract

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array detector with gradient elution has been developed and validated for the estimation of free phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, salicylic acid and ellagic acid), in two different solvent extracts of Solanum gilo and Solanum kurzii collected from North-eastern region in India . The chromatographic separation of phenolic acids were carried out on Acclaim C 18 column (5 μm particle size, 250 x 4.6 mm) , Dionex Ultimate 3000 liquid chromatograph and detection was carried out at three different wave lengths (272 , 280 and 300 nm) using a mobile phase of methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid solution with gradient elution. The experimental results showed a very good amount of syringic acid (4.157±0.017 mg/gm dry extract), chlorogenic acid (2.338±0.014 mg/gm dry extract) and sinapic acid (3.38±0.02 mg/gm dry extract) present in the methanol extract of S. gilo. The high percentage of recovery (98-99%), low coefficient of variation (R2 > 0.99) and low limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) confirm the suitability of the method for simultaneous quantification of all phenolic acids in the two plants under investigation

Study the impact of sources of sedimentation in the quantity and quality of free iron oxides in some sedimentary soils for the provinces of Wasit and Maysan in Iraq

Luma Abdalalah Sagban Alabadi and Salman Kalaf Eysaa

  • Abstract

    This study was conducted to determine the quantity and quality of free iron oxides for some soils of the provinces of Wasit, Maysan, since this region is part of the alluvial plain of southern Iraq. The presence of variation in the percentages of oxides, total iron Fet has been analyzed, the results shown that these ratios may be affected by the conditions of sedimentation, as it rose toward the banks of the Tigris River and the bands first and second. This might confirm the effect of sediment transported proportions of iron oxides free college in soils located to the right side of the Tigris River. The results also showed that the soils located to the right side of the Tigris River has the highest proportions of iron oxides Fet .Moreover, the results also show high free iron oxides levels, amorphous Fed within the upper horizons values with a variation in the distribution and attributed to those surrounding soil conditions. While low levels of pedons (5 , 8) has been detected, this might attribute to the amount of rain and moisture content of the areas of the mountain ranges. The results revealed the mean values of the mixing zones (6 , 7) might reflect the affected coming from Iran and low contents of the Fed. The data also showed a variation in the case of iron oxide ratios amorphous Feo and convergence in line age with iron oxides crystalline Fed. This convergence might refer to the weakness of the process of transformation of iron oxides from amorphous to crystalline most consistent. Additionally, this work also showed that the vertical distribution took one pattern for each of the Fed and Feo but not pedon (6). The vertical distribution for Feo opposite to the Fed and is due to deposition. As for the active Fed / Feo of iron oxides, the results showed that the values contrary to the values of Fed and the variation in the proportions of these active oxides in the soils study attributed to the surrounding these soil conditions.

Development of New Halogen-Free Hydrophobic Task-Specific Ionic Liquid

Rohit L. Vekariya

  • Abstract

    A new imidazolium based halogen free task-specific ionic liquid (TSIL) 1-decyl-3-methyl imidazolium dodecyl sulphate (C10MimDs), was synthesized. The superior purity and structure of this IL was confirmed with 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR, UV, and mass indicating the helpfulness of this synthetic approach. The thermal stability was investigated using TGA and DTA spectra. The developed IL is new fluoride free hydrophobic TSIL which is economical and environmentally benign process and could be a good substitute of costly, toxic PF6¯, BF4¯ etc. anions based ILs. The results indicated that the synthesis procedure is valid and gives highly pure products.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Organosoluble Poly (Thioether-Amide) S Bearing 2-Aminothiophenol Structure in the Main Chain

Esmael Rostami and Amin khaksabz

  • Abstract

    New polyamides containing 1,3-bis (2-thio-2- (4-carboxyphenyl) -1-oxo) benzene structure were prepared under microwave irradiation using Yamasaki phosphorilation method and their solubility, thermal behavior and viscosity were evaluated. The structures of polymers were characterized using IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. These polyamides showed good solubility, viscosity, high thermal stability and glass transition temperatures. Their viscosities and glass transition temperatures are in the range of 0.42-0.48 and 184-201 °C, respectively.

The Absorption and Transport of Na+, K+ of Grafted Eggplants under NaCl Stress

Li -Ping Bai,Si Lv,  Ting-Ting Zhang, Bao -Li Zhou,Gang Chen,Zhi-Fu Guo 

  • Abstract

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the short time (<12h) and long time (15d) of salt treatment, the ion absorption, transportation of Grafting Eggplant Resistance causes strong salt resistance. The results show that although the medium absorption of Na+, Cl- is relatively more grafted eggplant seedlings, but the shoot transportation is less, as a result the content of Na+ is reducing, the salt tolerance is increasing. The grafted eggplant and Wild Eggplant causes difference of salt tolerance of grafted eggplant , and wild eggplant root absorption of SK.Na have no obvious difference, but the root of the ion transport process to stem and leaf, wild eggplant root absorption SK.Na were significantly greater than those of Grafted Eggplants, Wild eggplant stems Na + to the blade transport less selective K+ is strong, so that leaves Na+ / K+ ratio is low, which indicated that shoots for K+, Na+ strong selective transport capacity is wild eggplant affected by salt damage suppression small reasons

NMR Analysis for Resorcinol in Characterization of Hydrogen Bonding Through Ultrasonic Velocity

B.S.Srikanth, S.Sekar, R.Ramasamy

  • Abstract

    Molecular Interaction studies in liquids provide vivid information about the structural details of the molecules in solution phenomena. The Cohesive Energy of the Inter and Intra molecular interaction is the best revealed through ultrasonic studies. In the current study by passing ultrasonic waves through aqueous solution of Resorcinol Internal Pressure and Free volume are estimated. The study is carried out at different concentrations in order to understand the effect of concentration with the association of molecular phenomena of structure making or breaking. Scientist A.Passyanski gave the Signal Acquisition in Ultrasonic systems. B.Jacobson gave a Broad-band Spectroscopy of Liquids. W.Schaff has been engaged on the study of importance of Molecular interaction between the acceptor and the Donor molecules.In India V.A.Tabhane worked on the Acoustical study of organic materials. The internal pressure and free volume analysis for Aqueous Organic solutions were given by S.Sekar and A.Dhanalakshmi.

Synthesis, Characterization and Corrosion Inhibiting Behaviours of Novel Schiff Bases from Substituted Benzylidine Rings in Acidic Medium

Olumayede, E.G ; Abimbade, S.F , Olusanya, S.O ; Akintayo, C.O ; Malomo, D ; Ogundele, J.O ; Adubiaro, H.O , Sodehinde, K

  • Abstract

    This paper reported the synthesis and characterisation of novel Schiff bases from benzylidine rings and investigated the effect of introducing substituent into either the benzene or benzylidine rings on their corrosion inhibitory efficiency using gravimetric analysis. The Schiff bases were characterised using IR, H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The corrosion study was carried out for a period of 90 days where the copper rod was immersed in the different concentrations of schiff base in acid solution of0.5M HCl. The results show that increase in the concentration of Schiff base decreases the corrosion rate of copper wires in 0.5M HCl solution with just 25% corrosion after 15 days of exposure. The obtained results further showed that the NO3 group appears to improve the efficiency of the inhibitor at all concentrations. The study revealed that Schiff base decreases the corrosion of copper based on physical adsorption inhibition mechanism.

Potential of ISSR to discriminate among species of Physalis (Solanaceae)

José Roberto Medina-Medrano, Norma Almaraz-Abarca, Ana María Sifuentes-Rincón,Sandy Molina-Moret

  • Abstract

    The great diversity of species of Physalis observed in Mexico, linked to a high morphological variation, make the specific taxonomic determination a hard task. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR), through a population genetics approach, to discriminate among four wild Mexican species of Physalis (Physalis angulata, P. solanacea, P. patula, and P. subulata) and one cultivated species from South America (P. peruviana). Ten ISSR primers amplified 229 polymorphic loci, ranging from 300 to 7200 bp in size. High levels of intraspecific variation were found in all the species, being the cultivated P. peruviana among those with the highest levels. A close genetic relationship was found between P. angulata and P. patula (gene flow (Nm) levels > 1, genetic distance values < 0.15), which are species belonging to different taxonomic sections (Angulatae and Epetiorhiza, respectively). In spite of the close genetic relationships, each species was clearly discriminated under a Principal Coordinates Analysis. The results suggest that ISSR markers are valuable specific markers for those species of Physalis.

Synthesis and Characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) Complexes of 1-[2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzilidene)hydrazono]-1-phenylpropan-2-one oxime

R. G. Deshmukh and A. K. Kadu

  • Abstract

    A new ligand 1-[2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzilidene) hydrazono]-1-phenylpropan-2-one oxime (HBHBHPPO) have been synthesized and reported for the first time. Interest in this ligand was due to the ambidenticity as well as probable multidenticity in coordination with metal ions of the transition element series. The ligand has two probable dissociable protons, yet our studies reveal that it is monobasic in nature. The synthesis and characterization of the ligand and its complexes of the type ML2 where M is Co (II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) is described. Ligand and its complexes with transition metals were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductivity measurement, IR, PMR, UV-VISIBLE spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. IR studies shows that ligand behaves as tridentate in cobalt and nickel complexes whereas in copper and palladium complexes it acts as bidentate ligand and coordinate through oximino and azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen to cobalt and nickel and through oximino and azomethine nitrogen to copper and palladium. Based on these results, probable structure of these complexes have been proposed. Co (II) and Ni (II) complexes have octahedral geometry while Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes have square planar structure

Study the Levels of Heavy Metals in Some of Leafy Vegetables, in Al-Makhwah Farms, Al-Baha Distinct, Saudi Arabia

Abdulaziz Ali Al Omari , Hanaa Hassan Abdel Latif Rokbaa, Mohamed El-Shahate Ismaiel Saraya

  • Abstract

    This is the first study conducted in order to determination of the levels of some heavy metals in vegetables, soil and irrigation water in Al-Makhwah farms, Saudi Arabia was examined. This study was carried out on three farms. Five heavy metals, such as, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Co, were determined by ICP-OES. The dust was investigated by SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction. Bio-accumulation transfer factor (BAF), the estimated daily intake of metals (EDI) and health risk assessment (THQ) were also calculated. The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals (mgl-1) in the irrigation water was the highest for Cu, Mn and Co in all sites, the concentration of which was over the permissible limits allowed by FAO, while concentration of all metals in soil lower than allowed range. The SEM-EDX analysis of the collected dust particles showed the major detected elements were Na, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Ti, in addition to traces of S, F, Cu and Bi. According to the statistical analysis on the raw data of heavy metals content in vegetables, the results indicated that a wide variation range of the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Co was observed in the vegetables grown at Al-Makhwah. Significant positive correlations between the heavy metal concentrations in vegetables were observed. From the human health point of view, this study showed that there was no possible health risk to consumers due to intake of studied vegetable under the current consumption rate except that for children.

ynthesis of CoII, NiII, CuII and ZnII complexes with 4-(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazin-5-one Schiff base: Spectral, Fluorescent and Biological Aspects

Kiran Singh and Ritu*

  • Abstract

    CoII, NiII, CuII and ZnII transition metal complexes of Schiff base derived from condensation of 4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazin-5-one with 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde have been prepared. All the newer analogs were characterized with the aid of various physicochemical techniques like IR, NMR, ESR, Thermal, Electronic, Magnetic Moment, Fluorescence and Cyclic Voltammogram. The shifts in IR and NMR spectra of the metal complexes as compared to ligand show the binding mode of heteroatoms (present in ligand) with transition metal ions. Presence of coordinated water molecules in metal complexes are confirmed through IR data and thermal analysis. Metal complexes show enhancement in fluorescent intensity over the ligand. Cyclic voltammogram show the redox behavior of copper complexes. Schiff base and all the metal complexes are tested against four bacterial strain and two fungal strain.

Theoretical Study of Metal Ion Complexation with Dinaphthosulfide Aza Oxa Thia Crown

Esmael Rostami, and Saeedeh Ghahremany

  • Abstract

    The capability of dinaphthosulfide aza oxa thia crown to form complexes with some metal cations (Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Hg2+ and Ag+) was investigated by computational methods in the gas phase. The calculations were performed at the HF/lanl2DZ level of theory. The formation constants were used to evaluate the metal binding capability of the crown. The results of the calculations showed that the formation constants of the complexes decreased in the range of Zn2+>Cd2+>Hg2+>Pb2+>Ag+. On the other hand, for more understanding about the aza crown and complexes the physical properties such as dipole moments, polarizability, hardness, energy, frontier orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) energies and band gap have been calculated. Also, natural bond population (NBO) analysis was calculated and charges on the atoms and interaction energies between donor and acceptor species were investigated. For more information on the electron density on the crown and Zn2+ complex HOMO and LUMO orbitals were calculated and showed the interaction between electron donors and Zn2+ metal ion.

Mutual biological characteristics of new metal chelates of diacetylresorcinol thiosemicarbazide ligand: preparation and spectroscopic investigation

Abdou Saad El-Tabla, Moshira Mohamed Abd El-wahedb, Joseph Jimmy Stephanosa, Samar Ebrahim Abd-El razekc, Sabreen Mohamed El Gamasya and Heba Gamal Zalata

  • Abstract

    New Schiff base derived from diacetylresorcinol and thiosemicarbazide and its metal chelates were prepared and characterized by spectral analysis, IR, UV-Vis spectra, Magnetic moments, Conductances, 1H-NMR, Mass spectra, Thermal analyses (DTA and TGA) and ESR measurements. Molar conductances in DMF indicate that, the metal chelates are non-electrolytes. ESR spectra of solid Cu(II) chelates at room temperature show axial type (dx2-y2) with covalent bond character in an octahedral environment. Some of metal chelates have shown antitumor inhibtory activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2 cell line). And also, these metal chelates were screened for antibacterial activity against two Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillis subtilis and Streptococcus pneumonia using the disc diffusion and micro Broth dilution assays. Also, the same metal chelates were tested against two types of fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

Oxidation Studies of Aliphatic Secondary Alcohols by Quinolinium Chlorochromate: A Kinetic and
Mechanistic Approach

Umashankar Soni, Neha Vyas, T. Purohit, A. Choudhary, and Pradeep K. Sharma

  • Abstract

    Oxidation of several aliphatic secondary alcohols by quinolinium chlorochromate (QCC) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) leads to the formation of corresponding ketones. The reaction is first order each in QCC. A Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics are observed with respect to the alcohols. The reaction is catalysed by hydrogen ions. The hydrogen-ion dependence has the form: kobs = a + b [H+]. The oxidation of benzhydrol-α-d (PhCDOHPh) exhibited a substantial primary kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD = 5.71 at 298 K). The oxidation of 2-propanol has been studied in nineteen different organic solvents. The solvent effect has been analysed using Taft's and Swain's multiparametric equations. The reaction was subjected to both polar and steric effects of the substituents. A mechanism involving transfer of hydride ion from alcohol to the oxidant, via a chromate ester, has been proposed.

Mixed Ligand Complex Formation Reactions and Equilibrium Studies of Diaqua (N-Methylethylenedi- amine) Palladium (II) With Various Biologically Relevant Ligands

Eman M. Shoukry, Nagda G. Hosny, Mona F. Amin and Eman F. Mohamed

  • Abstract

    Pd(N-Me-en)Cl2 complex was synthesized and characterized, where N-Me-en = N-methylethylenediamine. The complex-formation reactions of [Pd(N-Me-en)(H2O)2]2+ with selected bio-relevant ligands, containing different functional groups, were investigated. Stoichiometry and stability constants for the complexes formed are reported. The results show the formation of 1:1 complexes with amino acids and dicarboxylic acids. Peptides form both 1:1 complexes and the corresponding deprotonated amide species. Structural effects of the peptide on the amide deprotonation were investigated. DNA constituents formed both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes. The potentiometric results were complimented by spectroscopic measurements. The concentration distributions of various species formed in solution were also evaluated as a function of pH. The thermodynamic parameters ΔH° and ΔS° calculated from the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants were investigated. The effect of chloride ion concentration and dioxane on the acid dissociation constants of 1, 1-cyclobutane dicarboxylic acid (CBDCAH2) and the formation constant of its complex with Pd(N-Me-en)2+ was reported. The results are expected to contribute to the chemistry of tumor therapy.

Asphalt Additives for Improvement of Rheological properties

Firyal M.A and Mohanad Q.H.

  • Abstract

    asphalt s50 was improved by adding some additives such as poly styrene graft co dipentene or indene a1-a2 then sulfur was used as cross linking agent to protect the fracture of pavement to superior presentation to be expediency cost, beneficial thermal safety, extended life of the asphalt, preparing conditions which gave high thermal resistance with more stabilities, all these prepared polymers have been characterized by FTIR and H-NMR spectroscopies .intrinsic viscosities were calculated. Softening point and penetration were observed for all asphalts blends which were compared with the asphalt .samples, which gave high softening temperatures with higher stabilities to resist the deformations of roads. The blend of asphalt showed high properties when compare with the origin asphalt. The physical properties of a specific polymers are determined by the succession and chemical structure, when polymers are added to asphalt, the properties of the modified asphalt cement depend on polymer characteristic of asphalt and compatibility of polymer with asphalt. When polymers are added to asphalt is to produce binders have acceptable rheological for using in different weathering conditions. All these prepared polymers were tested by softening points and penetration for all asphalt blends which were compare with the asphalt sample. all the improvement made by adding polymers to asphalt included the increasing the viscosity of the binder service, the thermal susceptibility of the binder, increased the cohesion of the asphalt, to avoid permanent warp, and to prevent the fatigue at low temperatures, improved binder adhesion (higher viscosity of the binder). Rheological properties of asphalt were improved.

Synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA/BSA binding, antioxidative and molecular docking studies of ternary Copper (II) complexes with a Schiff base ligand and heterocyclic bases

B. Anupama* and A.Aruna

  • Abstract

    New two copper complexes of type [Cu(L)(phen)Cl] 1, ([Cu(L)(bpy)Cl] 2 where L = 2,3 –dimethyl-1-phenyl-4-(2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzylideneamino)-pyrazole-5-one),bpy=2,2bipyridine and phen = 1,10 phenanthroline, have been synthesized. The structural features have obtained from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molarconductance, mass, IR, UV –VIS, ESR and SEM studies. Based on all these data, the complexes are assigned to be octahedral geometry. The interaction of metal complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was carried out by absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurement methods. A further molecular docking technique was employed to understand the binding of the complexes towards the molecular target DNA. Investigation of the antioxidative properties showed that the metal complexes have significant radical scavenging activity potency against DPPH radical. The interaction of Cu (II) complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also studied using absorption and fluorescence techniques.

Electrochemical Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium from Chemical Oxygen Demand Hazardous Waste Chemicals using Graphite Electrode

Jemborn D. Igcalinos and Ronnie L. Besagas

  • Abstract

    The removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI), from highly acidic, essentially nonaqueous laboratory waste by electrochemical reduction was studied using graphite electrode. This study evaluated the effectiveness of graphite electrode to electrochemically reduce the unreduced Cr (VI) in the hazardous spent chemical oxygen demand (COD) reagent to trivalent chromium. The effect of four factors were investigated in the experiment which are the initial Cr (VI) concentration ([Cr6+]0, 1/2[Cr6+]0, and 1/4[Cr6+]0), the initial acidity of the COD spent chemicals ([Acidity]0, 1/2[Acidity]0 and 1/4[Acidity]0), applied electric current (0A, 1A, and 6A), and reaction time. The voltage, type and size of graphite electrodes were held constant. The result shows that the varied factors significantly affect the effectiveness of graphite electrode in reducing Cr (VI) to Cr (III). Optimum reduction of 100% is attained at the following conditions: maximum Cr (VI) concentration in spent reagent (i.e. at [Cr6+]0), 1/4[Acidity]0, and with 6 ampere of electric current for reaction time of 2.5 hours. However, total removal of Cr (VI) can still be achieved even if the acidity is not lowered that is maintaining it at [Acidity]0.

Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of three Composite Restorative Materials

Dr. G. Jesudass, Dr. Sridhar Reddy Erugula, Dr. R Vijaykumar, K. Prasan Kumar, K. T. S. S. Rajajee, M. Madhavi Krishna, Rosaiah Kotikalapudi

  • Abstract

    To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of three composite restorative materials.30 extracted human maxillary pre molars were selected for the study. The teeth were divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Group A-poly acid modified composite, Group B-Hybrid composite, Group C-Nano filled composite was used. Composite post was built on the bonded surfaces of teeth. The teeth were subjected to thermo cycling for 1000 cycles between 60 c to 660c.The teeth were then mounted on universal testing machine and fractured under a shearing load applied at the speed of 0.1 mm/min. The readings were noted, tabulated and shear bond strength calculated in Mega Pascal (Mpa) units.There was significant difference in the mean shear bond strength of the three tooth colored restorative materials. Shear strength values were in the range of to Mpa. Nano filled composite gave the highest mean of shear bond strength where as polyacid modified composite showed the lowest value of shear strength. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that contemporary Nano filled composite materials gave better results than other materials

Graft of Polyethylene with Vinyl Monomers

Firyal M.A. and Ahlam AL-Shihani

  • Abstract

    In this research the main objective of the work is to modified and grafted of Polyethylene by using different monomers such as acryl amide, acrylic acid, di pentin, acrylo nitrile, indine to obtain new properties of the substrate. Due to their structural diversity and rigidity, onto backbone of Polymers are formed through chemical reactions that convert large numbers of monomer resins are useful in dentistry because they can be shaped and molded and then transformed to a solid a permanent shape when they polymerize. Synthetic polymers are stable in normal use, can be permanently reshaped by irreversible deformation. Either by the application of heat and pressure or by a chemical reaction. Useful derivative as material .the prepared polymers were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis was considered, with high stability.

Synthesis and Characterization of Mesogenic Properties of Furan Derivatives

Mary Anne Anitha, K.M.Lokanatha Rai1 R. Somashekar

  • Abstract

    In this paper, we report the synthesis and the photophysical characterization of 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-alkoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one chalcone derivatives, functionalized at position 4 with different electron donating groups (alkoxy groups such as butoxy, hexyloxy, etc..) and with a hydroxyl group at position 2’.The 4-alkoxy benzaldehydes were synthesized from commercially available 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde using phase transfer catalysis in good yields. The chalcones were then synthesized by the base catalyzed aldol condensation reaction. The novel benzofuran liquid crystals were synthesized from the corresponding chalcones using mercuric acetate by solvothermal/ hydrothermal method in the absence of a base such as pyridine; and also by microwave method using mercuric acetate in the presence of pyridine. The synthesized benzofurans were analyzed for their liquid crystalline properties using Polarizing Optical Microscope (POM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC).

Kinetics of Oxidative Deamination and Decarboxylation of L-Alanine by Tributylammonium Chlorochromate in Acid Medium

Sayyed Hussain, Prabhkar Kute and Salim Sayyed

  • Abstract

    kinetics of oxidation of L-Alanine by tributylammonium chlorochromate has been investigated spectrophotometrically at 445 nm in acid medium. Analysis of the kinetic results revealed that the rate of oxidation was first-order in (TriBACC), L-Alanine and [H+]. It failed to induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. Variation of ionic strength had no significant effect on the rate. The reaction was studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters were calculated. The main products were identified as the corresponding carbonyl compound by spot test. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.

Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Benzofuran Sesquiterpene from Marine Sponge
Ircinia Fusca (Carter, 1880)

Srinu Meesala, Vijay R.Lakwal, Dinesh S.Kharate, Satish S.Mokashe,Milind G.Watve

  • Abstract

    novel benzofuran sesquiterpene derivative:7-methyl-7-((E)-4-methylpenta-1,3-dien-1-yl)-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydrobenzofuran-3a(4H)-ol(Iricinol A), was isolated from a marine sponge Ircinia fusca (Carter, 1880). The structure of the compound was elucidated by using 1D, 2DNMR, and ESI-MS-TOF. The compound showed broadspectrum activity against bacteria and fungi at 2 μg/μL. Also, it exhibited in vitro cytotoxic activity against RAW264.7 cells (mouse monotype macrophage leukemia)and N2A cells (neuro- blastoma) with IC50 values 55 ± 4.21 μg/mL.

Enzymatic Packed Bed Reactor for Biodiesel Production from JatrophaCurcas Oil

Sumit Nandi and Sarbani Ganguly

  • Abstract

    Gradual depletion of conventional energy sources attracted considerable attention of renewable green energy resources. Biodiesel (BD) has gained significant importance in this regard as a non-conventional, alternative, renewable, green energy sources for the last few decades. In the present research investigation, preparation of BD from JatrophaCurcas oil (JCO) and ethanol has been studied using different immobilized enzymes e.g., RM-IM, TL IM, NS40013 and NS 435 as catalyst. Among the four enzymes, NS 435 has been identified as the most efficient enzyme for producing BD. Various reaction parameters like temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of substrates, enzyme concentration were optimized using NS 435 enzyme. Applying optimized parameters, premixed JCO and ethanol was passed through a packed bed reactor with immobilized enzyme NS435 at different flow rates. Optimization of flow rate through the immobilized enzyme NS435 in the packed bed reactor has been conducted and showed a remarkable rate of conversion. Study shows that 12 mL/min is the ideal flow rate which contributes 95.76% conversion of BD from JCO and ethanol. The properties of Jatropha ethyl ester (biodiesel) were analyzed which are in conformity with the ASTM standards.

Preparation of mineral soybean oil middle alkyd resins for the precursors for enamel paint

Kallashettihally Rangappa Mahendra,PalahallyThimmapppa Sowmya and Kuriya Madavu Lokanatha Rai

  • Abstract

    Alcoholysis-polyesterification method was used in the investigation of utilization of soybean oil in the formulation of alkyd resins. The extracted oil with the iodine number 126-130 was applied in the preparation of middle alkyd resins and the physicochemical characterization indicated it is semi-drying in nature with iodine value of 126.9 g I2 100 g-1. The fatty acid analysis of the oil carried out earlier revealed linoleic and linolenic as dominant fatty acids, having values of 72.1 and 10.3% respectively.Three grades of alkyds were formulated at 40%(I)-short alkyd resins,45% (II)-middle alkyd resin and 55% (III)-long alkyds. The present work deal with the conventional method for the preparation of middle alkyd resin of soybean oil.

  • Abstract

  • Abstract

  • Abstract

  • Abstract

  • Abstract