Vol. 4 & Issue 4 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2014


Trophic Status of Pillowa Reservoir of Morena, Madhya Pradesh, India

Kadam C. P., Dandolia H. S., Kaushik S., Saksena D. N. and Shrotriy V.P.

  • Abstract

    Trophic status studies of Pillowa reservoir were deliberated for a period of two years, i.e., from June, 2008 to May, 2010. Physico - chemical parameters were analyzed at four stations namely A, B, C and D.  Which cover water of whole dam, Water sample were taken at monthly interval at sub-surface level. In all 11 parameters were analyzed which show trophic status of dam i.e., water temperature, transparency, electrical conductivity, pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, chlorides, calcium, nitrate-nitrogen and Phosphorous, On the basis of these parameters we can say that reservoir is less polluted and according to the nutrient status. The reservoir could come under as Oligo –mesotrophic categories. 

Assessment of physical parameters of soil quality around catchment area of Upper Lake, Bhopal by studying the impact of monsoons 

Ranjana Talwar, Shweta Agrawal, Avinash Bajpai, Suman Malik

  • Abstract

    The sediment that accumulates in Lake Basin provides us continuous records of environmental change in Lake Ecosystem. Sedimentation in water is a process of sinking of particulate matter, both organic and inorganic. Analysis of sediments is an important part if one wants to know the status of the lake. Hence with this objective soil samples from five different catchment sites were studied for their physical parameters. The samples were analysed during both the pre-monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons.

Determination of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr in air-suspended dust in Yenagoa Metropolis in Bayelsa State

E. Young , D. Ere, and A. S. Eboh

  • Abstract

    Fine soil particles of aerodynamic diameter (less than 75 µm) can remain suspended and dynamic in the air for a long period of time and inhalation of metal-bearing dust can lead to several diseases; some severe ones are silicosis, fibrosis, lung cancer and cancer of the pleura (serous membrane that surrounds the lung). A case study was carried out in three market; Swali Market, Kpansia Market, and Tombia-junction Market (Bayelsa State) in order to assess the air quality by the basis of metal levels in ambient dust. People involved in commercial activities in such dusty markets, may be inhaling unhealthy levels of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr. Air samples were collected, preconcentrated on cupferron-activated carbon at pH 4.75, digested with nitric acid. FAAS measurements were carried out with a GBC AVANTA Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (model 908 BT) on acetylene-air flame.  Analysis of samples from Swali Market gave 6.76 ng/m3 of Cd, 41.51 ng/m3 of Pb, 13.53

Determination of Heavy Metal Content in Wary River Using Prawn as Bio-Indicator

R. Hector, V.I.E Ajiwe and S.I Okonkwo

  • Abstract

    Concentrations of heavy metals in Warri River was carried out. Water and Prawn samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals concentration using Atomic Absorption spectrometer (AAS). The results obtained showed that lead ranged from 0.01 – 9.89mg/l with percentage coefficient of variation (CV %) of 109.94% in rainy season and 0.00 – 9.58 with CV% of 153% in dry season in water samples. Lead ranged from 0.05 – 1.54mg/g with CV% of 46.59% in rainy season and 0.50 – 9.58 mg/g with CV% of 59.63% in dry season in prawn samples. Mercury ranged from 0.00 – 9.82 mg/l with CV% of 169.19% in rainy season and 0.03 – 2.41mg/l with CV% of 128.81 in dry season in water samples. Also, mercury ranged from 0.00 – 0.89mg/g with CV% of 112.82% in rainy season and 0.02 – 1.79mg/g with CV% of 149.09% in dry season in prawn samples. Cadmium ranged from 0.00 – 2.00 mg/l with CV% of 87.50% in rainy season and 0.22 – 1.75mg/l with CV% of 69.87% in dry season in water samples.  For prawn samples, cadmium ranged from 0.01 – 0.73mg/g with CV% of 72.72% in rainy season and 0.00 – 0.96mg/g with CV% of 73.33in dry season.   The concentrations of Zn, and Ca were far below WHO recommended limit in the two samples, while the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, As, Fe, and Pb in all samples studied were in excess of the WHO recommended limit for safe water and aquatic animals. These results confirmed that Warri River was highly polluted.

Uptake of heavy metals by Capsicum annuum l. In selected agricultural areas around Kota City

Renu Tyagi and Kalpana S.

  • Abstract

    Keeping in view the high probability of contamination of soils with heavy metals around Kota city, Raj. (India), a preliminary sample survey around the city area both rural & urban has been carried out to assess the levels of heavy metals in Capsicum annuum L. The heavy metals or the trace elements play an important role during the growth and development of plants. Food production and its safety in an important aspect as vegetables play a significant role in human nutrition. Capsicums are commonly used in Indian cuisine and are grown inabundance around the neighboring areas of Kota and thus selected for heavy metal analysis. The heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe & Cu in chillies and the corresponding soils were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The objective of the present study is to determine the uptake of heavy metals by chillies from the corresponding soils in the selected regions. However concentrations of heavy metals in samples collected from five different sites was found to be within permissible limits and is safe for consumption

Biomedical Waste Management in Patna, Bihar

Vijai Krishna, Vishnu Murari and Sadhana Chaurasia

  • Abstract

     There is an estimation that more than 700 biomedical waste generators are in Patna. These include hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, laboratories, funeral homes, dentists and veterinarians. Patna has several major hospitals. Hundreds of nursing homes and clinics have mushroomed in various residential colonies. Besides these dispensaries, local practitioner’s shops and veterinary hospitals are also there to cure ailing people and animals. These aseptic sanatoriums are visited by thousands of people every day ranging from sick children to accident victims to get cured. It has been observed during the survey of health care centers/facilities that medical institutions generate huge quantities of dangerous and infectious biomedical wastes. Many hospitals just dump their biomedical wastes in the common municipal garbage bin outside the hospital posing grave danger to community residing in surrounding areas in general and rag pickers in particulars, besides considerablyaffecting environment. Study has shown that lack of facilities for disposal of hospital waste and improper use of incinerator in hospitals and nursing homes pose a major environment problem in Patna. Most of the hospitals and nursing homes, surveyed in Patna depend on the municipal corporation to dispose their garbage and have no disposal system of their own. There are total 11 hospitals,1 blood bank and 5 pathological labs are taken under study, these hospitals are of various classes means 4 are of governmental category, 2 are of charitable,1 is military and rest 4 are of private type.

Assessment of health risks related to the intake of cabbages grown at sites contaminated by heavy metals

L.M. Shengo, W.N.C. Mutiti, K.A. Nonda and T.A. Mukadi

  • Abstract

    The urban agriculture of cabbages is an additional source of income for the public sector employees. It is also a source of food for the jobless peoples in the developing countries. However, it is often practiced on soils contaminated by heavy metals. That is why it is looked at by the experts involved in the health sector as an issue of great concern. Indeed, the locally grown cabbages can contain heavy metals to high levels brought by the fertilization of the soils with the households' wastes. Heavy metals can build-up in cabbages because their watering is done using water from the rivers that are reputed to experience the pollution from the mineral origin. The present research has been conducted with the aim to assess risks to human health by heavy metals through the intake of cabbages grown at contaminated sites in the city of Likasi located in the Democratic  Republic of Congo (DRC). It is based on the determination of the levels of heavy metals in the agricultural soils and in the locally grown cabbages as well as on the calculation of the hazard indexes of cadmium and lead using the RISC4 Workbench software. Based on the obtained results, it has been concluded that the soils used in the urbanagriculture are highly polluted by heavy metals leading to contamination of the locally grown cabbages.Indeed, the levels of cadmium and lead contained in cabbages surpass the maximal limit recommended for the edible plants. Their intake could endanger the consumers' health through the exposure to the diseases arising due to ingestion of the above-mentioned heavy metals.

E-Waste Supervision – Need of the Hour

L.Nageswara Rao , Shaik Feroz and D.Kamalakar

  • Abstract

    ‘e-waste’ can be defined as electronic equipment’s / products, Waste from Electronic and Electrical Equipment, which have become obsolete due to advancement in technology, changes in fashion, style and status nearing the end of their useful life.  Innovative changes that followed the advances in information technology during the last three decades have radically changed people's lifestyle.  The changing standard of living due to urbanization, globalization and population explosion, has led to increased consumption of electronic products. The ever increasing production and use of electronic products compounded by dumping from developed countries creates the serious problem of e-waste disposal that may create crises of unmanageable proportions.  E-Waste contains nearly over 1,000 different substances and chemicals, many of which are toxic enough to create serious problems for the environment and human health, if not handled properly.  The problem is faced by many regions across the globe.  Dumping of electronic instruments like discarded computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, fax machines, electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries can leach hazardous materials such as lead, mercury into the soil and groundwater.  People burn e-waste in the open atmosphere releases large amounts of mercury and lead into the air.  Uncontrolled burning causes environmental and health problems to those directly involved.  Many of these products can be reused, refurbished or recycled in an environmentally safe manner so that they are less harmful to the ecos

Biomedical Applications of Plant mediated green synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles - A Theoretical Study

L.Nageswara Rao & D.Kamalakar

  • Abstract

    Nanoparticles  (NPs)  have  received  considerable  attention  in recent  years  due  to  their  wide  range  of  applications  in  the  field of  Catalysis,  Optoelectronics,  Chemical  sensing,  Bio-sensing, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology.  Though there are many chemical and physical techniques available for the synthesis of various  NPs;  however,  this  has  potential  hazards  to  health  and  environment. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles as developing highlight of the intersection of nanotechnology and biotechnology and has received considered attention due to a increasing need to advance environmentally benign technologies in nano material separations. Green  synthesis  of  NPs  has  several  advantages over  chemical  synthesis,  such  as  simplicity,  cost  effectiveness  as well  as  compatibility  for  biomedical  and  pharmaceutical  applications. A vast array of biological resources available in nature including plants and plant products, algae, fungi, yeast, bacteria, and viruses could all be employed for synthesis of nanoparticles. Plant mediated green synthesis of nanoparticles has emerged as promptly developing research area in nanotechnology across the globe constantly forming an impute alternative for conventional methods. Plant-based nanoparticle syntheses can be advantageous over other biological methods (microbial) since the reaction rate for the synthesis of nanoparticles is very high and there is no need to grow microbes. In this pre

Water the life with special reference to vaidyakiya subhashit sahityani

Barsing Devendra Baburao

  • Abstract

    : Water is life of animals. Globally, quality of water is the major issue which is related with health of individual. Water is essential for each and every metabolic process of body. All the toxins produced during this metabolism are also washed from the body with the help of water only. The taste of water depends on nature of soil in which it is found .According to season the taste of water changes. Water plays an important role even in thermoregulation. Recently, many reviews are put forth on water purification, pollution and water borne diseases. But, this article talks about characteristics of water according to sources and seasons with their effect on body, qualities of best water, some water borne diseases and ancient methods of water purifications. Our great ancient science describes which water is drinkable and which one is not drinkable. Water plays an important role in digestion of food. Hence its relation with food is also discussed. Use of water in treatment is also reviewed. 

Environmental Monitoring Programmeof Tasra Coal Project Chasnala, Dhanbad

B.K. Sinha  G. Kumar & S.K. Singh 

  • Abstract

     The Chasnalla block within the Jharia Basin is specially important for the coal mining activities. Cconsequence of mining activities involving drilling, blasting, crushing, transportation of coal etc. are the major concern for environmental pollution in the area. Mining and associated activities affect air, noise and water environment & degrades land and drainage system of the area. Therefore, its environment monitoring has become a necessity for the conservation of the environment. Environmental monitoring programmer involves (i) planning a survey and sampling program for systematic collection of data/information relevant to environmental assessment and project environmental management; (ii) conduct of the survey and sampling program; (iii) analysis of samples and data/information collected, and interpretation of data and information; and (iv) preparation of reports to support environmental management. Environmental Monitoring Programmer has been prepared for the Tasra Open Cast Project for assessing the efficacy of implementation of Environment Management Plan and to take corrective measures in case of any degradation in the surrounding environment. Different activities involved in the proposed opencast coal mining project, and their impact on various environmental attributes have been taken in to account while designing a detailed environmental monitoring programmer for the project.

Ground Water Quality Status in Vijaynagar Area of Bangalore


  • Abstract

    Quality of water is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purpose. Ground water sample were collected from different area in Vijaynagar of Bangalore and analysed for 13 water quality parameters viz. Electrical Conductivity, pH, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, Biological oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand, Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium. On comparing results it was found that most of the physico- chemical parameters were within the permissible limits as laid by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). 

Participation in Livestock and Poultry Rearing: A Study on Haor Women in Bangladesh

M. S. A. Mahadi, R. Khanum and K. Akhi

  • Abstract

    The study was carried out in Hakaluki Haor situated in Kulaura upazila under Moulvibazar district of Sylhet in Bangladesh to determine the nature and women participation in livestock and poultry rearing. Livestock and poultry rearing is an important income generating activity for haor women. Traditionally their involvement was significant as a part of homework. In the study, data were collected purposively in 2012 including both men and women based on different livestock and poultry rearing activities. The findings indicate that women’s participation is more significant in rearing activities. Haor women were more involved in terms of feeding, management, and marketing of livestock and poultry products. Considering all the livestock and poultry rearing activities, female participated 42% as compared to the male (39%) out of 90 households respectively. It was also found that women’s participation is increased in decision making regarding livestock and poultry rearing activities as well as family aspects. The average Decision Making Index (DMI) was 1.03 for rearing livestock and poultry while 0.98 was in family matters, which indicated that women’s involvement is significant on household income. Finally, government, NGOs and policy makers should give more emphasis on haor women who have great opportunities to participate in home based income activities and to reduce poverty. Moreover, financial support and easy access to training would upgrade their skills and technological knowledge in the expansion of livestock and poultry rearing in haor area of Bangladesh.

Fluoride in Drinking Water, Health Effects and Analysis: A Review

Patil Pandurang N., Umape Prashant G.

  • Abstract

    Due to highly industrialization, use of fertilizers and pesticides, digging of ores it contains various dangerous chemicals and heavy metals; there is no enough good quality drinking water available in most of the countries in the world. Fluoride is one of them which is very essential up to certain level, but if it is reached above the limit it shows various health related issues to human being. The various diseases due to fluoride such as dental carries, dental fluorosis to crippling skeletal fluorosis, fracture of bones and even it is carries to cancer. Study carried in China found that, even IQ level of students also been declined in the area where fluoride is in high concentration. There are certain areas on the earth where amount of fluoride found is very high generally in African countries, India, China etc. In this current review along with diseases we have tried to find out certain methods for the analysis of fluoride in drinking water. These methods are reliable, cost effective, time saving and selective in presence of other interfering water impurities.

Kiran G. Chaudhari

Studies of Physicochemical Parameters of Few soils samples in Raver

  • Abstract

    Analysis of soil samples was carried out for the studies of various parameters like Conductivity, total Organic Carbon, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P2O5) and Potassium [K2O] pH. This study leads us to the conclusion of the nutrient’s quantity of soil of Raver, District-Jalgaon, (M.S.) Results shows that average all the villages of Raver have medium or high minerals content. This information will help farmers to solve the problems related to soil nutrients amount of which fertilizers to be added to soil to increase the yield of crops. 

Biogenic Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles

Nirjharini Rout, Swati S Panda, Nirad C Rout and Nabin K Dhal

  • Abstract

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is evolving a new era of research interests in nanotechnology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The present investigation deals with green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vitex peduncularis Wall.ex Schauer. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transfer Infra Red (FTIR). Maximum absorption was recorded at 436.6 nm. SEM analysis showed the well dispersed silver nanoparticle. The synthesized nanoparticles showed significant antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogenic strains . The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in Acinectobacter sp. (25.1 mm) followed by Enterobacter sp. (23.1 mm) in case of bacterial strains and was 12.1mm in fungal strain of Cryptococcus sp. These studies are quite useful as it shows the utility of green nanotechnology for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles without any toxic residuals and byproducts. Further, the efficient antimicrobial activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles provides clues for nano-medicine.

Bioaccumulation pattern of heavy metals in three mangrove species of Avicennia inhabiting lower Gangetic delta

Shankhadeep Chakraborty, Sufia Zaman, Pardis Fazli3 and Abhijit Mitra

  • Abstract

    The pollution of heavy metals in coastal area especially in mangrove ecosystem as a result of industrialization is a serious threat for environmental safety. This study was carried out to assess the heavy metal bioaccumulation pattern of 3 mangrove species of Avicennia in the year 2013. For this purpose the leaves, roots and stem samples were analyzed for zinc, copper and lead content. The samples were collected from 12 sampling sites in the estuarine area of lower Gangetic delta, West Bengal, India. The concentration of heavy metals were found in the order Zn > Cu > Pb in root, stem and leaf of the 3 plant species. Significant variations of heavy metal concentrations were observed between species and between stations (p < 0.01) confirming that different species has different ability of bioremediation. The pattern of bioaccumulation in the 3 species was seen to follow the order as A. officinalis > A. marina > A. alba indicating that A. officinalis is the most potent bioremediator of ambient water and sediment.

Assessment of Soil Fertility of Agricultural soil of Nandurbar District, Maharashtra, India

R. B. Marathe

  • Abstract

    The present paper investigates the variation in soil fertility status of the soils land forms of Nandurbar district of Maharashtra, India, banana yards of various localities were undertaken. The survey includes six banana yards and surface soil samples up to depth of 40 cm were collected and after drying were passed through 2 mm sieve. The soil samples were analysed for various parameters. The results of total and available N, P and K contents as well as total Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn contents in the soils were reported.

Production of pectinase enzyme under solid state fermentation using banana pseudostem by Aspergillus niger NCIM 616

M. Chaitanya and K. Jaya raju

  • Abstract

    Pectinases are enzymes that lyse pectic polysaccharides of plant tissues into simpler molecules like galacturonic acids. It has long been used to increase yields and clarity of fruit juices. Pectinases are one of the most widely distributed enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. In the present study, the production of pectinase using Aspergillus niger NCIM 616 was carried out under solid-state fermentation using Banana (Musa acuminata) pseudostem powder as substrate. Various process parameters were optimized and maximum yield obtained with optimum conditions like Fermentation time (4 days), Temperature (300C), pH (7), Initial moisture content (120%), Inoculum volume (2mL), Inoculum age (4 days) and nutrient supplements possessing Pectin (1% w/w) as Carbon source, Peptone (1% w/w) as Nitrogen source and Magnesium Sulfate as mineral supplement. The maximum enzyme activity 373.968 U/mL was reported under optimized conditions. The effectiveness of pectinase so produced from A.niger NCIM616 was tested for the hydrolysis of pectin extracted from orange peels and observed the enzyme activity as 249.352 U/mL. The study indicates that the substrate banana pseudostem is a most suitable substrate for the production of pectinase and the pectinase is more effective on hydrolysis of natural pectin from orange peels.

A review on tropical seaweed diversity and benefits

Prosenjit Pramanick, Sufia Zaman, Abhijit Mitra

  • Abstract

    Seaweeds are thallophytes found in brackish water of estuaries and river mouths and saline water of seas and oceans. They are rich in protein, carbohydrate and minerals and exhibit low level of lipid. The seaweeds have multifarious uses starting from direct human consumption to preparation of animal feed, cosmetics, drugs etc. The recent finding on carbon sequestration capacity on seaweed has added their importance in the vertical of climate mitigation related research.

Limnological Study of Narmada River Near Sethani Ghat Temple Hoshangabad Madhya Pradesh, India

Mukesh Kumar Napit

  • Abstract

    The influence of physico-chemical properties of narmada river on its zooplankton composition abundance were investigated at three sites for one year from June 2013 to May 2014.Analysis of physico-chemical parameters like water temperature, pH, rainfall, DO, BOD, EC, Total alkalinity, Total hardness, chloride, SO4, Fe has been made during the investigation period. Results reveal all parameters are within the permissible limits. It was quite evident from the findings that the quality of river water near sethanighat temple was suitable for drinking, agriculture purposes.

Use of Natural Fiber for Fabrication of Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Based Hybrid Composite

Saroj Singh Chahar and A. K. Singh

  • Abstract

    Use of synthetic non degradable materials has been a matter of concern lately. The same concern has been expressed in case of fiber reinforced composites. Scientists have called for the immediate replacement of synthetic fibers by a suitable one. One important development is the use of natural fibers. The use of natural fibres as a replacement for traditional glass fibres in composites has gained increasing importance in recent years as environmental concerns have led to a quest for sustainable alternatives. There are various other advantages. Natural fibers, compared to many synthetic fibers, exhibit better mechanical properties, such as stiffness, impact strength, flexibility and modulus.Nevertheless, natural fibre composites have generally been found to have limitations in their other mechanical properties.In this study, epoxy based composite is prepared with hemp (Cannabis sativa) and glass fiber as reinforcement. Composite was prepared with hand layup technique. Various properties of the fabricated material like tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness were found by testing the material as per ASTM standards to assess the suitability of hemp fibres to replace synthetic fibres.SEM is used to study the nature of fractures while testing.

  • Abstract