Vol. 2 & Issue 2 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Feb. to Apr.2012

 

Determination and removal of Nitrate in Ground Water of western Rajasthan: with Special Reference to Barmer Region

Ruchi Mathur, Ravi Sharma1, Arun Suthar, Anju Sharma, Shobha Sharma and Pradeep K. Sharma

  • Abstract

    Nitrate in groundwater represent a widely distributed pollution concern. Nitrates are perhaps the most ubiqutious of all groundwater contaminants. Natural and man induced sources of nitrate in ground water are a result of water usage for irrigation, excessive application of commercial fertilizers or manure, and waste disposal practices associated with land application of sludge or waste water effluents , municipal or industrial landfills and septic tank systems . The key concern regarding usage of groundwater with excessive concentration of nitrate is related to human health effects, particularly with regard to infants. The major effects are associated with losses in oxygen transport capabilities in the blood.

Fluoride contamination in ground water samples and its effect on human body in Gangapurcity town (Sawai Madhopur District)

Ranjana Agrawal

  • Abstract

    Samples of ground water were collected during April 2008 to November 2008 from Gangapurcity town of Rajasthan State. 30 ground water samples were collected from different places of Gangapurcity town of Sawai Madhopur district. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Pottassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkalinity. It was found that fluoride concentration was ranging from 0.10 to 3.6 mg/l. The concentration remains same throughout the period, irrespective of rain/flood period. The permissible limit of Fluoride is 0.5-1.5 mg/L. High Fluoride concentration may cause dental, skeletal and non skeletal fluorosis.

Physico-chemical and microbiological studies of drinking water of Pali district, Rajasthan

A.K. Suthar, R. Sharma  R. Mathur and S. Sharma

  • Abstract

    In the present study physico‐chemical and microbiological characteristics of the water of different sites were determined during June 2011. Pali district of Rajasthan. Pali is located at 25°46′N latitude, 73.33°E longitude. It has an average elevation of 214 metres (702 feet).30º23' N latitude. Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Fluoride, nitrate values were maximum on all the sites. The values of pH, conductivity, hardness, calcium, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand was high. These parameters were assessing to evaluate the quality of groundwater. This investigation shows that only pH & nitrates value lies within the permissible limit and rest of the parameters are beyond the permissible limit except few, which indicates that groundwater of this region is highly contaminated and thus it is necessary to test the water quality at a regular and definite time interval.

Diminution of Concentration of Fluorides by Bio adsorption using Cordia Africana in the waste waters around Aksum

Mohana Rao Abburi, Kinethebeb Belay1, Divya Jyothi Munagala, Soujanya Kaki, Alemayehu Dubale1and Osman Ahmed

  • Abstract

    All chemical elements of the earth’s crust occur in widely differing omnipresent concentrations, due to their different nuclear chemical formation and geochemical history. Due to various activities of the man in domestic field, agricultural sphere and industrial establishment, the environment around us consisting of soil, water and air gets polluted. Among the various types of pollution, water pollution is of vital concern. Chemical contaminants in the water pollution are broadly classified in to Organic and inorganic pollutants. In the Inorganic pollutants, the Fluoride contamination of water is intolerable. Usually the elevated lands contain huge minerals and raw materials of which NaF, NaSiF6, CaF2, CaSiF6, MgF2, ZnF2, AlF3, and CuF2, etc… generate the concentrations of fluorides in drinking water and usage water. Industrial sectors like leather technology, Polymer technology, Synthetic pharmacy, pesticides, and textiles etc... Use more dyes and chemicals in which fluoride contamination profusely occur at distinguished quantities. In fact their chemical abundances AlF3, CaF2 generate less toxic when comparatively other complex compounds. The villages which are surrounded by the Aksum city of Ethiopia have been acknowledged as Fluoride contaminated areas and the people of these villages (Waredas) have been excruciating for the last 20 years vigorously by this fluorosis. Fluorosis is a social and endemic disease which occurs either dental or skeletal. Most of the people around Aksum are bearing Dental Fluorosis rather Skeletal Fluorosis. For this sensitive endemic, this paper has concentrated on investigation of fluoride trace quantities by in industrial waste waters by Bio adsorbents.

Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Vaigai River basin at Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

C.Balamurugan  and M.S.Dheenadayalan

  • Abstract

    Water sources available for drinking and other domestic purposes must possess high degree of purity, free from chemical contamination and microorganisms. The rapid growth of urban areas has further affected the water quality due to over exploitation of resources and improper waste disposal practices. The physicochemical status of ground water samples from ten major part of locality along Vaigai River in Madurai city was assessed. The sampling points were selected on the basis of their importance. The physicochemical parameter like, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+) magnesium (Mg2+ ), sodium (Na+),potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), fluoride (F-), nitrate (NO3-) sulphate (SO42-) and chemical oxygen demand(COD) of bore well water were determined. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and BIS. The quality of water was not found suitable for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes, because of high concentration of total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride and COD. It was found that the ground water was contaminated at few sampling sites namely Vandiyur, Viraganur and Silaiman while the sampling sites Thuvariman and Kochadai showed physicochemical parameters within the water quality standards and the quality of water is good and it is fit for drinking and other purpose.

Environmental Water pollution: A Review of Physicochemical and Heavy metal Quality of Water and Soil

Sivakumar K.K,, Dheenadayalan M.S, Balamurugan C, Kalaivani R Ramakrishnan D. and Leena Hebsi bai L

  • Abstract

    Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because of India’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries experience is unrealistic. At present, India needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and industrial and municipal environmental remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource problem. This paper reviewed ecosystem pollution with particular reference to heavy metal in water and soil system endangered by mixed effluents of domestic as well as industries

Ex situ Biodegradation of Phenol by Native Bacterial Flora solated from Industrial Effluent

Sourav Bhattacharya, Arijit Das and P. Nalini

  • Abstract

    Phenol, a synthetically and naturally produced aromatic compound is one of the most widely used chemicals in the industrial processes. High solubility in water and the higher content in sewage make phenol a potential water pollutant. Due to its toxicity, phenol at higher levels reduces or even inhibits microbial population in effluents. A total of 28 bacterial forms were isolated from three industrial effluent samples of which, 3 isolates (A9, B5 and C3) showed considerable amount of growth and

    degradation potential at 200 mg/l concentration of phenol. Based on the 16S rDNA sequencing, A9, B5

    and C3 were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1034, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC 2421and Bacillus cereus ATCC 9634. The effects of parameters such as auxiliary carbon sources, nitrogen sources, pH and temperature on the growth and aerobic degradation potential of the isolates were evaluated. For all the isolates, the optimum conditions for growth and phenol degradation were 30°C, pH 7.0, and at glucose and peptone concentration of 0.25 g/l. Within 48 hrs, P. aeruginosa MTCC 1034, P. fluorescens MTCC 2421 and B. cereus ATCC 9634 degraded 76%, 83% and 74% of phenol, respectively. Thus, based on their potential to aerobically degrade phenol at a higher concentration these native microorganisms can be cost effectively used in the bioremediation of the polluted sites.

Seasonal analysis of Physico-Chemical parameters of water in Fish industrial area, Chinnamuttom

P.A. Mary Helen, I.H. Belsha Jaya Edith, S. Jaya Sree and R. J. Shalini Jose

  • Abstract

    The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters water samples from fish industrial area in Chinnamuttom near Kanyakumari. Water  samples were collected in three different seasons. Water samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and anions analyzed were Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, No3-, No2-, So42-, Po42-, F- and Cl-. The data showed variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 6.69 – 7.33, electrical conductivity 2573 - 3980micS/cm, F-, 0.2 – 0.6mg/L; No3 -, 4 – 10 mg/L; No2-, 0.70 - 1.22mg/L; The concentrations of most of the investigated parameters in the water sample from fish industrial area in Chinnamuttom river were exceeded the permissible limit of WHO and CPHEEO water quality guidelines.

Preliminary study on Ichthyofaunal diversity of a Eutrophic pond, Sasaram, Bihar

Pramod Kumar and Ashwani Wanganeo

  • Abstract

    The investigation conducted on a tropical eutrophic pond situated in Sasaram, Bihar revealed 31 fis species belonging to 5 different orders and 12 families. Out of total 31 species recorded from Salim Shah pond, 13 species belonged to family Cyprinidae; 3 species to Bagridae, 2 species each to Channidae, Paleomonidae, Clariidae, Siluridae, Notopteridae; and 1 specie each to Belonidae, Cobitidae, Heteropneustidae, Anabantidae and Mastacembelidae. The maximum species contribution was made by family Cyprinidae. All the limnological parameters indicate the higher trophic status of the pond which can be attributed to high anthropogenic pressure that is the major cause of continuous deteriorating the ecological conditions of the pond.

Assessment of noise pollution and population exposure in central areas of Morogoro municipality, Tanzania: Impact of use of portable fuel generators

Jovine S. Malago and Stelyus L. Mkoma

  • Abstract

    The problem of power consumption in the world, and especially in developing countries, is an issue which still raises many questions. Tanzania and specifically Morogoro region is part of the affected population. This study aimed at assessing noise pollution and population expose in the central areas of Morogoro Municipality. Noise levels were measured by using digital sound level meter when there is use or no use of portable fuel generators. For each sampling point the average population exposed to noise was also estimated. The results show that the measured noise levels in all studied points ranged from 72 dBA to 88.8 dBA with a mean of 79.9 ± 2.3 dBA when generators are in use and from 59 dBA to 76.6 dBA (mean of 67.3 ± 2.5 dBA) when generators are not in use. The area around Saifee colour laboratory had high population exposed to noise level of 77.7 dBA (average 18 people/1 hr). The lowest noise was measured at Mt. Uluguru hotel (72 dBA) and highest at Wildrose hotel (88.8 dBA). The study concludes that use of portable fuel generators increased noise levels in central areas of Morogoro municipality in addition to other urban noise such as vehicle traffic. The observed noise is likely to have adverse health problem in a long term human exposure.

Physico-chemical characteristics of bore well water to assess water quality for drinking purpose in Omkarnagar region of Nagpur city (India)

Nandkishor G. Telkapalliwar and Vidyadhar M. Shivankar

  • Abstract

    A Systematic study has been carried out to explore the physico–chemical characteristics of ground water samples of Omkarnagar region of Nagpur city. Bore well water samples were collected from Omkarnagar area of Nagpur city and analyzed for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, Chloride, total alkalinity, calcium and magnesium hardness, etc. In the present study TDS ranged from 532 mg/L to 658 mg/L which lies above the range in all the water samples suggested by WHO and Indian standards. Present study recommends that the top priority should be given to water quality monitoring and indigenous technologies should be adopted to make water fit for drinking after treatment.

  • Abstract