Vol. 4 & Issue 2 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Feb. to Apr.2014


Synthesis of Biogas as a Renewable Energy from Organic Waste Mixture by Anaerobic Fermentation

Santhosh P and Revathi D

  • Abstract

    An alternative method of obtaining gaseous fuel is through the anaerobic fermentation of wet livestock (animal and vegetable) wastes to produce biogas which is a mixture of methane (45-75%) and carbon dioxide. The process occurs in two stages. In the first stage, the complex organic substance contained in the waste are acted upon by a certain kind of bacteria called acid formers and are broken in to small chain simple acids. The second stage produces methane and carbon dioxide by another kind of bacteria. The calorific value of this biogas ranges from 16000-25000 kj/m3. It is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting as well. When blended with diesel, it is a very good alternate fuel for compression ignition engines and can yield diesel savings of 72 to 80%. Thus, by means of suitable apparatus, biogas is produced from animal waste and vegetable waste with high calorific value (more than 16000 – 25000 kj/m3). Keywords: Animal waste, Vegetable waste, anaerobic digestion

Metal Content of Municipal Solid Waste Compost–Amended Arenic Kandidiult in Ihiagwa, Southeastern Nigeria

B. U. Uzoho, G. E. Osuji, J. A. L. Effiong, Mike Okon, C. Eke, A. C. Uzoho

  • Abstract

    A 32 factorial experiment of MSWC (0, 6 and 12 Mg ha-1) as factor A and lime (0, 2 and 4 Mg ha-1) as factor B, arranged in RCBD setup with 3 replications was used for pumpkin (Telferia Occidentalis) production in an Arenic Kandidiult in Ihiagwa, Southeastern Nigeria. Soil and plant metal contents, metal accumulation index (Igeo), plant metal uptake, metal transfer ratio and the relationship between plant and soil metal contents were evaluated. Soil Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Cd and Ni but Fe contents increased significantly (LSD 0.05) with MSWC rates only while contents of all metals decreased distinctly (LSD 0.05) with rates of lime and MSWC x lime. Impact of treatments on plant metal content was similar as the soil but with metal concentrations higher in the plants than the soil. Metal accumulation index showed that the soil was not polluted with Fe but slightly with Cu (20-50%), Pb (13-47%), and Co (27-47%) and heavily with Cd (73%). Soil metal contents were positively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with plant metal concentrations. Metal uptake significantly (LSD 0.05) increased with MSWC rates but distinctly (LSD 0.05) decreased with rates of lime and MSWC x lime. Metal transfer ratio differed and showed no relationship with soil metal content for most treatments. Plant Cd and Pb contents were above maximum permissible limits of various regulatory agencies, indicating that they could constitute serious health hazards with consumption of the crop. Though MSWC could be useful for soil fertility restoration, great caution is required for its use in the acidic soils of the tropics due to the high crop metal uptake.

Parthenium hysterophorus L.: A Noxious and Rapidly Spreading Weed of India

Monika Kumari

  • Abstract

    Parthenium hysterophorus L. commonly called as congress grass is among the top ten worst weeds of the world. It is noxious because it is highly adaptable to almost all type of environmental conditions, can invade all types of land, and also causes high losses in the yield of field crops and direct contact with plant or plant parts for long time causes dermatitis sometimes it may lead to death of person. It get spread in almost all the states in India and get established in almost all the parts such as wasteland, roadsides, forests, railway tracks, crop fields. Its high germination ability throughout the year, an enormous seed bank, rapid spread and colonization and extreme adaptability in a wide range of habitats make it capable of spread vigorously. It affects human health causes skin diseases and allergic reactions, also affect livestocks and reduces yield of agricultural crops in the affected field. There are many ways, mechanical, chemical, cultural and biological to control it but it cannot be controlled by using a single approach. Integrated approach should be the better way to manage this noxious weed.

Zinc Sorptivity of Selected soils of Southern Nigeria

B.U.Uzoho, J.U.Amaechi, A.C.Uzoho and J.C.Orji

  • Abstract

    Zinc sorptivity of selected soils of Southern Nigeria was evaluated by equilibrating 2 g soil sample with 20 ml 0.01M CaCl2 solution containing graded concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg kg-1) of Zn and sorbed Zn determined. Sorbed Zn was fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms and sorption maximum (b), affinity constant (k), bonding energy (n), distribution coefficient (kf) and equilibrium Zn concentration (EPCo) determined. Sorption mechanism was estimated using the Gibbs free energy (G). Furthermore, relationships between b, k, n, kf, EPCo and G with soil properties (clay, OM, pH, P, ECEC and Fe) were determined using correlation analysis. Direct and indirect effects of soil clay, pH, OM, P and ECEC on b was determined using Path analysis. Langmuir isotherm conformed better to Zn sorption than the Freundlich and Temkim isotherms. Soil b, k, n, kf,EPCo and G ranged from 64.39-112.36 and 67.93- 114.94 mg kg-1, 0.24-3.76 and 0.25-5.14 L mg-1, 0.28-84.76 and 0.28-28.57 L kg-1, 3.85- 16.07 and 3.19-18.88 L kg-1, 0.20-0.32 and 0.18-0.33 mg L-1 and -4598.79-- -2859.83 and - 4489.40- -2809.76J mol-1 for surface and subsurface soil depths repectively. Zinc sorption capacity using b increased in the order Bende < Ihiagwa < Ahoada < Okigwe for both soil depths while the affinity constant (k) was Okigwe < Ihiagwa < Ahoada < Bende for surface and Ihiagwa < Okigwe<Ahoada <Bende for subsoil. Sorption mechanism was spontaneous and exothermic. Correlation between b, k, kf, n, and G with clay, ECEC, OM, pH and P but not Fe and that between EPCo and ECEC, OM, pH and P but not clay and Fe were significant (P < 0.05). Path analysis showed significant direct effects of clay (r = -0.55), available P (r = -0.53)

Costs and Returns Analysis of Gari Processing in Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

J.A.L.Effiong, J.O. Aligbe, C.O.Albert and K.I.Ohazuruike

  • Abstract

    This study was carried out to determine the costs and returns of gari processing. Data were collected from a cross section of small scale gari processors through interview schedule with a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the budget model and multiple regression analysis. The study showed that gari processing is dominated by women who process gari through the manual/traditional method. Gari processing enterprise proved profitable with average monthly gross margin of N114, 900, net production income of N113, 280 and net return on investment of N2.42. Production output of gari was significantly influenced by cost of production and educational level and weakly determined by age of respondents, production experience and household size. The serious constraints to gari processing included high cost of cassava, tediousness associated with peeling, hazard of smoke and injury to hands during grating. Extension services should be provided for gari processors who are also cassava farmers on the need to grow early maturing and high yielding cassava varieties. Gari processors should organize themselves into co-operative groupings. This can help them access credit, procure gari processing plant as well as process their gari collectively at minimal cost.

Environmentally Sustainable Water Resources Development and Management”-A comparative Study of Drinking Water Qualities of Jodhpur, Jalore and Nagaur Districts of Rajasthan

Deepshikha Sharma

  • Abstract

    Water has emerged as one of the primary environmental concerns for 21st century. Many countries of the world are facing water shortage and severe water pollution problems. Due to high increasing rate of population and industrialization of India, water demand is also increasing at a very high rate. To solve this problem the water resources development and their management is very essential for development of country. Rajasthan is a largest state of India. Current population of Rajasthan in 2013 is 7, 10, 41,283.Population of Jodhpur, Nagaur and Jalore districts is approximately 90, 00000. With rapid growing population and improving living standards the pressure on water resources is increasing and per capita availability of water resources is reducing day by day. The present study deals with a comparative physio-chemical study of wate samples from Jodhpur, Nagaur and Jalore districts. The observed values of various physical and chemical parameters of water samples were compared with standards values recommended by WHO. It is found that fluoride contents in Jalore and Nagaur district and nitrate contents in Jodhpur district are above permissible limit.

Heavy Metal Contamination in Roadside Soils and Grasses: A Case Study from Dhaka City, Bangladesh

H. M. Zakir, Nahid Sultana and Mousumi Akter

  • Abstract

    The research work was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals in roadside soils and grass samples collected from different locations of Dhaka metropolitan city, and to assess their pollution level. The concentrations of metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr) in roadside soil and common grass (Ageratum conyzodes) samples were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The pH of all soil samples were slightly acidic to neutral. Average concentration of heavy metals in soil samples were: Pb = 45.68; Cd = 0.38; Cu = 42.34; Zn = 163.28 and Cr = 30.17 μg g-1. The highest concentrations of different heavy metals were found in the samples collected from heavy traffic. In case of grass samples the mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Cr were 3.48, 0.52, 75.04, 103.33 and 32.25 μg g-1, respectively. The average concentration of Cu, Zn and Cr in grass samples collected from different locations of Dhaka metropolitan city were above than the critical toxic levels (20-30, 100 and 5-10 μg g-1, respectively) for most plants. The study revealed that the contamination factor for Pb, Zn and Cd were several times higher compared to Cu and Cr, which indicates that Pb, Zn and Cd were the major pollutants in the roadside soils of Dhaka metropolitan city. Finally, the Igeo calculations of the roadside soils of the study area also revealed moderate pollution level in soils by Pb, Zn and Cd from anthropogenic sources.

Natural Biodiversity- Environmental Significant Effects

M. C. Rao, B. Siva Kumari and G. Raju

  • Abstract

    Biodiversity can most simply be defined as the variation that exists in the living world. On a planetary scale this variation is evident from an examination of the Earth's biomes and biogeographic realms. At the other extreme, variability can also be found within a sequence of DNA which is, of course, the fundamental source of all biodiversity. Genetic diversity is one of the three fundamental levels of biodiversity and conservation of biodiversity benefits greatly from a thorough understanding of the genetic structures and genetic variability in a population or species. Conservation genetics is field in its own right, making use of genetic markers and DNA fingerprinting to assess the genetic variability within species and between individuals. The creation of genetically modified organisms, such as transgenic food crops which contain a gene from a foreign species, is still controversial and is believed by some to have a negative impact on natural biodiversity. However, the argument for transgenic crops in conserving biodiversity lies in the fact that high yielding transgenic crops can be grown in smaller areas of land, therefore reducing the expansion of farm land and encroaching less on natural vegetation rich in biodiversity in comparison to the cultivation of other, lower-yielding non-transgenic crop varieties which require more land to produce the same yield.

Comparative study of two constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment

Moez Bouali, Mouna Feki and Amina Bakhrouf

  • Abstract

    Two phytoremediation systems consisting of a reed bed filter (RBF) and an algal based pond (ABP) were installed behind an activated sludge process in order to improve treated wastewater to be reused in agriculture domain. It is established that the RBF acts as the carrier for developing bacterial biofilms on the plant root and gravel media. Concerning the ABP, assimilation and nutrient uptake were the essential removal mechanism. Results have demonstrated that average COD and BOD removal efficiencies in the algal based pond were respectively 72.53% and 71.26%. Regarding the RBF these percentages were 84.66% and 89.44. For the NH4- N and PO4-P removal, 73.09% and 84.64% were respectively achieved in the RBF, whereas only 38.76% and 47.77% were performed in the ABP. Fecal coliform was highly removed by the RBF. Statistical results demonstrate that RBF is more adequate for the tertiary wastewater treatment after activated sludge by efficiencies comparison.

Preliminary Chemical Analysis of Ageratum conyzoides and Dracaena smithii Purportedas Herbal Remedies against Infertility in Human Females

Joseph A. Gbertyo, Gillian O. Igbum, Simon T. Ubwa

  • Abstract

    Ageratum conyzoides and Dracaena smithii have been used by Herbalists for the treatment of female infertility in some ethnic groups in Benue State, Nigeria, with testimonies by clients of the plants’ efficacy. The study was carried out to investigate the constituents of these plants. The constituents of the plants were extracted using ethanol and hexane respectively. Saponins, tannins, steroids, and alkaloids were found in Ageratum conyzoides while only saponins and steroids in Dracaena smithii. The absence of alkaloids in Dracaena smithii could imply that it is nontoxic. The infrared spectra showed the following characteristic absorption bands for hexane extract of Ageratum conyzoides: 3385.42 cm-1, 2926.32 cm-1, 2852.70 cm-1, 1736.80 cm-1, 1631.52 cm-1, 1461.58 cm-1, 1130.99 cm-1 and 839.76 cm-1. The ethanol extract at 3419.70 cm-1, 2920.21 cm-1, 2850.12 cm-1, 2132.31 cm-1, 1632.18 cm-1 and 1046.85 cm-1. The hexane extract of Dracaena smithii had frequencies of absorption at 3437.41 cm-1, 2925.69 cm-1, 2854.65 cm-1, 1738.47 cm-1, 1650.04 cm-1, 1458.18 cm-1, 1043.22 cm-1 and 899.48 cm-1. Its ethanol extract with 3419.97 cm-1, 2925.03 cm-1, 2852.53 cm-1, 1624.27 cm-1, 1462.68 cm-1, 1381.16 cm-1, 1053.74 cm-1 and 824 cm-1. The bending, and vibrational intensities showed the presence of NH2, R, -OR1, -COOR1, C=C, C ≡ C, ROH and −C ≡ N, suggesting the presence of amines, alkyl groups, ethers, esters, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, and nitriles.The results obtained were similar to that of synthetic drugs; parlodel, which contains bromocriptine in fo

Bio-Efficacy of Tropical Phytoextracts against Pathogen (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) on Cashew

D.O. Adeniyi and D.B. Olufolaji

  • Abstract

    Twelve tropical plant species were assayed in-vitro for their antifungal characteristics against Lasiodiplodia theobromae; pathogen of inflorescence dieback of cashew in Nigeria and the crude extracts assayed at 80%, 40%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations for their efficacy to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogen. The bioefficacy assay revealed that Chromolaenaodorataleaf extract has the highest percent reduction of mycelial growth of L. theobromae at 80% conc., Carica papaya extract at 10% conc. and Ageratum conyzoides also at 80% extract conc. The mycelial growth of L. Theobromae was not significantly different when treated with Azadirachtaindica, Tridaxprocumbens, Vernoniaamygdalina and Moringaoleifera at all concentrations compared with the control. While V. Amygdalina, T. Procumbens and Azadirachtaindica had no effect on the mycelial extension at 40% concentration as well as Acalyphahispida and T. procumbensat 80% concentration, A. indica, T. Procumbens and A. hispida at 10% concentration, other plant species have varying percent reduction on growth of L. Theobromae. Jatrophacurcas, Ocimumgrattissimum, Tetrapleura.tetraptera and A. conyzoideshave their highest (40.39%, 19.02%, 27.06% and 42.55%) percent reduction on mycelial growth of L. theobromae at 10%, 80%, 80% and 80% concentration respectively, while 11.56%, 56.47%, 78.82% and 37.855 were the highest percent reduction in A. hispida, C. papaya, C. odorata and Momordicafoetida at 5%, 10%, 80% and 80% concentration of phytoextracts respectively. The least (30.29mm) mean mycelialgrowth of L. theobromae across all concentrations was recorded when treated with C. odorata followed by 47.30mm in C. papaya and 51.00mm recorded for A. conyzoides. And the highest mean mycelial growth of 83.87mm was recorded in A. indica proving it the least effective against L. theobromae

Phosphorus Sorption Capacity of Soils in Relation to Landuse Types in Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria

B.U.Uzoho, Ihem, E, Onwudike, S, Agim, L, Nkwopara, U, Opara, I.U, Okon, M, Nti, and Orji, J.C

  • Abstract

    Phosphorus sorption capacity of surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) soils of cassava, oil palm, fallow and landfill land use types in Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria, was evaluated by equilibrating 3 g of soil with 30 mls of 0.01M CaCl2 solution containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg kg-1 P as KH2PO4 and the P sorbed determined. Sorption parameters (b, k, b1, b2, k1, k2, kf, MBC and EPCo) were calculated using linear, Langmuir single surface and Langmuir double surface equations. The sorption parameters were also correlated with selected soil properties. The P sorption capacity of the soils was low to medium, having b values of 69.44-118.62 and 90.33-145.72 mg kg-1 for surface and subsoils respectively and with the distribution patterns beingFallow > Landfill > Cassava > Oil palm. The k, kf and MBC were higher in the subsoil than surface soils of the various land uses and ranged as 0.59-2.44 and 3.06-7.44 L mg-1, 1.85-25.18 and 4.32-28.91 L kg-1 and 54.63- 169.34 and 325.19-1040.56 mg L-1for surface and sub soils respectively. Specific sorption (b1) was higher than nonspecific sorption (b2) being about 38.02-88.23% of the sorption maximum (b) and better in the subsoil than the surface soils of the land uses. Equilibrium solution P concentration (EPCo) increased with decreased b, kf and MBC and higher in the surface than subsoil, and in the landfill land use than others. Sorption parameters correlated with soil properties especially, CEC, P, pH, clay, OM, Fe2O3, Al2O3, CaCO3 and bd. Phosphorus sorption capacity is important in P management to regulate P availability for plant uptake and the tendency for environmental pollution.

Chemical Speciation and Mobility of Cadmium and Lead in Waste Dumpsites in Owerri,Southeastern Nigeria

B.U.Uzoho, U.N.Nkwopara, E.Ihem, C. Eke, J. C. Odum and S.Onwudike

  • Abstract

    Metals released from waste dumpsites constitute serious threats to the environment. Chemical speciation and mobility of Cd and Pb in active, abandoned and none waste dumpsites in Owerri, Southeastern, Nigeria were evaluated using sequential extraction procedure. Cadmium and Pb fractions were also correlated with selected soil properties. Cadmium fractions decreased as Carbonate (35.02-58.02%) > Residual (13.07-27.33%) > Fe-Mn oxide (6.48-28.23%) > organic (7.06-15.58%) > exchangeable (6.00-11.36%) > water soluble (1.48-6.48%) in the sites. Also Pb fractions decreased in the order; Organic (35.17-42.79%) > residual (11.76-30.41%) > Fe-Mn oxide (18.69- 24.30%) > Carbonate (6.31-19.18%) > exchangeable (1.35 -11.76%) > water soluble (0.68-2.94%). Concentrations of mean water soluble (0.013 mg kg-1), carbonate (0.88 mg kg-1) and organic (0.021 mg kg-1) Cd fractions were higher in the active while those of exchangeable (0.015 mg kg-1), Fe-Mn oxide (0.032 mg kg-1) and residual (0.026 mg kg-1) were in the abandoned than the other sites. The concentrations of all Pb fractions decreased as Active > Abandoned > none dumpsite. Surface soil concentrations of all Cd and Pb fractions of the sites were higher than the subsoil exception being the none dumpsite. The Cd and Pb fractions were related to soil pH, OM, exchangeable Ca and Mg, clay, silt+clay and CaCO3. Mobility factors of Cd and Pb were about 48.02- 64.35% and 6.56- 29.91% respectively, indicating the superiority of Cd and the probable consequence of greater environmental pollution than the Pb. Periodic evaluation of metal status of waste dumpsites is necessary for efficient environmental monitoring and management.

Water Quality Evaluation of Tongi Area in Bangladesh: An Impact of Industrialization

Bidyut Bakali, Md. Younus Mia and Zakir H. M.

  • Abstract

    The study was conducted to assess surface (SW) and ground water (GW) quality at Tongi area in Bangladesh. The color of pond waters were green, whereas all river and khal waters were black in color and emits noxious smell which means these waters were polluted and dangerous for aquatic ecosystem and public health. The pH, EC, TDS and DO of all water samples were fluctuated between 6.10 to 6.86, 24 to 160 μS cm-1, 149 to 1064 mg L-1 and 0.40 to 6.20 mg L-1, respectively. In respect of Ca, Mg, K and Na content, most of the water samples were suitable for long-term irrigation and other purposes. In context of HCO3 - and PO4 ---, most of the SW samples were graded problematic for irrigation and other purpose. Trace metals like Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cd contents were found suitable for different usage. But Pb content in most of the SW samples were exceeded the permissible limit. Considering soluble sodium percentage, out of 15 water samples, 2, 9 and 4 samples were classified as good, permissible and doubtful, respectively. The computed residual sodium carbonate varied from -1.90 to 21.1 me L-1 and 11 samples were found in unsuitable class. As regards to hardness, all of the water samples were graded as very hard except 2 GW. Present study results concluded that the quality of SW and GW of Tongi area were unsuitable category for most of the parameters studied due to high industrial effluent contamination.

Impact of the Construction of a Warehouse of Plant Health Products on the Flora of the Site of City of CNPS of San-Pédro, In the South-West of the Côte d'Ivoire

Kouassi Kouadio Henri, Kouassi Roland Hervé, Kouassi Kouadio Claude et and N’guéssan Koffi

  • Abstract

    This study of the impacts of the construction of a warehouse on the flora of the landscape of the district of the social contingency fund (CNPS), a locality close to the wearing of San-Pedro in the South-west of the Ivory Coast comprises, the analysis of possible imbalances biological and ecological related to the execution of the project on the flora of the site. The objective was to identify, evaluate and characterize the impacts related to the activities carried out during the phases of construction, use and at the end of the project in order to put forward measures of attenuation and/or corrective. The study was carried out on the basis of floristic inventory. The results showed that the flora of the study is rich approximately 66 species of which five (5) have a particular status. This flora is fairly diversified and relatively homogeneous. Its characteristics predict risks of imbalances biological which can occur with short, average and long run. Many impacts with which the reduction of the diversity of the woody species family, the fragmentation of the contiguous forest and the rarefaction of the endemic species and lianescents were identified in this

Post-Consumer Waste Management by Virtue of Vermicomposting Enriched with Leaf Litter

Karthika Arumugam, Vasanthy Muthunarayanan , Seetha Devi Ganesan, Swabna Vivek and Susila Sugumar

  • Abstract

    Dried leaf waste is the major garbage of the environment. Though they are the very rich source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Our aim is to utilize the dried leawastes in an eco-friendly manner. Vermicomposting is a method of bio oxidation and stabilization of organic matter with the help of earthworms and microorganisms thereby turning waste into valuable soil amendments. The intensive objective of this study is to investigate the enhancement of vermicomposting by the addition of leaf litter (nitrogen source) along with the post-consumer waste (PCW), the artificial paper banana leaf waste (APBL) .Four different sets were prepared for this study, which includes artificial paper banana leaf waste and cowdung with Eisenia fetida (set A1) with Eudrilus eugenia (Set A2), artificial paper banana leaf waste, cow dung and leaf litter with Eisenia fetida (set B1 ), with Eudrilus eugenia (set B2) to carry out the degradation process in an eminent way. These materials were left for precomposting followed by the introduction of earth worms. Physico-chemical parameters (pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total organic matter (TOM), Total Nitrogen (TKN), C: N and Total Phosphorus) were analyzed. We have found that the aging of vermicompost reduce the microbial biomass. The FTIR spectrum analysis showed reduction of aliphatic compounds in the vermicompost. Coherently, we have found that the addition of leaf litter certainly augmented the PCW degradation apparently within a period of 50days, but degradation without leaf litter took 90days. Thus the addition of leaf litter is justified.

Geochemistry of Groundwater in Rural, Rurban and Urban Areas in and Around Steel City Rourkela, Odisha, India

Rabindranath Barik and S. K. Pattanayak

  • Abstract

    A total of 25 drinking water samples collected from different locations of Rourkela, Sundergarh District Odisha, India were analysed for water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride, bicarbonates, calcium, magnesium and chloride. The results obtained were found within the permissible limits. It is observed that most of the groundwater is alkaline in nature. The Total Dissolved Solids of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 144 mg/l to 266 mg/l. The Total hardness of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 63 to 230 mg/l. Groundwater of the study area is hard in nature. The calcium concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 08 mg/l to 61 mg/l. The Mg concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 02 mg/l to 65 mg/l. The chloride concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 9.9 to 111.2 mg/l during pre-monsoon period. The bicarbonate concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 122 mg/l to 498 mg/l during pre-monsoon period. The fluoride concentrations of the groundwater in the study area are found less than 0.1 mg/l during premonsoon period. The Piper tri-linear graphical representation of chemical data of representative samples from the study area for pre-monsoon reveal the analogies, dissimilarities and different types of waters in the study area. This clearly explains the variations or domination of cation and anion concentrations during pre-monsoon season.

Geochemical Studies on the Quality of Ground Water in Tirupur District, Tamilnadu, India

Santhosh P and Revathi D

  • Abstract

    This study is based on the analysis of ground water quality and its management plan in the rural area of Tirupur district. The ground water sources have been highly dependent for the irrigation and drinking purpose. The study was conducted in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season in 2012. Fourty water samples were collected from fourty different locations in Tirupur district. Their physico-chemical characteristics such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chlorides (Cl2+), sulphates (SO4 2+), sodium (Na2+), nitrates (No3), bicarbonates (HCO3) and potassium (K) are analysed and the result is compared with the BIS standards and WHO standards of drinking water quality. After the analysis, groundwater quality of Tirupur locality is estimated and necessary steps are taken the improvement of its quality.

Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil

Burnwal Pappu Kumar, Tomar Shraddha Singh, Agrawal Deepali and Sethi Vinod Krishna

  • Abstract

    Due to much more demanding of fuel and decline production of fossil fuel it has been observed that the biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil (WVO) is not so = much expensive as compare to produce from fossil fuel. The properties of WVO were = analyzed and observed that it has same properties as diesel produced from fossil fuels. The biodiesel is the low cost best alternative fuel as compare with fossil fuels. The present manuscript finally come to the conclusion that it can be used (substitute) due to it nontoxic, easy handling, low cost, high efficiency. The biodiesel produced from WVO has less adverse effects as compare with the diesel produce from fossil fuels. In this project different variable have been selected like reactants used, volumetric ratio of methanol to catalyst. The biodiesel produced from WVO has more flash point hence it is safer than fossil fuel. It also improves the lubricity of the engine.

Bio-Degradable, Eco-Friendly, Safe, Tidy Toilet [Best Toilet]

Rajeev Saxena, Rameez Attar, S. Nimi, Chinmay Shah

  • Abstract

    Our principle is “Eco-friendly Toilets + Recycling of waste = Clean and Tidy Environment”. We aim at using cost effective toilet system which can be used by developing countries. We have developed a Bio- toilet system in which fecal matter gets reduced in volume as a result of biodegradation by Black soldier fly larvae and the residues of this biodegradation can be used in the farms as manure. At present the reisno specific sanitizing system for safe fecal disposal in the Indian railways. Fecal matter falling on railway tracks besides corroding and damaging the tracks, is also a major cause of transmission of diseases and pollution of water bodies. It is a major concern for health and hygiene of the public. This intervention aims to solve the above problem of safe and eco-friendly manner of fecal disposal preferably in the railway transport system of developing countries. The concept is to use containers below the railway compartments to collect the fecal matter and their subsequent biological degradation by larvae of black soldier flies. Moreover, there is a provision for some recycling of used water in the toilets for cultivation of mushroom. Preventing the discharge of fecal matter and water on to the tracks will block the transmission fecal related diseases and thereby protect the environment.

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