Vol. 3 & Issue 4 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2013

 

Microbial Evaluation of Njaba River and its Effect on Body Weight of Rats Following Consumption

Nwachukwu M. I Duru M.K.C Odika P. C; and Udujih G.O

  • Abstract

    The microbial evaluation of Njaba River and its effect on body weight following consumption was investigated using rats. Water samples were drawn from tributary, confluence, upstream and downstream points of the river and evaluated. Bacteria isolated and identified using morphological characteristics revealed microbial species such as Chromobacteria species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, Staphylococcus epidermides, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella species, and Shigella species in the water samples. Prevalence of the bacterial isolates followed the order downstream > upstream > confluence > tributary. Water from Njaba River also affected body weight of test rats significantly (p < 0.05) against the control following consumption. This study has revealed the microbial evaluation of Njaba River and its effect on body weight of rats following consumption.

PBAT-PLA Blends Buried In Simulated Soil: Characterization by Differential Scanning Calorimetry,n Raman Spectroscopy and Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction

Joao de Araújo Jr., Dulce Magalhães, Nara A. de Oliveira, Marcelo M. Nóbrega, Marcia L. A. Temperini, Jivaldo R. Matos and Hélio Wiebeck 

  • Abstract

    In this work we have investigated the microscopical changes associated with the partial biodegradation in simulated soil (16 weeks) of poly (butylene adipateco- terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Wide Angle XRay Diffraction (WAXD). The DSC curves revealed a loss of crystallinity specially in the PLA domains. The FT-Raman spectra showed a relative intensity reduction of the band associated with the carbonyl stretch, due to the hydrolysis of the bond upon ageing. The WAXD curves depicted the peaks associated with the planes of both PBAT and PLA, confirming that there is no significant interaction on the crystallization of these domains in the blend.

Biological Reclamation of Overburden Dump Using Fly Ash and Cow-Dung at Sukinda Chromite Mining Belt, Jajpur, Odisha

Madhusmita Das, Pankaj Kumar Jena, Bita Mohanty, Tanuja Panigrahi and R.B. Panda

  • Abstract

    One of the important mining areas of the Odisha is the Sukinda Valley, situated at Jajpur district being the largest chromiferrous fieldmass of India, the geological reserve of chromites deposit at Sukinda Valley constitutes about 95- 97% of total reserve of the country. Due to rapid mining Sukinda Valley has become the fourth most polluted area in the world according to a report by the U.S based Blacksmith institute (2007). Thus mining work should be done in an ecofriendly way by restoring the mined out area for different purposes. It has been found out that with a little foresight and planning, the mined out areas can be rendered more useful and valuable than in the pre-mining state. Biological reclamation by using fly ash and cow-dung is an important process by which the dumped overburdens and mined out areas can be reclaimed successfully

A Laboratory Studies on Conversion of Biomass into Energy Source Using Effective Microorganism

Santhosh.P

  • Abstract

    Biomass generation, treatment and disposal are both economic and environmental problem of concern for the urban communities, especially in fast population exploding countries like India. Biomass is the constitution of all plants, broken branches, Residues of agriculture wastes like rice husk, straw, leaves, sugar cane, etc., forest leaves, broken branches, wood chipping, timber mill residues, water hyacinth, algae, dropping of birds, animals, industrial wastes from food processing, sugar industries, slaughter house, meat packing plants, tanneries, etc., municipal wastes solid waste, sewage treatment plant sludge, etc., The present study deals the sources, treatment and strategies for future management of biomass. In this study a detailed analysis of the quantification, characterization and leachate analysis of the biomass from C.I.T campus and developed a procedure for conversion of compost from biomass using simple and inexpensive equipment of the type commonly available in the urban and rural households. Further, a lab scale biomass reactor andm produce vermicompost using earthworm has developed and performance analysis of biomass were analysed. During the study, necessary convention techniques and analysis of the wastes had been undertaken. Similarly, the model prototype of the reactor and performance were evolved with necessary recommendations incorporated in the study.

Summer Water Crises of Ujjain City

Parag Dalal

  • Abstract

    Water is an essential need for every living organism. Ujjain is a beautiful city situated in the middle of India surrounded by river Kshipra from three sides making itself the lifeline of the city. In summer season whole of the river is dried up and also Gambhir dam {main drinking water source of the city} goes up to ventilation also giving the local public a huge problem of water scarcity.

A Pilot-Scale Study on In-Vessel Composting of Organic Waste Using Mechanical Forced Aeration

Santhosh.P

  • Abstract

    The conventional composting processes are viable sludge disposal options that produce marketable end products. The conventional process is based on natural ventilation where as the aerated method uses forced mechanical aeration. This study is based on the experimental data on biodegradation of organic wastes with different C:N ratios. Further, their conditions In-vessel composting units have been presented and detailed analysis on the stabilization of organic wastes was performed. The study was executed under natural and forced aeration. Four separate amendment conditions were applied to stimulate varying degrees of bioconversion rate. Optimum conditions were maintained inside the vessel by means of proper aeration, moisture and sufficient mixing. Several of nutrient values (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) during temperature, pH and volatile solids were carreactors using different types ofm organic wastes such as paper and pulp, diary sludge, sugar industry wastes, saw dust and municipal solid waste. Then their compost stability was assessed.ried out on alternate days. The process was carried out in the laboratory scale 

Comparative thermal degradation of biodegradable and oxo-degradable polymeric blends used in shopping bags in Brazil

Joao de Araújo Jr., Dulce Magalhães, Nara A. de Oliveir, Jivaldo R. Matos and Hélio Wiebeck 

  • Abstract

    In the present study, a blend of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) – PBAT and poly(lactic acid) – PLA used for biodegradable shopping plastic bags was investigated, together with control samples of polyethylene containing prooxidant catalysts (called “Oxo-degradable” in the market). Samples were weighed and buried in simulated soil for three months, and then studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry, including a non-isothermal Kinetic Analysis. Even though there was no significant mass loss in the ageing period, the activation energies for the thermal decomposition processes were significantly reduced for the biodegradable samples after the degradation in simulated soil, but not for the oxo-degradable ones.

Optimization of Functional properties in laundry Soap of Bleached Palm Oil-Palm-Palm Kernel Oil-Groundnut Oil Composite with The Simplex Centroid Mixture Design

Essien, N.B, Udofia, P. G. and Jonathan, E. M.

  • Abstract

    The Simplex Centroid Mixture design of the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum proportions of bleached palm oil, palm kernel oil and groundnut oil in composite oil that would produce laundry soap with the optimum cleansing efficiency. Optimization analysis of the data showed that 0.200, 0.169, and 0.631 proportions of palm oil, palm kernel oil, and groundnut oil respectively, produced 44.491, 0.149, 2.209, and 7.726 of lather stability, acid free alkali, chloride and pH respectively at 68.70% desirability. Based on the results, less of the palm kernel oil should be present in the composite oil to produce the model soap.

Analyses of IPCC’s Warming Calculation Results

Antero Ollila

  • Abstract

    Some researchers have noticed that the warming calculations of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are not always based on the atmospheres, which use the global average values. CO2 effect of 26% in greenhouse phenomenon is based on the modified U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 (USST 76 atmosphere) containing only 50% of water in comparison to the true value. The calculations prove that the warming of 0.76°C can be achieved if the USST 76 atmospheric model is applied and constant relative humidity (RH) assumed. The analysis also reveals that IPCC’s scenario presentation contains choices, which make the warming results looking higher than they should be. All the climate sensitivity values above 1.7 °C conflict with the explanation given by IPCC for the 1750 - 2005 periods. The global warming potential (GWP) values of CH4 and N2O are applicable only for small concentration changes and in higher concentrations these greenhouse (GH) gases are even weaker than CO2. The ultimate worst case scenario is the release of methane from the methane clathrates on the ocean floor. The calculations show that the release would cause 2.1°C temperature increase, which is only 68% of the CO2 warming effect. The spectral analysis show that in the prevailing atmospheric conditions the warming potency of methane is about 14% from the potency of CO2, and the same of N2O is about 17%. The effect of water in the same conditions is 15.2 times greater than that of CO2.

Fluoride Contamination in a Hard Rock Terrain: A Case Study of Purulia District, West Bengal, India

Sharad Chakrabarti and Susnata Ray

  • Abstract

    Symptoms of high fluoride is evidenced in the groundwater of Purulia district of West Bengal, India for quite some time. Hydro-geochemical survey was carried out to find out the level and extent of affectation in the different blocks of Purulia district. It is observed that the sub-surface hydro-geoenvironment of Purulia is highly contaminated with this deadly poison. Out of 10704 tube wells surveyed in then 17 blocks of Purulia, 797 sources are detected having fluoride above the desirable limit of 1 mg/l. Down-the-hole rock drilling were performed in 19 different locations in the three worst affected blocks of Purulia, namely Purulia-I, Purulia-II and Hura. Nearly 70% of the drill-hole water samples collected from the different depth zones is found to bear fluoride above 1 mg/l. An attempt was made to identify the sources and causes of such fluoride enrichment in Purulia groundwater. High fluoride is derived from fluoride rich minerals such as apatite, fluorite, hornblende and biotite which are present in the country rocks dominated by granite gneisses and hornblende-biotite gneiss. Intensive and prolonged semi-arid climate, long term withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation, alkaline nature of sub-surface circulating water, long residence time of water in fractured aquifers, and low chances of dilution are .favourable for fluoride enrichment in the Purulia region

A Comprehensive Geochemical Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water

Sarala Thambavani and Uma Mageswari T.S.R 

  • Abstract

    A comprehensive groundwater heavy metal contamination in groundwater study was conducted in Batlagundu, Dindigul District, Tamilnadu aiming to investigate the impacts of urbanization on the aqueous distributions of these elements. Groundwater samples were collected in highly urbanized spaces in the area and analyzed for heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Fe. The results were compared with BIS and WHO standards. The concentrations of Zn were within the desirable limit at all the samplingm sites. Other metals such as Fe, Cd, Cu and Pb exceed the limits. It is a well-known fact that the heavy metal ions are potentially toxic to human health and could be quitem detrimental for human life. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the groundwater samples were positively correlated with each other. This study keep scores the value of multivariate statistical analysis for evaluation and interpretation of the data with a view to stimulate better policy outcomes and decision-making that positively impact water quality and thus prospectively diminishes the pollution caused by hazardous toxic elements in environment. Correlation coefficient between the heavy metals was calculated with a help of a programming tool SAP-ABAP.

Impact of Biologically Modified Coal Fly Ash with Water Hyacinth in Cultivation of Coriandrum sativum L.

Jaywanti Punjwani, Krishna Rani, K.K. Gupta and Kalpana S

  • Abstract

    Few pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effect of levels of coal fly ash (CFA) a byproduct of Kota Super Thermal Power Station, on physicochemical properties of soil and the yield parameters of Coriandrum sativumm L.(Coriander).The objective of the experiment was to study changes inm physicochemical properties during biomodification between the constituents of soil & CFA to obtain upgraded quality of soil, more suitable for cultivation of Coriandrum sativum L. Physicochemical studies have been carried out for different composts obtained by successive replacement of CFA for soil (loam) in constituents of original and reference compost . Water Hyacinth (Species of Eichornea of family Pontederaceae) was used as a part of organic manure. Physiochemical analysis was conducted after the harvest of Coriandrum sativum L. Increase in rate of growth and improvement in quality of produce was observed with the increase in percentage of CFA. This study of graded level of CFA amended soils revealed an increase in the content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu. Best results in terms of plant growth, maturation period, quality and quantity of produce were obtained with composts containing 50% (v/v) of CFA of total volume.

Atmospheric Levels of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM): A Case Study in Selected Sites of Hyderabad City

P. Sekhar

  • Abstract

    Atmospheric level of particulates especially PM2.5 causes severe health implications in urbanized cites across the globe and it is estimated that nearly 2 million people are being affected every year by this deadly pollutant. In the present study, it is aimed at finding out the atmospheric levels of PM2.5, PM4 and PM10 in selected sites in Hyderabad city and correlation studies were also carried out. Results indicated that all the types of PMs exceeded their standard levels. PM2.5 levels were found to be in the range 50-204μg/m3with high levels recorded at Patney center. PM4 levels were found to be in the order of 86-336 μg/m3 being highest at Bowenpally junction. The levels of PM10 were found to in between 28-150 μg/m3. Air quality status in terms of Cumulative air pollution index (APIcu) was classified as ‘Hazardous’ in all the study sites.

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