Vol. 3 & Issue 2 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Feb. to Apr.2013

 

Evaluation of Ground Water and Tap Water Quality in the Villages Surrounding Chuka Town, Kenya

Ombaka, Gichumbi,  and Kibara,

  • Abstract

    This study was carried out to assess the groundwater and tap water quality of the villages around Chuka Town. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters were examined during wet and dry season. The results showed that pH, turbidity, fluoride, phosphorous, Fe, Mn, Pb, MPN of coliform organisms were above recommended levels by WHO, while the levels of the other parameters investigated were within the required levels by WHO. This reveals that people using these water sources are at a potential risk of contracting diseases. Hence a strong prevention measures are required to save the ground water and tap water from contamination.

Biodiesel-Renewable Fuel, Environmental Implications and Its Handling

M.Sakunthala, V.Sridevi .Vijay kumar and K.Rani

  • Abstract

    Several attempts have been made by researchers across the globe to counter the effects of the growing information related to the finite nature of the present fossil fuel reserve and the associated hazards. Biofuel has gained global popularity in this respect as a biomass based fuels that have been tipped as a timely candidate. This review strictly focuses on biodiesel of all biomass derived biofuel. Biofuel production from renewable sources is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum based fuels and a viable means for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters), which is derived from triglycerides by transesterification with methanol, has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. Several processes for biodiesel fuel production have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali-catalysis gives high levels of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl esters in short reaction times. This process has therefore been widely utilized for biodiesel fuel production in a number of countries.

Citric acid production from agronomic waste using Aspergillus niger isolated from decayed fruit.

Sukesh K, Jayasuni J.S, Gokul C.N and Anu 

  • Abstract

    Citric acid is one of the most commonly used organic acids in food and pharmaceutical industries. Citric acid worldwide demand is about 6.08×105 ton per year. Aspergillus niger a filamentous fungus remained the organism of choice for citric acid production. In the present study citric acid production from different agronomic waste such as grapes, orange, apple, vegetable, tapioca, coconut husk was carried out using Aspergillus niger isolated from decayed fruit. Characterization of the fermentative organism was made by macroscopic and microscopic examination. On lacto phenol cotton blue staining the Aspergillus niger appeared as branched hyphae with conidial spores. Citric acid production was performed by solid state fermentation and estimated on 5th, 7th and 9th days of fermentation. Highest levels of citric acid production was noticed on 9th day of fermentation by all the six substratum than the 7th and 5th days of fermentation. Among the six substratums used higher levels of citric acid production was noticed against decayed fruit waste such as grape, orange and apple but it was low with vegetable, tapioca and coconut husk.

Studies on Changes in Atmospheric Microbes of Dargah and Nearby Areas during Urs Fair

Pranay Chaturvedi and Rashmi Mathur

  • Abstract

    The present study aimed at evaluating the air Microflora on the premises of Dargah and nearby areas during urs fair. This research conducted with the use of Colony Counter. The analysis revealed that during the fair, increase in human activity results in pollution of soil, water and air. This enhances the growth of microbes during the fair. Serratia and V.cholera was reported as least abundant bacteria. The highest count of the studied microorganisms was determined at Site III Kamani Gate, located between the Jhalara and Andarkot. The concentration of microorganisms was recorded before (in Sept.) during (in Oct.) and after the fair (in Nov.).The studies showed that most of the bacterial and fungal species were common between the months, but some additional species reported in the air samples of October and November.

Response of chrysanthemum varieties to different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash

N. S. Joshi, A. V. Barad and D. M. Pathak

  • Abstract

    A field experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous soil of Horticultural Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during rabi season 2003-04 and 2004-05. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with twenty four treatments replicated three times. The treatments consisted of two varieties viz., IIHR-6 (V1) and Shyamal (V2), three levels of nitrogen (100, 200 and 300 N kg ha-1), two levels of phosphorus (100 and 150 P2O5 kg ha-1) and two levels of potash (100 and 150 K2O kg ha-1). Both the varieties significantly influenced growth and flowering parameters in which, plant height, number of branches per plant and leaf area were observed higher in the variety IIHR-6 during both the years and in pooled results, whereas higher fresh and fry weight of plant, weight of 10 flowers, flowering span and dry weight of flowers were recorded in the variety Shyamal. The later variety also took more days for first flower bud initiation and first flower open. Application of nitrogen at 300 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of plant, flowering span, total fresh and dry weight of flower, weight of 10 flowers and diameter of flower during the year 2003-04, 2004-05 and in pooled data This dose (300 N kg ha-1) also took less days for first flower bud initiation and first flower open. Phosphorus also played a significant role in improving all of these attributes at higher level except, leaf area, fresh weight of plant, number of days taken for first flower open and flowering span. Effect of potash was failed to influence all of these growth and flowering parameters during both the years and in pooled results.

Waste Minimization in the Chemical Process Industries-A Review

L Nageswara Rao & G.Prabhakar

  • Abstract

    The use of non-renewable resources for fuel and feedstock (e.g. gas and soil), through the release of pollutants from various factories during production stage, to the disposal of ultimate final products that contain hazardous waste, each stage of the lifecycle of a product produced by the chemicals industry can have more negative impacts on man and environment. Now days as everyone’s attention are directed towards the chemical process industry, nowadays, a way of monitoring the environmental impact of its chemical processes and products is required. Chemical industry has the challenge of monitoring and reducing its emission to air, water and soil. Until recently, environmental solutions were in the form of end-of-pipe pollution control strategies, i.e., chemical, biological and physical treatment of terminal streams. The result has been waste treatment solutions that reduced the toxicity and volume of undesirable pollutants in industrial discharges.

A Review on Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater by Rice Husk as an Adsorbent

K. Srinivas Raju and S.V. Naidu

  • Abstract

    The use of agricultural waste has been widely investigated as a replacement for current costly methods of removing heavy metals from water and wastewater. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified plant wastes exhibit higher adsorption capacities than unmodified forms. Numerous chemicals have been used for modifications which include mineral and organic acids, bases, oxidizing agent, organic compounds, etc. In this review, rice husks have been compiled to treat the heavy metals as Cd, Cu, Hg, Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni.

Effect of different in situ water harvesting techniques and low cost mulching in custarad apple

N. D. Polara, R. S. Chovatia, D. V. Delvadia and N. S. Joshi andM. S. Dulawat

  • Abstract

    The experiment was conducted on medium black soil of Saurashtra region of Gujarat under rainfed condition to find out the effect of different in situ water harvesting techniques and low cost mulching in custard apple on ten farmers’ field with four treatments in Randomized block design and each farmers was considered as replication. The result revealed that growth and yield parameters was found significantly highest in Circular basin with 5 % slop and mulching with locally available materials treatment as compared to other treatments. Nitrogen and poshphorus content of soil was also showed hifhest in same treatment but K content was not influenced significantly by differrent treatments. Soil moisture content at different soil depth was also found highest in above treatments.

Effect of sugarcane waste on soil properties of coal fly ash affected land in cultivation of Solanum melongena

Krishna Rani, Punjwani Jaywanti and Kalpana 

  • Abstract

    Naya kheda is one of the coal fly ash affected land areas around Kota city due to spread of thin layer of CFA from Kota Super Thermal Power Station (KSTPS). The productivity and fertility of land is badly affected for number of local crops. A great amount of elements (C,N,P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) get into the soil. Therefore, in view of improvement of fertility or amelioration of surface soil of the area physicochemical studies have been carried out with surface soil of the area and different composts prepared by mixing sugarcane waste (SCW) with this surface soil in different proportions. Sugarcane waste was used to add with organic part and to alter physicochemical properties of the surface soil. Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of different proportions of sugarcane waste on soil properties in cultivation of Solanum melongena. According to the best results obtained from the pot experiments, field experiments were also carried out. A significant increase in growth, rate of growth and quality of produce was observed on cultivation of Solanum melongena in surface soil amended with 50% (v/v) sugarcane waste. In other words, sugarcane waste worked as best ameliorating material in 50% (v/v) proportion with CFA affected surface soil after conversion into compost. In amended soils an increase in the content of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and improvement in physical properties was observed.

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