Vol. 1 & Issue 2 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2011

 

IPR- The Backbone of Biotechnology

Priyanka Kriplani  and Rahul Taneja

  • Abstract

    The role of intellectual property rights has become a key issue in agricultural and resource economics over the past two decades. The changes in biotechnology and intellectual property protection that have occurred since 1980 make private enterprise possible for the first time in many broad research areas in agriculture and the health sciences. Furthermore, universities, cooperatives and other public and non-profit institutions now have the option of licensing or selling research outputs in this area, rather than giving their results away for free. As the scope and power of Intellectual property rights in biotechnology has grown, their international reach has expanded. These developments raise many fascinating and important issues: optimal patent design and licensing; the implications of Intellectual property rights under cumulative innovation, typical of agriculture and biotechnology; the effects of the TRIPS agreement on developing countries and the effects of Intellectual property rights on monopolization of key sectors.2

A Review of Sugar Cane Cultivation in Chamarajanagar District

Harish M

  • Abstract

    An outlook of sugarcane crops grown in the Chamarajanagar district has been given in the present study. The sugarcane is influenced by the spatial and the influence of environment in particular region for its growth. An unplanned cultivation has brought severe problems for the cultivation of sugar cane in the Chamarajanagar district. This study found that the yield and land use of sugarcane is low compared to other districts in Karnataka. This study has made an attempt to analyze the sugar cane cultivated areas within the Chamarajanaagr district. So for this the mere trend is to understand and analyze the problems and suggest creative measures for its cultivation. Agriculturists have a greater challenging role to play in the present context where cultivation technology is given utmost importance.

Drinking water quality surveillance in Hyderabad

Syeda Azeem Unnisa and Bhupatthi Rao

  • Abstract

    It is well established that a large number of infectious diseases are transmitted primarily through water supplies contaminated with human and animal excreta particularly faeces. The purpose of the study was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in Hyderabad City, Andhra Pradesh. It is a cross sectional descriptive study performing the Hyderabad city during the months of June and July 2011. A total of 50 water samples were collected from different localities of the Hyderabad city. These represented areas with different socio-economic conditions. The samples were collected in sterilized containers and brought to the laboratory within two hours of collection. All the samples were tested for contamination with bacteria using multiple tube method to determine most probable number of total coliforms and faecal coliforms using standard procedure. Among 50 water samples, 20 samples (40%) were positive for bacterial contamination. It was observed that bacterial contamination was maximum in areas with low SEC (52%), followed by intermediate SEC (40%) and high SEC (10%). The difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.15) between areas withm high and low SEC while it was non-significant (p>0.5) between areas with low and intermediate SEC. Bacterial contamination is significant problem in Hyderabad City. Regular monitoring and chlorination/cleaning of water filtration plants and change of old water distribution pipelines can improve this situation.

Solid waste management best practices in IDA Cherlapally

Syeda Azeem Unnisa  and Bhupatthi Rao

  • Abstract

    The purpose of this research study is to identify the existing SWM practices in IDA Cherlapallyn industrial area, to recognize deficiencies/ gaps in the present system and propose a comprehensive integrated plan for SWM in compliance with the MSW Rules 2000. Study was conducted by Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies (RCUES), Osmania University in the month of May 2011. The best practices followed in solid waste management were door to door collection, segregation at source, resource recovery, compost and liquid fertilizer from food waste were achieved 100% according to service level benchmark. The initiative of NGO for management of solid waste has made IDA Cherlapally Zero Garbage area.

Comparing Air Quality Standards in Developed, Developing, and Underdeveloped Nations and Its Relative Analysis with Indian Standards

Vijaya Sharma and Prashant Mehta

  • Abstract

    The fast growing economies in the World, and continued urbanization in countries, have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from both point and non point sources. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots having wider exposure to variety of pollutants, which have resulted in pollution related diseases besides low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. However, by initiating air quality management measures, reducing the pollutants at source at various stages of economic development, communities and countries can avoid the severity of air pollution impacts and related costs and attain better air quality.

Mineral characteristics of indigenous bee, Apis dorsata and Apis cerana indica honey from plains, hills and western ghats of Karnataka.

B alasubramanyam, M.V. and Chandrasekhara Reddy, C.

  • Abstract

    Multifloral honey of giant honey bee, A. dorsata (wild) and indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) was collected from the plains, hills and western ghats of Karnataka and mineral characteristics were determined during April 2010 to March 2011. Honey of A. dorsata had more mineral content than that of A.cerana. Often mineral characteristics tested in honey, potassium was found maximum while chromium was minimal. Seasonally, mineral content of honey was relatively more in winter than summer. Mineral content of honey was higher in Western Ghats followed by plains and hills. The potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium and magnesium of honey were significant at 1% (P<0.01) levels in hills and Western Ghats and not significant in plains of Karnataka. Further iron, manganese, copper, chromium and zinc were not significant at 1% levels in plains, hills and western Ghats of Karnataka.

Analytical study of physico chemical and metallic elements of ground water and surface water in Balco industrial Area, Korba, C.G.

Vaishnav M.M.  Dewangan S.

  • Abstract

    A systematic investigation has been carried out to assess the water quality of SW and GW of Balco industrial areas in context of statistical approach. For this purpose we have taken monthly based investigation of the water. 30 water samples were collected from ten selected sites (BS1 – BS10) inm 2L capacity containers, separately (Oct 2009 to Dec 2009). Then water samples were subjected to analytical study prescribed by standard agencies. The results were interpreted via statistical means like mean, SD, SE, %CV, r and WQI. Turbidity (SW 82.05 NTU, GW 21.66 NTU), Fe (GW 2.385mg/L), Al(SW 0.76mg/L,) were found above the threshold value. Strong +ive relation was calculated for GW between TS vs TDS [GW = + 0.950(3.042)] and EC vs TDS [Sw r = + 0.973(4.216)]. The high % CV was calculated for Zn 127.791 (GW) and As in 184.185 (SW). Highest WQI is obtained in case of BS5 : 2472.32. The analysis showed water sources in and around Balco industries are not applicable for any purpose in human development.

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