Vol. 2 & Issue 3 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : May. to Jul.2012

 

Study on physico-chemical characteristics of ground waternof various villages around Raisar

Sushma Jain and Monika Agarwal

  • Abstract

    The ground water is considered to be the most ancient source of water. It is one of the major sources of drinking water in the village and rural area. Physico-chemical characteristics of water samples from 24 villages of district Bikaner were studied. The water quality parameters like colour, odour, pH, TDS, TH, EC, major ions like F-, NO3-, Cl-, SO4 2- ,Ca2+ and Mg2+ were studied. It is found that some water samples are non potable for drinking purpose due to high concentration of one parameter or other. The high value of these parameters may have health implications and therefore, needs attention.

An Assessment Study on the Quality of Industrial effluents in and around Vandiyur Lake, Madurai (Tamil Nadu) – India

L. Leena Hebsibai, M.S Dheenadayalan and K.K. Sivakumar

  • Abstract

    The industrial effluent samples from ten different stations near the industrial areas in and around Vandiyur Lake, Madurai were collected and analyzed for their pollution potential. The values obtained for different physico-chemical parameters were compared with standard values given by ISI/WHO. Variations in many physic-chemical parameters were observed for most of the samples when compared with standard values. The variation in the parameters such as Ph, EC, TDS for the premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were highly undesirable. The deterioration of the quality of the Vandiyur Lake water calls for some effective measures to be taken urgently to minimize the adverse impacts that may occur due to the contamination of ground water.

Limnology: A case study of highly polluted Laharpur reservoir, Bhopal, (M.P.) India

S. C. Pandey, Sadhna M. Singh, Subrata Pani and Aarti Malhosia

  • Abstract

    Present paper embodies limnological investigation of Laharpur reservoir Bhopal, (M.P.) India which was carried for a period of one year 2009-2010.It was constructed in the South west of Bhopal city for the irrigation purpose. At the time of construction it was in the out of city but now, with the expansion of city it is in between the residential areas. Due to the developmental activities and occupancy in the city this reservoir is almost contaminated. Other than this it also receives city sewage, industrial wastes run-off and agricultural waste fields. This untreated water poses a serious threat to health of humans and animals so there is an urgent requirement for its study of extent of pollution which will help us in further management and conservation. Physico-chemical characteristics of Laharpur reservoir was studied for a period of 12 months from August 2009- July 2010. In view of above, an attempt was made to study certain limnological parameters such as Temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, Ca and Mg contents, total alkalinity, BOD, and COD etc. For examination of above all mentioned parameters American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association was made. Present research work concludes that Laharpur reservoir which was basically made for irrigation point of view is now highly polluted water body due to continuous discharge of municipal sewage.

Perchlorate Removal Methods and Effect of Environmental Factors on its Biodegradation

J.R Anoop Raj and L. Muruganandam

  • Abstract

    There is a persistent emergence of human health and ecological assessment issues associated with perchlorate (ClO4-) and it is observed that even at extremely low concentration causes serious health implications on human being. It is used in rocket fuels, fireworks, explosives and other applications were an energetic oxidant is required. The existence of ClO4- as a contaminant in effluent water, ground water and drinking water is of particular concern and its unique physical and chemical properties makes challenging to treat. Hence there is an urge to develop technologies for perchlorate remediation in contaminated water or contaminated sites. This review deals with ClO4- removal methods and various environmental factors which affects on its degradation. This also summarizes the possible methods for the efficient removal of ClO4- and their feasibility study. The various bench scale studies on the removal of ClO4- in water and the effect of pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), acetate, nitrate, nitrite, molybdenum, sulphate, iron and rhenium on microbial degradation of ClO4- are also discussed. Improper disposal and usage of inefficient treatment techniques results in the bioaccumulation of ClO4- to the environment. Microbial mediated treatment is the most cost effective method in which the initial biomass level, influent perchlorate/acetate ratio, pH, presence of nitrate/nitrite, presence of oxygen scavengers like sulphide, salinity, presence of dissolved oxygen are the significant parameters on its degradation. Nevertheless, there is a need of integrated treatment approach that would create a passive remediation system at the contaminated site itself.

A Review on Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution

Satya Vani Yadla V. Sridevi and M.V.V.Chandana Lakshmi

  • Abstract

    Waste aqueous effluent containing heavy metals causes serious environmental problems. The most frequently applied adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal is activated carbon. However it is an expensive material. The use of alternative and perhaps cheaper adsorbents is attractive. Fly ash is a waste material which is formed as a result of burning in power plants, but has a potential to adsorb heavy metal ions. A number of theoretical models and equations are available for the purpose and the best fit of the experimental data to any of these models is interpreted as giving the appropriate kinetics for the adsorption process. This review gives some outlines of fundamental principles of adsorption and adsorption process.

Quality Status of Ground Water of District-Nagaur, Rajasthan

R. Sharma, A. K. Suthar, R. Mathur, S. Sharma

  • Abstract

    Ground water quality of 30 villages of Ladnu, Didvana, Degana, Merta, Tehsils,of Nagaur District, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature of ground water. The ground water samples were collected in clean polyethylene one-liter cans and subjected for analysis in the laboratory. The parameters studied were pH, fluoride (F), chloride (Cl), total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca and Mg hardness and total hardness (TH). The results revealed that the values of pH were found to be ranging between 7.1-8.6, chloride content from 100-1220 mg/l and total hardness varied from 80-940 mg/l. The most important parameter fluoride was found to be 4.3-40 mg/l, which is more than the permissible limit in all the samples studied. TDS varied from1050-4431 mg/l. The data revealed that the ground water of these villages of nagaur district contain high fluoride concentration, which leadsto dreaded disease called fluorosis; so ground water is not good for health.

Studies on the Potential of bacillus subtilis in the Biodegradation of Engine oil

Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru, Narasimhulu Korrapati and Bhanu Prakash M

  • Abstract

    Oil and petroleum products are very toxic to the living organisms. Their detoxification efficiency indicates good potential for application in bioremediation of oil. Oil in soil is influenced to a great extent by microbial activity. Microorganisms have ability to degrade oil from a medium. To gain a better knowledge about oil biodegradation, it is essential to associate hydrocarbon degradation with specific organisms and metabolic processes. The removal of oil from aqueous solutions by using the bacterial culture was investigated. The growth of the B. subtilis culture was noticed by oil supplemented growth medium. In this study, B. subtilis was tested for oil degradation ability. The degradation of the oil was monitored over a 10 days period. The percentage of biodegradation of oil by B. subtilis was studied. These bacterial strains could utilize oil hydrocarbons as sole source of carbo and energy. After testing, it was found that B. subtilis had higher potential to degrade oil up to 71%. B. subtilis strain showed a significant reduction of oil levels at the end of experiment. The results revealed that the living biomass of the cultures were more efficient in degrade oil.

Tools and techniques for environment management in industries

Shruti Khare , Richa and Smriti

  • Abstract

    Environment is one of the major issues to save earth and human life. In this we have accounted the efforts of the business organizations to save environment. We have acknowledged the different business organization environment policies implemented to save environment. We studied the trend of Indian industries to save energy, awareness and approach to handle environment problems. We have also examined the impact of environment on human efficiency and the job trends in environment industries.

Sustainable groundwater use management in Ghana

Crentsil Kofi Bempah

  • Abstract

    In Ghana, groundwater development is seen as the only cost effective way of meeting dispersed and growing rural and urban demands. Whilethisrealization has underpinnedmost rural water supply initiatives in Ghana for some time, in the urban and metropolitan cities the realization is relatively new. The need to satisfy the basic water needs of some 12 million people neglected under old policies has given groundwater a new role. Against this background, the importance of groundwater, particularly in rural areas where the resource is typically the only perennial source of supply, cannot be overestimated. Currently, Ghana’s groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper therefore addresses challenges and hurdles impeding sustainable and efficient groundwater use in Ghana, factors affecting groundwater supplies and use, methods that promote the wise use of groundwater supplies, need to determine strategies that promote groundwater sustainability. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of pressing ahead with prescience and forethought into a future of sustainable water resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socioeconomic and environmental domains. Supporting principles must be developed to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management

Assessment of Ambient Atmospheric Concentration of Volatile Organic Compounds in Abuja-Nigeria

Abdullahi M. E, Okobia E. L. And S. M. Hassan

  • Abstract

    An assessment of the ambient air in Abuja have revealed the presence of various concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)/low explosive limit gases. In this study, ambient emission inventory of low explosive limit (LEL) gases such as methane were taken using BW Technology GasAlaert® Microclip (gas detection instrument) from various sample points in Abuja municipal area council, Kuje and Dobi in Gwagwalada area council. The results show that high concentration of LEL were detected in Abuja municipal area council which can be attributed to increased population growth, increased production of gaseous wastes and increased number of industries. However, no LEL was detected in Kuje area council and with only emission of gases stable at (6.97%) from point P26 to P50 in Dobi, Gwagwalada area council which was due to decomposed refuse around the market and milling machines waste within settlements, in Dobi village.

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