Vol. 3 & Issue 3 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : May. to Jul.2013

 

Composting Of Sewage Sludge Based On Different C/N Ratios

Ashish Kumar Nayak and Ajay S. Kalamdhad

  • Abstract

    Sewage sludge is an unavoidable by-product of wastewater treatment processes; its disposal is generally costly or easy to contaminate the environment. Being rich in micro-and macronutrients, composting of sewage sludge is one of the important disposal alternatives. Nutrients balance plays a vital role in the composting process which is expressed as, carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of C/N ratios (15, 20, 25, and 30) with control on the agitated pile composting of sewage sludge during 30 days. It was observed that C/N 30 produced the best compost, showed highest temperature profile, higher loss in EC phosphorus, implying the total amount of biodegradable organic material is stabilized; and a Solvita® maturity index of 8 indicated that the compost was stable and ready for usage as a soil conditioner. On analyzing the results by ANOVA, the physico-chemical, biological and stability parameters varied significantly during the 30 days composting process. Therefore, it can be suggested that the pile composting of sewage sludge at C/N 30 can produce more stable compost after 30 days, while, C/N 15, 20, 25 and control poses least stable.

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Oil and Natural Gas Operations in Tanzania

Enock Chambile and Kwigema Malishee

  • Abstract

    Tanzania is among developing countries striving to combat the global warming through encouraging the initiatives on switching to natural gas from fuel oil operations. The study was conducted to assess the dynamic changes on greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission shares to provide data to inform effective climate change mitigation strategies from oil and natural gas operations. The most three influential and long-lived greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were studied. The assessment was done to all imported oil types and natural gas generated from Songosongo gas project. The developed global warming potential revealed that CO2 emissions contained the largest share of 96% followed by N2O (4%) and CH4 (about 0%). Although there was a decrease in the amount of imported fuel oils and natural gas in 2008, the N2O emissions increased significantly from the base year 2007. However, the national GWP developed from year 1999 had the largest share of CO2 (61%), followed by CH4 (38%) and N2O (1%). Therefore, the study revealed the dynamic changes on Global Warming Potential (GWP) toward increasing shares of CO2 and N2O, especially if the modern natural gas economy will overlay the current agricultural economy.

Fractionation of Phosphorus in the Sediments of Kerala Coast

Manju. P. Nair and Sujatha C.H

  • Abstract

    This study gives the first report on the biogeochemical cycling and bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in the coastal sediments of Kerala along with the spatial changes of different P fractions in the sites. Sediments were collected from four prominent areas of Kerala Coast. Five major fractions of P were analyzed: ironbound P (Fe–P), calcium-bound P (Ca–P), acid- soluble P (Acid–P), alkali-soluble P (Alkali–P) and residual fraction (R–P). The ecological and geochemical transformation of P limits the cycling of P in the coastal sediments of the study areawhich reveals it as a limiting nutrient for the biological production. The Ca and Fe bound fractions were diminished in Cape and Trivandrum inferring that thesinorganic P-fractions were readily available for plant growth in the site. But at Kollam and Cochin these fractions were comparatively high showing the onavailable nature of P.

Concentration of Organo Chlorine pesticide residues in sediments from the Godavari River of East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh

David Wilson , Nageswara Rao , Narasimha Reddy 

  • Abstract

    This study reports the concentration levels and distribution pattern of the persistent pesticides residues in soil sediments of the Godavari river at Kotipalli and Dangeru basins collected seasonally over a period of one year. The soil sediment were collected from four different season’s i.e Pre-Monsoon, Onset- Monsoon, Monsoon and Post-Monsoon and analyzed for their pesticide profile. The study has shown the presence of organochlorine pesticides in the soil sediment of River Godavari at Kotipalli and Dangeru in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. We used Liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC-ECD for the determination of these compounds. Among the various pesticides analyzed, high concentration of DDT, Transchlordane, Cis-chlordane, Endosulfan,PP-DDE, Endo- Sulfansulfate and Endrinketone were observed in two basins of the river. The concentration of DDT in soil sediment was quite high which might be due to slow degradation of DDT in soil i.e. 75 – 100% in 4-30 years. The present study was first attempt to identify and quantify some selected pesticides in soil sediment of the river Godavari.

Determination of Fluoride in some areas of Srikakulam District in Andhra Pradesh

J.V.S.K.V.Kalyani, A.V.L.N.S.H.Hariharan and T.Siva Rao

  • Abstract

    Analysis of well and bore well water samples for fluoride from fifteen sampling stations of Srikakulam district (Rural area) for a period of one year( 2012) during different seasons has been carried out.. The analysis of different parameters namely- temperature, pH and fluoride were carried out as per standard methods. The results were compared with the values stipulated by Indian standards for drinking water . It was found that the fluoride content of all the samples obtained was well below the permissible limits except one sampling station.

Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Urban Environment (Indore)

Asutosh Kumar Pandey

  • Abstract

    The atmospheric deposition of seven heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn, and Cu,) at Indore. Based on the traffic density and preliminary air quality data, the city was categorized into four different zones namely, heavy traffic zone (Zone I), commercial zone (Zone II), residential zone (Zone III) and sub–urban zone (Zone IV). Three sampling stations were selected in each zone. Zone I include Bhawarkua Road, A.B road and Siaganj railway station area. Zone II is characterized by the city centre including Rajwada, Jawaher Marg and Sapna Sangeeta Road. R.N.T. Marg, Subhash Marg and M.G. Road areas have been included in Zone III and Ranjeet Hanuman Road, Bijasen Road and Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Campus represent Zone IV. Particulate samples were collected from all the 12 urban and sub–urban locations of Indore using deposition collectors and metal concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. On the basis of heavy metals deposition rates, different zones considered in this study can be ranked in decreasing order as heavy traffic zone> commercial zone> residential zone> sub – urban areas. Distributions of air – borne heavy metals were correlated with meteorological variables such as temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity.

Fertility status of soils of Western Development Region, Nepal and comparison of macronutrients and soil reactions at different soil organic matter levels

S. Pandey K.B. Thapa and I.B.Oli

  • Abstract

    The soil sampling was done to collect 569 soil samples from Western Developmental Region, Nepal. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and soil pH were analyzed in the soil laboratory. After the analysis, the soil samples were classified according to organic matter level in the soil. Among those samples, 63 were high, 250 were medium and 256 were low in organic matter content. The plant nutrient status and the soil reaction of those samples were classified as the classification given by Pradhan. The number of the samples that falls in different categories were calculated and tabulated. Likewise, the average of soil pH, organic matter content, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were also calculated. The number of soil reaction mostly falls under acidic group, while most of the soil samples fall under low nutrient status (N, P and K). The average of the nutrients was higher in the higher organic matter containing soils than in the lower organic matter containing soils.

Seasonally Varying Limnology of a Tropical Irrigation Reservoir: Barna Reservoir

Arun Kumar Namdeo, Pradeep Shrivastava and Sarita Sinha

  • Abstract

    Limnological assessment of Barna reservoir was done during January 2009 to December 2009 with the object to develop an idea about the ecological health of it. Sampling was carried out at predefined sampling stations and certain parameters were analyzed following the standard methods. The results make known the scenario of Barna reservoir as various natural and man – made factors like weathering of rocks, climatic effect and use of fertilizers in agriculture, change in land use and other activities happening in catchment area posing a serious threat to its limnology.

Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination due to Overburden Leachate in Groundwater of Coal Mining Area

Avantika Chandra and M. K. Jain

  • Abstract

    Groundwater contamination with heavy metals released from mining activities is a worldwide environmental problem. The leachate generated from mine waste Overburden dumps may have the potential to pollute the surrounding water resources. This study conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations in the groundwater of coal mining area. Groundwater samples analyzed based on their heavy metal concentrations such as Co, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb. Subsequently, statistical methods employed to identify the controlling factors affecting the heavy metal constituents of the groundwater. Finally, the results were compared with the Drinking Water Quality Standard of the World Health Organization (WHO), India Standard for Drinking Water Specification (IS: 10500) and United States Environmental Protection Act (USEPA). The results of the present study indicate that, the concentration of Mn and Fe showed their presence in groundwater samples above the desirable limit recommended for the drinking water Quality Standards. Concentrations of other metals in most cases e found well within the threshold values. Concentration of Mn in the groundwater samples varied from 0.669 to 0.812 mg/L whereas concentration of Fe varied from 0.606 to 0.792 mg/L.

Heavy Metal analysis in Soil Samples of Heavy traffic zones of Hyderabad, A.P

Smita Asthana, D. Sirisha and N. Gandhi

  • Abstract

    The presences of heavy metals in the soil sediments are analyzed with respect to the pb. Lead in the soil sediments results mainly from the dry and wet deposition of atmospheric pb, particularly close to emission sources. The soil samples collected from the Mettuguda traffic signal area, Sitafalmandi signal area, parking area of Sitafalmandi and near railway tract of Sitafalmandi uppal and Tarnaka. The sampling areas of traffic signals were those along major through fare within the city have high traffic density and the regular routes of cars, buses, trucks, cycles, passage jeep and other motorized vehicles.

Physicochemical Characterization and Chlorination of Drilling Water Consumed In Brazzaville-Congo

Timoléon Andzi Barhé and Fulbert Bouaka

  • Abstract

    The chlorination is a method of disinfection widely answered in the water treatment. This treatment aims at eliminating the pathogenic microorganisms, the bacteria, the viruses and the parasites as well as the majority of the less resistant germs. It is the means to supply a water drinkable. The purpose of our work is to check the quality of drillings waters consumed in Brazzaville (CONGO), by the determination of the physicochemical characteristics, in first stage, then breakpoint in the second stage, to determine the optimal dose of chlorine necessary for the disinfection of these waters.

Contributions of Automobile Mechanic Sites to Heavy Metals in Soil: A Case Study of North Bank Mechanic Village Makurdi, Benue State, Central Nigeria

Aloysius A. Pam , Rufus Sha’Ato  and John O.Offem

  • Abstract

    The distribution of six heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni and Cd) in soil around North Bank automobile mechanic site in Benue State, North Central Nigeria were studied using AAS. Results of the analysis revealed that majority of heavy metal concentrations (mgkg-1 ) of the samples were above background levels and threshold limits recommended for soils in some countries. The results indicate the following levels Cu, (24.6mgkg-1), Pb (123 mgkg-1), Zn (42.7 mgkg-1), Mn (92.0mgkg-1), Ni (8.44mgkg-1) and Cd (0.60 mgkg-1) with a distribution pattern in the order: Pb>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cd. Factors which influence the mobility of metals in soils were determined such as pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter, moisture content and soil texture. Geoaccumulation index values of the metals in soils under study showed that the environment is highly polluted with Pb and Cu, and to a lesser degree with Ni. Both Cd and Mn showed moderate pollution status while the soil remains unpolluted with Zn.

Physico-Chemical Quality Assessment of the Drinking Water in the Summer Season in Tetova

Durmishi H. Bujar, Arianit A. Reka, Murtezan Ismaili and Agim Shabani

  • Abstract

    Water is the most essential product that is consumed by humans, which must be prevented from deterioration in quality. The quality of drinking water becomes even more important as water borne diseases spread through water. For this purpose, we assess the quality of drinking water in the city of Tetova with some physico-chemical parameters, which have a significant role in determining the portability of drinking water. The obtained results were compared with Macedonian standards as well as with those set by the WHO and the EU. In this research, parameters such as temperature, pH, EC, TRAE, TDS, COD, TOC, DOC, nitrates and chlorides were found to be within the permissible limits, while turbidity and residual chlorine in some cases were found to be below ore above the recommended limit. Finally, the Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) developed by Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmentfor fifteen sample points is calculated. It has been found that drinking water in the 2011summer season was of an Excellent category (average value of DWQI = 95.26) and suitable for drinking. We recommend that the relevant municipal authorities make regular and proper amount disinfection of drinking water, as there is no compromise that can be made when it comes to the drinking water.

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