Vol. 4 & Issue 1 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Nov.2013 to Jan.2014

 

The potentialities of some process intensifying techniques for improvement of inherent safety in chemical processing

Misbahu L. Mohammed

  • Abstract

    Chemical industries are continuously faced with increasing challenges of safety requirements in plant design and operation. Consequently, more and more attention has been focused on developing greener, safer and efficient chemical processes employing process intensifying methodologies and equipment. While engineered safety devices can be added on to a plant as risk mitigation measures, safety is most reliably ensured by developing inherently safer techniques. This paper reviewed some of the process intensification approaches that could be utilized by chemical industries to improve inherent safety in plant design and operation protocols. Although the potentials of the techniques described in this review for intensification of chemical processing have already been proven in the laboratories, however their application on the industrial scale still presents a difficult challenge

Assessment of Water Quality of Groundwater and Municipal supply of Bhopal City

Jyoti Jotwani , Bharti Jain and  Suman Mali

  • Abstract

    Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh is a rapidly growing city. Like other cities of the country, the city has witnessed unprecedented urbanization in last few decades. The rise of population resulting from this rapid urbanization has put a stress on the resources of the city. The municipal water supply in the city is made from the Upper Lake, Kolar reservoir and Narmada River; however the insufficient water supply from these sources has rusted in dependence of a large chunk of population on groundwater. The present study has been carried out to assess the water quality of the water supply of the city as well as the groundwater sources. The investigation reveals that the water quality of potable water in Bhopal city is impacted by a large number of factors. The paper discusses in detail the water quality of groundwater sources and municipal water supply of Bhopal cit

Management of Water Quality: A Case Study of Bhopal City

Amit Dubey, Suman Malik and Avinash Bajpai

  • Abstract

    Water is the key element for life. Life began and is sustained by water. The need of water for human does not end on drinking water, but humans need water for irrigation, industrial and other uses as well. Therefore, dependable source of water has been the epicenter of human settlements since their beginning. However due to indiscriminate use, the precious water sources holding usable water are constantly shrinking. The demand of water is on a constant rise and the supply is constantly shrinking. This deficit in demand and supply of water is on a constant rise in most of the cities across the globe. The only sustainable solution to this very challenging problem seems to be the management of the water quality of existing water resources. Bhopal, the city of lakes ironically faces severe water crisis especially during the dry months of the year. Most of the water bodies present in and around the city holds sufficient water, though the quality of the water in them renders these waters unusable. The present paper deals with the management of water quality of water bodies present in the city of Bhopal so as to ensure their optimum utilization.

Physicochemical Analysis of Water Quality of Shahpura Lake Bhopal In Reference To Scenedesmus Obliquus and Monoraphidium Minutum Algae

Shalini Shivhare, Pushpendran Singh , Archna Tiwari, A.K.Mishra and A.K.S. Bhadoria

  • Abstract

    In the present study, physicochemical parameters viz. temperature, turbidity, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Phosphate, Chloride, Sulphate, Total alkalinity, Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Calcium hardness and Magnesium hardness of water of Shahpura Lake (Bhopal) were analyzed in relation to the growth of algae viz. Scenedesmus obliquus, Monoraphidium minutum. During the study, it was noticed that both the algae have shown excellent growth in the water. Moreover, when CO2 concentration got increase in the water. Both the algae grown much better in fresh water and can be use to decrease CO2 concentration in the environment and can be a viable option to solve the problem of global warming. Moreover, production of algae can be a good source of Bio diesel production because of high oil content in it.

Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Kalasapadu, Porumamilla Mandals, Kadapa, Y.S.R District, India

V.Sunitha, B.Muralidhara Reddy, J.Abdullah Khan, R.Siddi Raju, B.Sesha Reddy and Ch.Stalin Richardson

  • Abstract

    Groundwater constitutes an important source of water for drinking, agriculture and industrial production. The use of groundwater has increased significantly in the last decades due to its widespread occurrence and overall good quality. A total of 28 drinking water samples collected from different locations of Kalasapadu, Porumamilla Mandals, Kadapa District Andhra Pradesh, and India were analysed for water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride, bicarbonates, calcium, magnesium and chloride. The results obtained were found to exceed the permissible limits. It is observed that most of the groundwater is alkaline in nature. The Total Dissolved Solids of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 510 mg/l to 1698 mg/l. The Total hardness of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 70 to 290 mg/l. Groundwater of the study area is very hard. The calcium concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 10 mg/l to 88 mg/l. The Mg concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 11 mg/l to 89 mg/l. The chloride concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 21.3 to 146 mg/l during pre-monsoon period. The bicarbonate concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 97.6 mg/l to 239 mg/l during pre-monsoon period. The fluoride concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 0.399 mg/l to 2.88 mg/l during premonsoon period. Low concentration of fluoride (0.399 mg/l) is observed in Yellayapalli village and high concentration of fluoride (2.88 mg/l) is observed in the village Pondugarupalli. Dental and skeletal fluorosis and deformation of bones in children as well as adults were observed in the study area indicating the health impact of fluoride in groun

Correlations between Abiotic and Biotic Variables of Stream Ban- Ganga, Katra, Reasi, (J&K)

Arti Sharma and Vipulab Sharma

  • Abstract

    Present research paper deals with the correlations between abiotic (Physical and chemical) and biotic (macro-benthic invertebrates) variables of Ban- Ganga, which is a religiously celebrated stream. Both variables were studied and Pearson’s correlation ‘r’ was drawn between them. The conclusion drawn from the chemical analyses was in good accordance to the result obtained from biological parameters. It was found that physico-chemical parameters were important in structuring the stream macro benthic invertebrate communities because they determined whether organisms could colonize and persist in the stream habitats. Thus, the invertebrates are useful as bio indicators to the health of the aquatic ecosystem, complementing water quality analysis.

Tanzania Palm Oil Industry: Auditing and Characterization of Oil Palm Wastes Potential Bioresource for Valorization

Stella Gilbert Temu, Anthony Manoni Mshandete and and Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi

  • Abstract

    Valorization, the combination of conversion processes of biomass into valuable biobased products, is a basis of bioeconomy, which is emerging globally. Tanzania has a huge potential in biomass production potential for valorization currently hardly or inefficiently used resulting into environmental pollution problems and bioresource wastage. A waste audit case study was conducted for palm oil extraction wastes generated by smallholder farmers in Kigoma Tanzania to evaluate their potential for valorization by integrating quantitative with qualitative methods and laboratory analysis. Results showed that annual generation of fresh oil palmpost-harvest wastes was estimated at 100,250 tones and palm oil processing wastes was estimated at 132,709 tons of solid waste and 1.54 x 108m3 of wastewater. The wastewater was high strength with a total chemical oxygen demand of 50,000 mg/l and biological oxygen demand of 40,000 mg/l. The chemical composition profile (mg/l) of the wastewater included 5.93 phosphorous, 6.9 phosphate, 4.3 ammonia, 13.59 nitrate, 18.4 organic nitrogen, a pH of 3.78 and a conductivity of 1.6 Mv. Percent nitrogen contents of the solid waste fractions including palm fronts, palm press fibers, palm kernels, empty fruit bunches and palm kernel cake ranged between 0.5-0.8 and their phosphorus content ranged between 0.12- 0.34 mg/100g. In conclusion, on the basis of the established characteristics, palm oil wastes represent amongst renewable biological resource,which can be transformed into food, feed, bio-based products and bio-energy via innovative and efficient bioconversion technologies in an integrated and sustainable manner. An innovative approach for the

Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Waste Water

Sankar Narayan Sinha and Dipak Paul

  • Abstract

    Heavy metal pollution for the last few decades is spreading throughout the world along with rapid industrialization. A large number of bacteria and their products can be highly efficient bio-accumulators of different forms of metals. The present study deals with isolation, enumeration and characterization of heavy metal tolerant bacteria isolated from the metal factory effluent. The three potential metal tolerating isolates were morphologically, physiologically and biochemically characterized. All isolates were found to be Gram positive cocci demonstrating physiological characteristics primarily indicative of the genus Aerococcus, though it needs further characterization. The study indicated the potentiality of the isolate GM1 to tolerate and accumulate significance amount of lead, which is indicative of use of this strain for bioremediation of lead pollution in the river Ganga in those metal contaminated area.

Biovalorization of Banana waste:Auditing and improvement of bio-methane production by fungal pre-treatment

Emmanuel Elijah Salyeem, Anthony Manoni Mshandete and Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi

  • Abstract

    Bananas is an important staple food and cash crop in Tanzania, which generates huge waste quantities, currently underutilized and discarded causing detrimental impact to the environment. However, representsun-tapped bio-resource for bio-valorization into valuable bio-products. A waste audit case study was conducted for four common cultivars, Mshare-Kahuti, Mbwailuma (Matoke), Kisukari-Mshare and Kimalindiat Horticulture Research and Training Institute, Tengeru, Arusha, Tanzania. Wastes quantities generated annually from one hectare were estimated at 57, 99, 64 and 125 tons/year for Mshare-Kahuti, Mbwailuma (Matoke), Kisukari-Mshare and Kimalindi, respectively. Methane yield of various wastes fresh fractions of Mshare-Kahuti (for cooking) and Kisukari-Mshare (for desserts) were investigated in batch anaerobic bioreactors (BAB). The highest methane yields for Mshare-Kahutiof 0.273 and Kisukari- Mshare of 0.255m3CH4/kg of volatile solids (VS) added were recorded from corm and peels banana waste fractions, respectively. The effect of solid state-fermentation pretreatment of banana wastes with Pleurotus sapidus (P 969) at 10% (wet wt bases) for 7, 14 and 21 incubation days on the extent of methane yield was also investigated in BAB. Maximum methane yields for Mshare-Kahuti and Kisukari-Mshare were 0.96and 0.99m3CH4/kg VS added, respectively recorded at 21days incubation period. Maximum methane yield represented an increment of 77-631% for Kisukari-Mshare and Mshare- Kahuti, respectively, which was significant at (p<0.05) as compared to untreated waste. In conclusion, this is the first report on enhanced bio-methane production from banana wastes by fungal pre-treatment, which scientifically validated it as renewable energy bioresource.

Levels of Heavy Metals in Two Rivers of Tamilnadu for Predicting Pollution Loads

P.S. Krishnamoorthy and K. Nagarajan

  • Abstract

    River Cauvery, a perennial river in India is the lifeline of people of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu for irrigation and drinking. River Palar is a minor river of South India flowing through the state of Karnataka, Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The waters of both the rivers is being extensively harness from their banks for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. The river water of the study area was grossly polluted in respect to heavy metal pollutants estimation and is mainly attributed to the high amount of raw industrial effluents that enters into the river, however the river water metal quality was below the permissible limits set by BIS 2004-05 and suitable for drinking purposes but the metals detected in the surface water but is very dangerous to the bottom dwelling organisms because of metals safely get deposited into the undisturbed bottom, which require continuous monitoring, adequate sanitary measures and metal removing process if the water is to be used for drinking purposes. When compared to River Palar, Cauvery was attained maximum amount of metals but River Palar water couldn’t take from surface runningn water.

  • Abstract

Phytoremediation of Sugar Industry Effluent Using Typha angustata and Phragmites australis through Constructed Wetland

Patel Pratik and Dharaiya Nishith

  • Abstract

    Constructed Wetlands (CW) are engineered wastewater treatment systems filled with porous media and planted with emergent wetland plants. The aim of this study was to analyze the phytoremoval effectiveness by Typha angustata and Phragmites australis to treat Sugar industry effluent in CW systems as vertical flow subsurface treatment. Local wetland soil CW showed significant improvement in all parameters. Phragmites australis gave 98.84% reduction in COD and 99.69% BOD whereas ammonical Nitrogen and organic Nitrogen was totally removed from the effluent. Treatment using Typha angustata reduces COD 76.90% and 89.21% BOD while NH3-N and organic Nitrogen were reduced 89.42% and 78.57% respectively. The results were also statistically verified using one way ANOVA and 2 tailed t-test Analysis. The study shows that sugar industry effluents treated in vertical flow subsurface wetland with Phragmites australis gives best reduction in all the parameters of water with retention time of 7 HRT.

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