Vol. 2 & Issue 4 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2012

 

Managing the Quality of Drinking Water Using Plant Based Natural Coagulants

Siva.D, Santhiya.M, Swabna.V and Vasanthy Muthunarayanan

  • Abstract

    Nitrate (NO3-N) pollution of water is a serious environmental problem, as NO3-N can contribute to the eutrophication of surface waters, and high levels may cause methaemoglobinaemia in formula-fed infants. Though the problem exists for a long time the awareness regarding the issue is lesser among the rural public of the developing country like India. This piece of work was designed to identify such places where there may be higher levels of Nitrate- Nitrogen. The drinking water samples were collected from different locations representing the eight directions in and around Trichy taluk of Trichy district of Tamilnadu (India). The physico-chemical parameters of the sampled water samples were measured. The Nitrate reduction from the aqueous solutions (solutions prepared in the laboratory) whose concentration ranges from 10 – 50 ppm of No3-N and drinking water was found to be possible with seeds of Strychnos potatorum. A maximum reduction (85% from 10 ppm solution after 24 hrs) was noticed with aqueous Nitrate solutions and drinking water (90% after 24 hrs) when treated with seeds of Strychnos Potatorum . This reduction can be contributed to the presence of phytochemicals, which might have antioxidant property. Thus the study helps us to understand the possibility of a treatment technology which could be practiced even in the rural area thereby paving a way to enjoy and ensure good healthy.

Distribution of Microorganisms in Water and Sediment along Abonnema Shoreline, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria

S. David-Omiema and T. J. K. Ideriah

  • Abstract

    The distribution of microorganisms in the sediment and overlying water along the shoreline of Abonnema was studied. The results showed Total Heterotrophic count range of 1.8x103 – 3.4x103 unit/ml in water and 1.93x104 – 6.12x104 unit/ml in sediment; Petroleum Degrading bacteria count range of 1–3 unit/ml in water and 2–10 unit/ml in sediment and Total coliform count range of 1-2 unit/ml in water and none in the sediment. Faecal coliforms were absent in all the stations. The Heterotrophic Bacteria count was higher in the sediment than in the water but statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p<0.05) between them. There was high organic load at stations 1-3 resulting from discharge of domestic wastes. The population of Heterotrophic Bacteria was significantly above permissible limits. The results of this work showed that the shoreline of Abonnema is contaminated with microorganisms and petroleum and the water quality with regard to domestic use is poor

Environmental Impact Studies of Mullaiperiyar River Water in Theni District on Ground Water

D.Ramakrishnan, M.S. Dheenadayalan and K.K. Sivakumar

  • Abstract

    Water quality reflects the collective influence of various physico-chemical and biological criteria of water. The monitoring of water quality of Mullaiperiyar River in Tamil Nadu was carried out for a period of two years from July 2010 to June 2012. The important physico-chemical and bacterial parameters were analyzed. To assess the quality of water at various sampling stations, along with River Mullaiperiyar the levels of various observed parameters have been compared with the relevant standards. The quality of the Mullaiperiyar river water was also undertaken for discussion. In many sampling stations, the quality of the river water examined was found not within the permissible limits for human consumption.

Evaluation of Road Run-off Water Quality in the Industrial areas of Greater Guwahati of Assam with respect to Major Anions

Yamin Hassan, Mridul Buragohain and Hari Prasad Sarma

  • Abstract

    Urbanization significantly impacts water environments with increased run-off and the degradation of water quality. A periodic investigation on the road runoff water quality in the industrial areas of greater Guwahati of Assam with respect to major anions was carried out between June, 2011 to May, 2012. The data obtained were within the standard the permissible limits of WHO except for a few samples which are having significant levels of nitrate-nitrogen and / or fluoride. Top priority should be given to frequen  monitoring of the status of road run-off water.

Valorization of Jute Caddies for production of extra cellular endoxylanase by Penicillium janthinellum

Aditi Kundu and Rina Rani Ray

  • Abstract

    Jute caddies is one of the important waste products generated from the processing of jute fibres in jute mills, which cause serious pollution problem in and around the mill locality. These waste caddies were collected and utilized in the fermentation medium for submerged cultivation of a strain of Penicillium janthinellum as sole carbon source for the production of extra cellular endo xylanase. The strain showed best enzyme production at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 28°C and at a concentration of 2% (w/v) jute caddies. Gelatin and Mn2+ could increase the enzyme production up to certain extent. The kinetics of the enzyme production and substrate utilization showed that highest endoxylanase production could be achieved at 48 hour of growth and jute caddy was degraded as sole carbon source very slowly up to 72 hours, after which the rate of utilization increased.

Effect of Haematococcus pluvialis on growth and pigmentation of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Handerson, 1893)

Ashu Gupta, T. A. Qureshi, Susan Manohar, Pratibha Bagre and J. D. Saroch

  • Abstract

    Body colour of crustaceans is one of the important factors that affect their commercial value. To evaluate the effect of Haematococcus pluvialis on growth and pigmentations in Macrobrachium dayanum, a completely randomized experimental design was developed with 4 treatments and 3 replicates. Diets with different levels of Haematococcus pluvialis (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) were prepared. The formulated diet without Haematococcus pluvialis served as a control. The different diets were fed to the prawns, Macrobrachium dayanum for 90 days and water quality parameters were measured daily. At the end of the experiment, weight gain, Specific Growth Rate, and Food Conversion Ratio were calculated. The result shows that prawns fed with 4% of Haematococcus pluvialis achieved best performance in , weight gain, Specific Growth Rate, Food Conversion Ratio and pigmentation in Macrobrchium dayanum. While feed with 1% Haematococcus pluvialis showed lower growth, FCR and SGR and less pigmentation. This suggests that the total carotenoids content increased in prawns, with increase in the level of Haematococcus pluvialis supplemented.

Assessment of Potable Water Quality of Jaipur and Its

Impact on Public Health

Preeti Srivastava and Nisha Jain

  • Abstract

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the drinking water quality in Jaipur city during the year 2010-11 by measuring the various physio-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, conductance, total hardness, alkalinity, dissolved O2, bicarbonates, magnesium, calcium, nitrate, chloride, fluoride, sodium, potassium. Drinking water suitability for domestic purposes was examined by WHO and BIS standards, which indicate the drinking water in few areas were not much suitable for drinking purpose. Thus it was observed that potable water quality has degraded with respect to few parameters

Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Biosorbents from Wastewater

Satish Patil, Sameer Renukdas and Naseema Patel

  • Abstract

    The capacity and mechanism of different agricultural residues as biosorbents in removing crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions was investigated with variation in parameters such as initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH, agitation time, agitation speed, particle size of adsorbent and temperature. Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models were found to be best fitting with linear regression coefficient R2 ≥ 0.999. The monolayer (maximum) coverage capacities (qm) were also high between 333.333 and 500 mg/g. Lagergen pseudo -second order model best fits the kinetics of adsorption. It was observed that chemisorptions pseudo-second order kinetic model described the sorption process with high coefficients of determination (R2 ≈ 0.999) better than any other kinetic models. Intra particle diffusion plot showed boundary layer effect and larger intercepts indicates greater contribution of surface sorption in rate determining step. Adsorption was found to increase on increasing pH, increasing temperature, increasing agitation speed and decreasing particle size. Thermodynamics showed that the adsorption of CV on biosorbents was favourable and spontaneous, endothermic physical adsorption and increased disorder and randomness at the solid- solution interface of CV with biosorbents.

Host Parasite Relationship: Sengasp. (Dollfus, 1934) In Association With Naturally Infected Freshwater Host Fish Channapunctatus (Bl.)

Pinky Kaur, Rekha Shrivastav, T. A. Qureshi, Susan Manohar, J.D. Saroch and Shivani Sharma

  • Abstract

    Present study was conducted to investigate the host-parasite relationship between the naturally infected freshwater murrel, Channapunctatus in association with a pseudophyllideacestode species, Senga sp. In all 175 specimens of Channapunctatus were examined, out of which 60 were found infected by pseudophyllideacestode, Senga sp. (Dollfus, 1934). A creamy white worm, measuring 36.2 – 48.0 mm in length and were recovered from the intestine. The site occupied by the parasite is preferentially the midgut and hindgut region of the intestine but in heavily infected fish the parasites occur throughout the entire length of the gut. The total prevalence (%), mean intensity and relative abundance were calculated to be 35.62 ± 13.77, 2.68 ± 1.08 and 1.07 ± 0.60, respectively. The cestode exhibited a clear seasonality, with maximum prevalence during summer season of the year and moderate in winter season. Prevalence and mean intensity were higher in the larger host size groups than in the smaller one and female hosts were found more infected then males.

Radiation Exposure and Water Toxicity in Association with Samothraki Spa Workers' Cancer

E. Mpakas, T. Constantinidis, P. Christacopoulos and D. Kekos

  • Abstract

    Studies of Workers of the Italian radioactive spas indicate the existence of radiation exposures similar to those observed for uranium miners9. A report of toxicological characteristics of the spa water samples taken from the region of Samothrace Island is presented here. Assessment and Significance of the toxicologically water quality of springs water and its exposure to two spa workers diseased by cancer. The water with radon possibly contributed to spa workers carcinogenesis

Determination of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Brahmani River Water at Kansar, Jalda Area, Rourkela

Rati Kanta Bera and Rifat Akbar

  • Abstract

    Physico-chemical parameters of river water Brahmani, at Kansar, Jalda area Rourkela, were determined to unearth the appropriateness of water for drinking purpose or domestic use. The physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride (Cl-) and tidy values were determined. Then, the Water Quality Index (WQI) was evaluated. Analysis of various parameters inferred that the water quality index of the river Brahmani is unfit for drinking.

Physico-Chemical Analysis of Ground Water from Kihara Division, Kiambu County, Kenya

J.G. Gichuki and J.M. Gichumbi

  • Abstract

    Water quality is an index of health and is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists, since industrialization, urbanization and modern agricultural practices have a direct impact on the water resources. Borehole water is the major source of water supply in Kihara division, Kiambu County. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate water quality parameters of selected boreholes. Chemical parameters which were analyzed are Total Alkalinity, Chlorides, Nitrates and heavy metals. Physical parameters like pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Turbidity were also analyzed and the results were compared with standard permissible limits set by WHO. The results revealed that some of the parameters were above WHO standard for drinking water, so there is need for strict monitoring to ensure quality water supply for human health. The analysis data of heavy metal elements concentration Fe, Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were within the permissible limits except for Pb in B4 and B8.

Morphological Analysis of Fallout Dust in Windhoek, Namibia

Nnenesi Kgabi, Eva Shitaatala& Christo Izaaks

  • Abstract

    In this study, the morphological characteristics of fallout dust particles from three locations within Windhoek were determined using Olympus BX40 light microscope and the composition and possible sources of the dust were estimated. Single bucket fallout monitors were deployed following the American Society for Testing and Materials standard method for collection and analysis of dust fallout to determine the dust concentrations. The common particles in the Windhoek dust were successfully observed using a light microscope as cloudy and brownish spherical, brownish and black crystalline, black irregularly shaped, and clear (crystal-like) sharp-edged . Based on the photomicrographs produced, the possible sources of fallout dust in Windhoek North and Khomasdal were identified mainly as road/traffic dust and coal-burning activities, with some milling, grinding and abrading activities possibly from building construction activities; while the dust in the Oshandumbala area showed possible main contributions from the local coal-fired power plant, building materials and road/traffic dust. Minimum and maximum concentration levels of fallout dust were determined per sampling location as 618.3 and 3102.1 for Windhoek North; 498.9 and 2995.5 for Khomasdal; and 741.7 and 43966.1 mg/day/ m² for Oshandumbala.

Comparative Study of Different Percentage of Natural Carotenoid Source Spirulina Platensis on Growth and Survival of Puntius Sophore

Pratibha Bagre, Alka Parashar, Vipin Vyas, Smriti Bhargava and J. D. Saroch

  • Abstract

    India is sufficiently rich in having endemic ornamental fishes, Puntius sophore is one of them locallyknown as Pool barb or kharpati ,general live in still, shallow, marginal water of lakes and rivers .It issilver and golden with two black spots. In this study,I am trying to do the effect of dietary Supplementation of different rates 2,4, 6, 8, and 10% of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on growth,Survival and food conversion ratio in Puntius sophore was compared with a control diet. Fish fed 10%Spirulina performed better than those fed lower levels. There were significant differences in terms offood conversion ratio between groups (p<0.01) lowest FCR were recorded in case of 10% Spirulinaadditives feed (1.49%) while highest (1.92%) in control diet. Therefore the best growth (1.77+0.04) in10% Spirulina additive feed and lowest weight gain (1.45+0.02) was recorded in control diet, Survival % is higher (98%) in 10 % feed. It is revealed that 10 % Spirulina additive feed resulted in better growth,lower FCR and maximum survival percentage in pool barb

Study on the Establishment of Service Level Benchmarks (SLBs) and the Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in Implementing Strategies to provide Basic Urban Services

M.Nurul Hassan, S.Vivek and Syeda Azeem Unnisa

  • Abstract

    Cities and towns are the core engines of growth for a country, and their progress entirely depends on the basic facilities they enjoy in meeting peoples’ requirements and keeping vicinities neat and clean without damaging the environment. Urban Local Bodies (ULB) are responsible for providing such basic facilities like water supply, sewerage, solid waste management and storm water drainage. But, the meager standards and discrepancies in the services provided by these bodies is the major concern; to combat this situation Government of India has not only launched several schemes to improve the service standards; also founded a Core Group and held a National Level Workshop to develop a draft handbook of ‘Service Level Benchmarks’ with respect to basic municipal services related to water supply, sewage, solid waste management and storm water drainage and the Ministry of Urban Development has designed standardized indicators against each of these basic urban service that has to be adopted and met; to maintain uniformity and better performance

Tryptophan as Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Sea Water

S. Gowri , J. Sathiyabama , S. Rajendran, and J. Angelin Thangakani 

  • Abstract

    The inhibition efficiency of Tryptophan- Zn2+ system in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in sea water has been evaluated by weight loss and Poteniodyanamic polarization methods. The combined corrosion inhibition efficiency offered by 250 ppm of Tryptophan and 20ppm of Zn2+ was 79%. Results of weight loss method indicated inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. A synergistic effect exists between Tryptophan- Zn2+. The corrosion inhibition was observed due to the formation of more stable and compact protective film on the metal surface. The surface morphology of the protective film on the metal surface was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy

Leachate Absorbing Raw Materials (LARM) to overcome Leachate, Obnoxious odor and Fly-menace during the Composting/Vermicomposting of Kitchen Refuse

Sunitha N. Seenappa and Seenappa C

  • Abstract

    Kitchen refuse is an array of discarded stuffs that originate in the kitchen of urban category and find disposal problems at large. With the mushrooming of multi-story apartments, the backyard space of yester years is nothing but a dream. Although sincere efforts are put in garbage clearance, yet cleanliness and accuracy are still lacking under Indian circumstances. Usefulness of kitchen refuse for composting was an old world scenario, where a backyard with an orchard, flower garden and kitchen garden was made use of for the thrown kitchen refuse. Presently many urbanites want to make the best use of kitchen refuse by converting it into utilizable manure from the point of view of ecofriendliness and create a pollution-free zone. Though a method already exists, the problem of leachate, smell and fly menace limits the technology of aerobic composting and vermicomposting. In the present paper a simple use of Leachate Absorbing Raw Material (LARM) either as cocopith, bagasse and or jute waste has solved the problem of leachate, fly menace or obnoxious odors at one go and result in complete aerobic compost /vermicompost. The study reveals that energy oriented engineering models are not mandatory and can be avoided. The simpler method of composting/vermicomposting could be by the use of LARM.

Assessment of Ground Water Quality of IIT Roorkee Campus

Bharti Saini and Pradeep Kumar

  • Abstract

    This study consisted of the determination of the physiochemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, TDS, cations and anions of source water from six tube well samples in IIT Roorkee campus. The water quality analysis is based on the strata chart (aquifer and depth) of tube wells. A necessity was felt to assess the water quality from these tube wells and found that the water quality of tube well samples differs with each other and the water quality parameters is found to be acceptable in some samples but some of the parameters were observed above the permissible limit

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