Vol. 3 & Issue 1 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Nov.2012 to Jan.2013

 

Non-Edible Oils of Assam as Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production: A Review

Sanjay Basumatary

  • Abstract

    Biodiesel, mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), is an alternative and renewable fuel for diesel engines. The demand for biodiesel is increasing worldwide because of the limited reserves of fossil fuels, increasing prices of crude oils and environmental concerns. As the demand for edible vegetable oils has increased tremendously in recent years, it is impossible to use these oils for biodiesel production. Moreover, these oils could be more expensive to use as fuel. So, use of alternative biodiesel feedstocks like non-edible vegetable oils should be given prime importance for the production of biodiesel. Assam (89°50/ E to 96°10/ E and 24°30/ N to 28°10/ N) is one of the richest biodiversity zones in NE region of India. In the forests of North East India particularly in Assam, a large variety of non-edible oilseed bearing trees and shrub species are available for use as a biodiesel. In this paper, an attempt is being taken to review on some non-edible oils found particularly in Assam viz. yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana), koroch (Pongamia glabra), terminalia (Terminalia belerica) and nahar (Mesua ferrea) as feedstocks for biodiesel industries.

Indigenous State-of-The-Art Technology Development for Distillery Effluents

N.S. Sunitha and C.Seenappa

  • Abstract

    Distilleries in India face a problem by the State and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)s directions of zero-effluent discharge. The work encompasses the conversion of liquidstate distillery effluents into solid-state-vermicompost by the creation of aerobic sponge beds of estimated quantities of biosolids of pressmud and cocopith keeping in mind the SPCB (state) and CPCB (central) Rules and regulationsIn the current research paper, an efficient use of distillery effluents with biosolids of pressmud and cocopith has been made use of in the indigenous state-of-the-art ASMV technology based on nature’s simple laws of evaporation techniques by creating natural vent processes without any mechanical aerators in the Phase – I operation through estimated quantities of biosolids and calculated levels of distillery effluents. In Phase – II operative processes a simple stabilization process with water for 2-3 weeks was carried out and followed by vermiprocesses has been shown thro’ ASMV technology making way to cottage industry within the distillery premises and the same has been illustrated as here.

Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Some Selected Villages of Nagar Valley Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Sartaj Ali, Abid Hussain, Azhar Hussain, Amjad Ali and Muhammad Saeed Awan

  • Abstract

    Water and life are two sides of the same coin, since water sustains all life processes. The quality of water is of vital concern for mankind since it is directly linked with human health and environmental protection. Due to its outstanding significance to the consumer its parameters must follow the permissible limits set by international water regulating agencies. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the quality of drinking water in some villages of Nagar valley. Some physical, biological and chemical parameters were examined from tap, channel and tank water. Among the tested characteristics, temperature values fluctuated between 12.10–13.50 °C, electric conductivity values ranged from 199.10-588.00μs/cm, turbidity values differed from 0.20–0.38 NTU, pH values varied between 7.00-7.93, total alkalinity values ranged between 57.00–102.33 mg/l, total dissolved solids ranged from 118–357 mg/l, calcium hardness contents fluctuated between 4.66–16.66 mg/l,cynuric acid level varied between 35.33–52 mg/l. Similarly, total coliform count ranged from 47.25– 54.00 cfu/ml while the investigated samples were free from faecal contamination. All the inspected characteristics were within the approved standards set by WHO and EPA.

Evaluation of Heavy Metals in some selected Waste Dumpsites in Gboko Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria

B. A. Anhwange and K. Asemave

  • Abstract

    Heavy metals were determined fromwaste dumpsites in Gboko metropolis, Benue state, Nigeria. The mean pH values of the soil samples were found to be 8.13 and 8.23 for Gboko west(GW) and Gboko east (GE) respectively. The analysis of heavy metals indicate that samples from Gboko west show mean concentrations (mg/kg) of heavy metals as;Pb (1.302), Ni (0.345), Cr (0.308), Al (0.282), Cd (0.370), and As (0.049). Samples from Gboko east indicate mean levels of heavy metals as follows;(0.876 mg kg-1), (0.152 mg kg-1), (0.342 mg kg-1), (0.486 mg kg-1), (0.295 mg kg-1), and(0.239 mg kg-1) for Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cd, andAs respectively. In Nutshell, Pb Ni, and Cd were found to be relatively higher in Gboko west than Gboko east. On the other hand, the levels of Cr, Al, and As were higher in Gboko east than Gboko west. All the heavy Metals were within the WHO acceptable limits except Cd and Cr which were slightly above these limits in some dumpsites; samples K, L in Gboko west and M, O in Gboko east. Although Heavy metal concentrations in theserefuse dumpsites of Gboko metropolis may not appear to pose a very serious environmental problem at the moment, continuous accumulation of these metals in Gboko metropolis may result into some health threat to human and the environment in future

Evaluation of Water Quality Used For Drinking and Swimming Purposes in Ishiagu Community, Ebonyi State

Anyim C., Nwuzo, A.C. , Nworie, O., Oko, M.O. and Agah, M.V.

  • Abstract

    Evaluation of water quality used for drinking and swimming purposes in Ishiagu community, Ebonyi were carried out on streams and rivers used for drinking and swimming purposes. The results obtained were compared with WHO and EPA standards for drinking and recreational water. Ikwoh stream did not comply with turbidity standard, while Ivo river and Iyodu stream did not also comply with the Mg2+ standard, all others water sources were within the standards set for PH, colour, total solids, total dissolved solids, acidity, total hardness, Ca2+ hardness, chloride and Iron. None of the water samples complied with bacteriological standards as Total coliform counts generally exceeded 1,600 MPN/ml, and pathogen count such as Salmonella- Shigella counts and Vibrio cholera counts also very high. The presence of pathogens in water for drinking and swimming purposes is of public health concern; hence there is a need for thorough treatment of streams and rivers, and focus on the elimination of coliform bacteria so as to prevent an epidemic of water related diseases.

Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Wastewater of Various Regions of Bikaner City, Rajasthan

Vikas Modasiya, DaulalBohra  and C.K.Bahura

  • Abstract

    Water quality monitoring facilitates evaluation of nature and extent of pollution and effectiveness of pollution control measures, water quality trends and prioritisation of pollution control efforts. These qualities which make water so useful also make it easy for water to be polluted, or made dirty with things that are dangerous or harmful. Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the present study analysis of physicochemical parameters like transparency, pH, bicarbonate, carbonate, total alkalinity, salinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, silica and phosphate of sewage water samples of different regions of Bikaner city were conducted.

Impact of Areal and Demographic Changes on Urban Growth of Srinagar City

Wani Rashid A

  • Abstract

    The world population is predicted to grow from 6.9 billion in 2010 to 8.3 billion in 2030 and to 9.1 billion in 2050(UNDESA, 2009a) and 68% of these 9 billion people will reside in urban settings (UNDESA, 2009b). The detection and analysis of land use changes using remotely sensed data and GIS in the urban environment is an important issue in planning. Within the last four decades the proportion of people living in urban centres has considerably increases. The present study was conducted to analyze the expansion, pace and direction of the Srinagar city from 1971 to 2001. The population of the city increased from 122,618 in 1901 to 971357 in 2001. Srinagar had an area of 12.8 Km² in 1901, which increased 278.1 Km² in 2001, transforming its nearby agricultural land and other marshy land into social-urban use. For the sustainable utilization of the land resources, it is highly imperative to know location, extent and characteristics of the various land uses. Haphazard and unplanned growth of Srinagar city is the result of increasing population growth and density, transmigration from rural to urban areas, economic opportunities, agriculture land capture etc. Hence, an attempt has made in the present study to monitor the growth of Srinagar city for proper planning. The growth of the city has mainly occurred along the road corridors.

Water Quality Evaluation in Some Groundwater Samples along the Budhi Gandak Belt of Kanti Block in Muzaffarpur District during Post-Monsoon Season, 2012

S. Mumtazuddin, A. K. Azad, Rahila Firdaus and Amrita Kumari

  • Abstract

    We report here the quality of water samples from bored tube wells at different sites along the Budhi Gandak belt of Kanti block from Akharaghat to Kanti in Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state during post-monsoon season of 2012 with respect to parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS, DO, total hardness, alkalinity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and chloride as well as heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Fe and As . TDS of some samples exceeded the maximum permissible limit of WHO. Significantly, iron was found much above the maximum permissible limit of WHO in almost all the samples, whereas arsenic contamination was also noted at many sites, which at some of these even much exceeded the maximum permissible limit of WHO. Arsenic contamination in the groundwater of this area is a serious concern for human health

Performance of Multipurpose Tree Species on Saline Soil Environment for Fodder Production

Renu Dhupper

  • Abstract

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress influencing plant productivity worldwide. Acacia nilotica and Prosopis cineraria are one of the most important multipurpose tree species in the arid and salt prone areas of Rajasthan. A field experiment conducted during summer season of 2003 and 2004 to study the seedling growth behaviour of A. nilotica and P. cineraria on the saline soil of different treatment levels. The aim was to test the hypothesis that A.nilotica and P cineraria being a halophytic species showed different salt tolerance responses. Application of medium salt level 4d Sm-1 resulted in the maximum growth of the species. A. nilotica had the highest biomass, response breadth over the P. cineraria. Thus rehabilitation of arid soils with the above recommended tree species using the available saline waters , would not only render these abandoned soils to be productive but would also ensure conservation and improvement for long range ecological security on these lands. Our results revealed that salt tolerant species could be conveniently screened by a salt tolerance index at the threshold salinity over its preceding salinity level.

Feeding habits of various fishes in some tropical water bodies of Bhopal with special reference to Phytoplankton

Ashwani Wanganeo, Imran Abdullah Bhat and Pramod Kumar

  • Abstract

    Present study has been conducted on some water bodies of Bhopal city to assess the feeding preference of some selected fishes towards different classes of phytoplankton. A significant feeding preference for phytoplankton has been documented based on their gut contents of fishes. All the fishes documented maximum feeding preference towards the Chlorophyceae, which can possibly be attributed to the qualitative predominance of these autotrophic phyla in all the water bodies. During the present study, 91 phytoplankton species were identified from three selected water bodies. 66 phytoplankton species were encountered from Lower basin of Bhoj wetland, 65 species from Upper basin of Bhoj wetland while only 40 phytoplankton species were recorded from Shahpura wetland. A marked variation in the physico-chemical characteristics indicates the higher trophic status (Eutrophic) of Lower basin of Bhoj wetland and Shahpura wetland in comparison to Upper basin of Bhoj wetland.

Physico-Chemical Status of Wular Lake in Kashmir

Rumysa Khaliq, Sharique A. Ali, Tariq Zafar, Mohd.Farooq, Bilal A. and Pinky Kaur

  • Abstract

    Present study was conducted to study the physico-chemical status of Wular Lake in Kashmir. Thirteen different parameters including temperature, total dissolved solids, hydrogen-ion concentration, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, chloride, calcium hardness and total hardness were work out under present investigation. The surface water samples from Wular Lake were collected from five sampling sites (namely Watlab, Astingu, Lakreshpur, Gurur and Ningli) in the early hours for every month during the study period (February 2011 – January 2012). The physico-chemical parameters of Wular Lake studied included the atmospheric temperature (recorded between 31ºC to 7ºC), water transparency values were (ranged from 0.9 m to 0.1 m), hydrogen ion concentration (ranged between 8.7 to7.1), alkalinity (varies from 224 mg/l to53mg/l), dissolved oxygen (varied from 10.8 mg/l to 2.7 mg/l), chloride (ranged between 33 mg/l to 14 mg/l), calcium hardness (ranged between 54mg/l to 23 mg/l) and magnesium content (ranged from 37.1 mg/l to 15 mg/l).

Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact of Participatory Watershed Management Programme: A Case Study of Sundarwadi Watershed in Maharashtra

Aher Satish  and Pawar Janardhan 

  • Abstract

    Participatory integrated watershed management programme approach demonstrated on Sundarwadi Watershed at Paithan in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra State result a change in land use pattern in favor of environmental improvement. Consequently, ground water table depth, economic problems, migration of native people, poverty and water scarcity from the watershed has decreased and agricultural output has increased significantly. The present study reveals that environmental payoff and economic returns from watershed management project at Sundarwadi are attractive to lead further sustainable development in the area. Non Government Organization implemented this project during 2006 to 2009 as per the guidelines of Government of India

Water Quality Status of Parashari River in GanjBasoda Town, Vidisha, (M.P.)

Jyoti Raghuwanshi and Subhash C. Pandey

  • Abstract

    An attempt has been made to evaluate pollution status of Parashari River in Ganj Basoda town. Structural and functional attributes of water, which may be categorized as physical, chemical and biological have are analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively in order to have a comprehensive evaluation of the water quality. During the course of study various parameters like DO, BOD, COD, pH, Turbidity and Alkalinity etc were observed. In the present study it was found that physico- chemical characteristics of a few of the river water samples crossed the maximum permissible limit, due to heavy mixing of effluent waste and domestic sewage it was noticed that the physico-chemical parameters indicates balance of the river was disturbed. The study concluded that due to discharge of untreated sewage into the river, the water quality of river has been severely deterioted and the potable nature of water is being lost. Reducing domestic wastewater discharged into the river is the way to make the better water quality of the Parashari River. The present observation shows that the  sampling stations, which were receiving lessmunicipal and domestic wastes, comparatively  assessment is clearly indicating that Parashari river require proper attention for improvement of river water quality in GanjBasoda town.

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