Vol. 4 & Issue 3 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : May. to Jul.2014

 

Evaluation of Water Quality in Thadlaskeiñ Lake, West Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya, India

R Eugene Lamare and O. P. Singh

  • Abstract

    The Thadlaskeiñ Lake is an impoundment Lentic lake located in Mukhla village of West Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya. It is one of a few designated tourist spots of the district. As per the traditional history, the lake was created by Sajar Nangli (a local Chieftain) and his follower using the end of the bows. The present study is an attempt to get a comprehensive idea of the water quality of the lake and its seasonal variations. For assessment of the lake water quality, parameters like pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, Mg2+, PO4, SO4, Cl- and DO were analysed following standard procedures. The data on physicochemical parameters revealed that water quality of the lake has not yet deteriorated and the measured water quality parameters were found within the permissible limits of Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). However, there is need for constant vigil to maintain the water quality as the Thadlaskeiñ Lake is attracting large number of tourists in recent past and is under pressure due to various anthropogenic activities occurring in the vicinity of the lake.

Olive Mill Wastewater Affects the Structure of Constructed Wetlands Microbial Community

Moez Bouali, Rihab Ben Slama and Amina Bakhrouf

  • Abstract

    The composition of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSF-CW) wastewater was studied during a period of one year. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic approach was used to study the effect of wastewater composition on the archaeal and bacterial structure in the (HSF-CW). Four 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed using total genomic DNA, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for archaeal and bacterial domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 170 almost full-length 16S rRNA genes for Archaea and Bacteria was performed. Rising of phenol level in consequence of olive mill effluent drain was accompanied by a dramatic drop of archaeal and bacterial Shannon diversity index respectively from H′ = 2.9 and 5.19 in April to H′ = 0 and 4.28 in November, the season of extraction of olive oil in Tunisia. During this period, some microbial species seem to be adapted and dominate the HSF-CW layers. These species might contribute to the HSF-CW stabilization and keep the efficiency of the treatment process. Thus, many bacterial clones were affiliated to species considered to play important roles in the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions.

  • Abstract

    This work is to investigate experimentally the removal of organic compounds from textile industrial wastewater by immobilized photocatalytic treatment, for its reuse in the same industry or for domestic purpose and irrigation. Now a day’s immobilized photocatalytic technique is used for the treatment of textile wastewater. Due to high photocatalytic activity and stability of titanium dioxide, it is generally used as a photo catalyst for the removal of organic compound. TiO2 was immobilized by dip-coating technique. When dip-coating technique is applied, the operating region shifted from UV to visible. Sol-gel technique has been taken as one of the adaptable methods for the preparation of metal dipped nanocrystaline TiO2. In this technique, the wavelength of the UV light and the amount of immobilized TiO2 were negligible. Photocatalytic oxidation of the combined UV/TiO2 catalyst excites the particles from the valance band to the conduction band having a forbidden energy zone value of 3.3eV. The free hydroxyl radicals produced due to this excitation removes the organic compounds present in the dye wastewater by degradation. In the present work we investigate in the operating conditions of catalyst concentration 100mg/L, pH of 7 and at room temperature. Under these conditions, the degradation of about 80.5% of Congo red dye and 77.4% of T.blue SBL dye were achievable in 480 minutes.

Studies of Phytoplankton Ecology in Roop Sagar Talab Satna (M.P.) India

Vaheedunnisha, Siwangi Saraf and Saleha Akhtar

  • Abstract

    The phytoplankton forms a very important component of aquatic vegetation, occurring in all kinds of water bodies and consequently enjoying a worldwide distribution. The present study is going to centralize on the Roop Sagar Talab of Mukundpur, Satna district in Madhya Pradesh in year 2013. The plankton were collected, counted and identified by using the method suggested by APHA, Prescott and fresh water biology1-3. Although, there are a number of major groups of phytoplankton, those relevant to the present study are Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Euglenophyceae were identified. Ten species of phytoplankton have been collected from various freshwater habitats in the Out of 28 genera Bacillariophyceae (12), Cyanophyceae (05), Charophyceae (09), Euglenophyceae (02). The study among all these phytoplankton Bacillariophyceae was recorded as a dominant class in Roop Sagar Talab. Result shows that diversity of species Bacillariophyceae 42.85%, Cyanophyceae 17.85%, Charophyceae 32.14%, Euglenophyceae 7.14 % were composed.

Species Diversity, Abundance and Status of Birds  of Jammu University Campus, Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir)

Ashima Anthal, Sakshi Koul and D. N. Sahi

  • Abstract

    An avifaunal survey was carried out in Jammu University Campus, J&K from January, 2013 to December, 2013. The investigation encompasses the diversity, Resident/Migratory status, abundance and feeding guilds of different bird species reported in the study area by applying Line transect and Point transect method. During the course of study, 57 bird species belonging to 28 families and 13 orders were reported. Six major feeding guilds were observed namely omnivorous, insectivorous, carnivorous, grainivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous. The overall highest proportion was of omnivorous birds followed by insectivorous.

Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of Bottled Drinking Water from Selected Retail Outlets in Harare

Power Ernest Gombiro, Joe Mukaro, Kudzai Mugadza, Gerard Ashley, Mark F. Zaranyika, and Chakare Benhura

  • Abstract

    The quality of bottled drinking water brands from retail shops in Harare was assessed from January to March 2011.Some parameters considered were pH, conductivity, Total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrates, sulphates, nitrites, chlorides, phosphates and total viable counts (TVC). Metals measured were sodium, potassium, lead, magnesium, iron, zinc, cadmium, manganese, calcium, copper, chromium and nickel. The pH of the brands of water ranged from 6.4±0.1 to 7.1±0.1.The mean values of nitrite levels for brands K1, K2, K4 and K5, ranged from 5.9±0 to 9.1μg/L and exceeded the limit set by WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality and Zimbabwe Food Standards. Four brands complied with the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality and Zimbabwe Food Standards with respect toTotal Viable Counts while K1 exceeded the set limit. Faecal coliforms were absent in all the brands. The concentrations of lead and chromium in all brands exceeded the limits stipulated by WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Nickel levels for brands K2 and K4 were 0.03±0.02 and 0.06±0.01 mg/L respectively and were above the limit published in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality.There were no significant differences among the means of cadmium concentrations in the water brands (p>0.05). Means of the rest of the parameters measured in the bottled water brands were significantly different (p<0.05). All brands of water considered were contaminated by nitrites, viable bacteria and some heavy metals which exceeded limits in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality.

Analysis of Amino Acids of Honey of Indigenous Bee Apis Dorsata and Apis Cerana Indica from Hassan, Chickamagalur and Madikeri Districts of Karnataka

Balasubramanyam, M.V.

  • Abstract

    Multifloral honey of giant honey bee, A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) was collected from the Hassan, Chickamagalur and Madikeri districts of Karnataka and six amino acids characteristics were determined during April 2013 to March 2014. Six amino acids viz., proline (P), lysine (K), glutamic acid (E), aspartic acid (D), valine (V) and histidine (H) were analyzed in honey of wild and apiary honeybees. Proline (89.10 μ gms) was maximal from Chickamagalur in A. cerana honey while minimal of (83.01 μ gms) proline was found in A.dorsata honey in Hassan. Similarly A.dorsata honey had lowest of histidine (5.97 μ gms) and highest of (7.24 μ gms) in A.cerana from Hassan and Chickamagalur respectively. Lysine (45.12 μ gms) was maximum from Chickamagalur in A. cerana honey while minimum of (38.70 μ gms) lysine was found in A.dorsata honey in Hassan. Similarly A.dorsata honey had lowest of (17.16 μ gms, 15.95 μ gms and 8.52 μ gms) and highest of (20.95 μ gms,.18.13 μ gms and 10.90 μ gms) glutamic acid, aspartic acid and valine in A.cerana from Hassan and Chickamagalur respectively. Proline, lysine and glutamic acid of wild and apiary honey was significant at 1% (p<0.01) level, while aspartic acid, valine and histidine of honey of both species of honeybee was not significant at 1% (p<0.01) in Hassan, Chickamagalur and Madikeri. All the six amino acids tested in A.dorsata and A.cerana displayed quantitative fluctuations in different geographical areas which are discussed in ensuing paper.

An Analysis of the Baseline Environmental Status of Bodhjungnagar Industrial Complex – A Case Study

Sukanta Chakraborty and Sumanta Chakraborti

  • Abstract

    The rapid industrialization and development activities lead the environment to an adverse condition day by day. All the industrial activities are responsible to some extend for the degradation of natural ecology. Environmental Impact Assessment helps to identify such adverse impacts and provide suitable measures to mitigate them. For any sort of environmental impact study of any project the baseline condition of the project area plays an important role. In the present study the baseline environmental condition of Bodhjungnagar Industrial Complex is analysed and the potential impacts are predicted based on the theoretical study and field visit. Some measures to mitigate those problems are also added in the literature. The prediction of problems and solution presented in the study can be justified only by an Environmental Impact Assessment study of the mentioned area.

Risk Assessment of Hapania Dumping Yard Using Integrated Risk Based Approach

Debasree Purkayastha and Sumanta Chakrabarti

  • Abstract

    Tripura is the third smallest state of India with an area of 10,491 Km2 and an overall population of 3,671,032 it generate 7050 MT solid waste per month in the Agartala Municipal Council Area. The state of solid waste management in the city is poor with no facilities of sustainable landfill. Open dumping in Hapania dumping yard has been a long practise in the state since 1971 till 2013. Currently Hapania dumping yard is used for crude Biomedical waste segregation, disposal and incineration. An Integrated Risk Based Approach (IRBA) has been used to assess and recommend necessary management strategies for Hapania dumping yard. The IRBA had given a total Risk Index of 462.49 for Hapania dumping yard showing moderate hazard potential.

Cadmium Removal by Column Study from Aqueous Environment Using Tea Factory Waste as Adsorbent

Jibesh Datta and Umesh Mishra

  • Abstract

    The industrial wastes are generally disposed to the water bodies. This industrial waste generally contains a large amount of various kinds of heavy metal like Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu etc which causes water pollution. Now a day various methods are applied to remove these toxic metals from water to reduce the extend of water pollution and its adverse effect to human health. Beside of various conventional methods the adsorption is one of the alternatives for such cases and is an effective purification and separation technique used in industry especially in water and wastewater treatments. In the process of adsorption various materials are used as effective adsorbents, however there is always an intention to use economical materials as adsorbent. Under this circumstance the tea factory waste has gain an important consideration as an effective adsorbent. Fixed bed type study has been conducted using tea factory waste as an adsorbent and the effect of various parameters like bed height, initial feed concentration, flow rate etc on the effectiveness of tea factory waste as an adsorbent has been evaluated by the present study using three different mathematical models i.e BDST model, Thomas model and Yoon Nelson model.

Kinetic Modelling of Tannery Waste Water Treatment By hybrid technology
R.Rajasekaran, C.Marimuthu, G.Vijayaraghavan
  • Abstract

    Tannery industries make use of large amounts of water and chemicals for processing. The refractory or toxic nature of this waste water will be high and which makes them difficult to process by biological treatment. We make use of AOP techniques sonication as a pretreatment of the waste water to decrease their refractory nature and then subjecting them to biological treatment for purification. The ultrasonic waves (range 30 KHz) were passed progressively for up to 60 mins and followed by bio-treatment using immobilized alginate cell packed bed bioreactor. Thus by combining the two techniques Ultrasound reactor an immobilized cells packed bed bioreactor which would result in no or less sludge production and has better efficiency by capable of handling periodic shock loads and better resistance and less HRT required. The Decoloration achieved is 93%, COD reduction achieved is 92%.The sonolysis however seemed to be an expensive process, gives very good result in removal of the recalcitrant material from waste water and promotes better biodegradation. The proposed system for treating Shock Loads in waste water looks to be a very promising technology.

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