Vol. 5 & Issue 1 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Nov.2014 to Jan.2015

 

Physico-chemical Studies of Ground water samples

Kiran G. Chaudhari

  • Abstract

    Rain is the primary source of all water. A part of the rain water absorbs into the ground to form ground water. Water sources available for drinking and other domestic purposes must needed high degree of purity, free from chemical contamination and growth of microorganisms. Physico-chemical analysis of bore wells underground water samples were collected from different places of Raver (India). These six samples of water samples from different places were analyzed for their physic-chemical characteristics. Water is an important part of human life, physicochemical analysis of underground water was carried out during April 2014. All the samples were collected from the different places. People used water for drinking and irrigation purpose these water samples from six different places of Raver, were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. Laboratory tests were performed for analysis as Temperature Calcium, Magnesium, hardness, total hardness; pH, Chloride, Alkalinity, TDS, Conductivity, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate & COD were studied.

     

Assessment of Water Quality Index in Chhata Town, Mathura, India

S.Badal and Manisha

  • Abstract

    Water quality index (WQI), indicates the water quality in terms of index number, was calculated for different groundwater sources like bore wells and tube wells at Chatta, Mathura District, Uttar Pradesh, India, by using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) information system. Fifteen different sites were selected in post monsoon, winter and summer season. And water quality index was calculated using water quality index calculator. The calculated WQI showed fair water quality rating in post monsoon season .Water in the bore wells and hand pumps showed medium water quality rating in post monsoon, winter and summer seasons whereas the quality was slightly different in summer and winter season than post monsoon season. In this paper the WQI was determined by various physico-chemical parameters.

Study on radon concentrations in drinking water and River Water in Diwaniyah Governorate-Iraq

Fatima Abdel –Alaamer, Sawsan Abdul-Hussein, Yousif Hashim Jaber

  • Abstract

    In this research was to measure the concentration of radon in different models of drinking water and river water in Diwaniya has been shown from this study that the concentrations of radon gas were within normal limits and this study showed that the concentration of drinking water more than those in the rivers because the drinking water tanks are closed and remain there water for a longer period. The highest value and the lowest value in 12 models and 3 respectively.

Heavy metals effect in food crop of Vigna radiata and its remediation

Vineeth Damera, Chinna. Venkateshwar and Syeda.Azeem Unnisa

  • Abstract

    Vigna radiata is an important legume species belongs to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as Green gram. Mung bean or green gram is an important cultivated pulses crop has long been a food crop in Asia. It is also known as a useful green manure crop. Recently, it has become a crop of interest in Queensland as fodder. The present research study was conducted to know the toxicity nature of heavy metals in plant parts of Vigna radiata and its remediation. Pot culture experiments were conducted with three treatments till productivity levels at Greenhouse of Botanical Garden, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad. The three treatments consists of Treatment control without any addition of heavy metals to the soil,Treatment II - heavy metals spiked into the soil and Treatment. III, 1 % of Calcium Hydroxide added along with heavy metals to the soil. The results showed when compared to control and Ca (OH)2 in treatment II the high concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cd and Cr) are found in leaf and rhizome of Vigna radiatawhen compared with 1% Calcium hydroxide treated soil in (Treatment III). In addition, the plants grown in 1% Calcium hydroxide treated soil, reversed the growth suppression and inhibited the heavy metal toxicity in plants as evidenced by reduced heavy metal concentration plant parts. The study concludes that medicinal plant Vigna radiata affected with heavy metals can be treated by using calcium hydroxide.

Impact of heavy metals on micro flora of crop plants

Damera Vineeth, Chinna Venkateshwar, Syeda.Azeem Unnisa, Kistamma Singanaboina

  • Abstract

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is known to adversely affect microbial activities at elevated concentrations. In this context study was carried out to assess and determine the cumulative effects of heavy metal on reduction of microbial number in the soil sample where the crops i.e. ground nut, green gram, and turmeric were grown in pot culture experiments with three treatments in black soil. In present study heavy metals like Ni, Cd and Cr were added in soil under laboratory conditions with different concentrations (16ppm, 10ppm and 20ppm) in soil with sufficient moisture. The microorganisms were stored at 28± 1°C for 28 days. Viable count of fungal and bacterial species was determined using serial dilution method with three types. Type-I consist of control, Type-II control soil along with heavy metal and Type-III consist of spiked heavy metal soil with1% calcium hydroxide .Fungal species (A.terrus.Thom Aspergillus niger van Tieghan, Alternaria alternata .Nees, Colletrichum and Cladosporium) and Bacterial species (Gram negative + bacteria) population were more sensitive to metal groups like Ni, Cd and Cr in Type –II when compared to Type I and III. Loss of microbial diversity is evident as we move towards higher concentration of heavy metal in soil. Type-III which was treated with calcium hydroxide has worked as an inhibitor for heavy metals and no adverse effect was observed in microbial activities.

Study of Pohara Reserve Forest Biodiversity, Vidarbha, India

M. A. Niranjane and S. K. Gudadhe

  • Abstract

    Forest is one of the terrestrial ecosystems, which plays an important role in the life of human beings. A Pohara and Melghat forest represents the forest of Amravati district Pohara-Malkhed forest reservoir was undertaken for the biodiversity study. The Pohara forest region is the home of near about 20 bird species and prey species such as Chinkara, Nilgai, Chital and Wild boar, leopard is also suspected. It is seen to have predominance of flora such as Lantana camara, Acacia sp., Buteamonosperma, Pongamia pinnata etc. during the survey, it was found that Lantana camara, Parthenium species, are spreading widely and dominating ,preventing the growth of other species. The soaring human and cattle population have brought of other species. The soaring human and cattle population have brought extreme pressure on ecosystem. Also spread up of residential areas have resulted in decrease in floral cover and ultimately affect the fauna. The presence of stone crusher and the highway within the forest has deteriorated the forest system. Now it is the need for the improvement and increment of forest cover.

Birds of Chittaurgarh District, South Rajasthan, India

Mohammed Yaseen, Trishita Konar, Dheeraj Kumar Derodia and Ujjawal Dadheech

  • Abstract

    Two hundred and forty three species of birds belonging to 56 families and17 orders were recorded in Chittaurgarh district, India, during a study on the avifaunathere carried out from October 2009 to June 2014. The order Passeriformes was highest dominance followed by Charadriiformes, Falconiformes, Ciconiiformes, Anseriformes, Coraciiformes, Piciformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, Strigiformes,Columbiformes, Pelecaniformes, Cuculiformes, Psittaciformes, Caprimulgiformes, Podicipitiformes and Apodiformes. Out of the 1224 species of birds recorded fromthe Indian Subcontinent, 19.85% were found in study area. Out of these 30.45% were common, 27.16% uncommon and 42.39% were rare. Of these 72.41 were resident, 26.33% winter migratory, 0.84% passage migrant and 0.42% summer migrants. According to IUCN Red List status six globally threatened species and eight near threatened species recorded.

Assessment of ground water quality in different areas of Karachi City

Syed Muhammad Saqib Nadeem

  • Abstract

    The drinking water quality parameters and irrigational water quality indices of water samples from different areas of Karachi city were analysed by classical and instrumental analytical methods. The drinking water quality parameters such as pH, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Electrical conductivity (EC), Turbidity, Total hardness (TH), Total Alkalinity (TA), Calcium (Ca2+) Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Chloride (Cl-) and Sulphate (SO42-) were determined by using standard classical and instrumental methods of analysis. The biochemically important parameters such as Nitrate (NO3-) and Nitrite (NO2-), Dissolved oxygen (DO) and Biological oxygen demand (BOD) of water samples were also measured to evaluate the biochemical characteristics of water. The important irrigational water quality indices such as Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Kelley’s Index (KI), Mg Hazard (MgH), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) were also determined from the chemical composition of water samples to evaluate the irrigation utility of ground water samples. Only 25% of the water samples were found suitable for drinking while no sample can be considered as useful for irrigational purpose as per the evaluated irrigational water quality indices.

Studies on effect of antennae amputation on the fecundity and hatching performance of tropical tasar silk moths during grainage operations.

Kamaraj, S., Tiwari, M.D., Minakshi, M., Shabnam, N.K., Madhusudhan, K.N., Serani, N., Sharma, S.P and Alok Sahay.

  • Abstract

    Tropical Tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta Drury) is an economic insect which is source of income for the poor tribal people of central and other parts of India. The seed sector of tasar culture is suffering due to insufficient production of seeds which is becoming major constraint in the productivity enhancement. During grainage operations, even after oviposition for 72 hours, some eggs still remain inside the abdomen of female moth. In the present study, to increase the egg laying capacity of the female tasar moth, the antennae was amputated. The results revealed that, antennae amputated moths laid more number of eggs in comparison with non-antennae amputated moths. The results also confirm that, the eggs laid by antennae amputated moths showing increased hatching percentage in comparison with control ones. The outcome of the present study reveals that, the amputation of antennae of female moths can be used during grainage operations in tasar culture which helps in enhance the seed production

Zeolite as adsorbent for the removal of lead

Deepa Panhekar

  • Abstract

    Zeolite synthesis from coal fly ash was attempted by modification in the alkali fusion step of zeolite synthesis. The efficacy of this modified zeolite was tested by carrying out batch experiments for the removal of lead from aqueous solution as a function of contact time, dosage and initial concentration of ion. Adsorption data has been interpreted in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum removal efficacy was 94.28 % for 0.2 gm of the zeolite.

Studies on Phenological Characters of Banana Cv. Grand Naine

Manoj Kumar Tak, Sanjay Attar, M. S. Dulawat and Manoj Agarwal

  • Abstract

    The studies consisted of 150 randomly plants of banana cv. Grand Naine were selected for various metric and non-metric variables. The average range of various vegetative growth character were observed viz., leaf length (39.42 - 157.52 cm), leaf width (19.17 - 41.09 cm), variation in functional leaf area (0.43 - 6.06 m2), petiole length (10.28 - 34.61 cm), variation in functional leaf (6.99 - 13.27), height of pseudo stem (19.08 - 198.37 cm), girth of pseudo stem (16.77 - 59.01 cm), PCA that is Pseudo-stem Cross- sectional Area (23.41 - 277.55 cm2), peduncle length (43.67 cm), peduncle width (14.49 cm), male bud size (31.18 cm length and 30.70 cm girth) showed continuously increased during crop cycle of banana and bunch position was slightly angled. The total crop duration (374.05 days) was recorded during crop cycle of banana plant. The yield attributing characters viz. weight of bunch (21.88 kg), hands per bunch (11.43), fruits on 2nd hand (17.80), hand weight per bunch (1827.45 g), fruits per bunch (202.88), length and girth of fruit (17.61 cm and 10.81 cm, respectively), fruit pedicel length (2.25 cm), fruit pedicel width (1.62 cm) and fruit weight (102.58 g).

Variation of stored carbon in dominant seaweed species of Indian Sundarbans

Arnesha Guha, Sufia Zaman, Ankita Mitra, Tanmoy Rudra and Abhijit Mitra

  • Abstract

    Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca and Catenella repens are the dominant seaweed species in Indian Sundarbans whose baseline data on carbon sequestration has not been properly established. We estimated stored carbon in these three species in three different seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) from four sampling stations in the deltaic ecosystem of Indian Sundarbans (21040/ N to 22040/N and 88003/E to 89007/E) during 2014. The average stored carbon content varied from 1134.43 g m-2 (during monsoon) to 1291.00 g m-2 (during pre-monsoon) in Enteromorpha intestinalis. In Ulva lactuca, the stored carbon ranged from 49.88 g m-2 (during post-monsoon) to 155.66 g m-2 (during pre-monsoon). In case of Catenella repens, the range of stored carbon is 14.13 g m-2 (during monsoon) to 55.66 g m-2 (during pre-monsoon). Amongst selected seaweed species, E. intestinalis showed uniformity in biomass between sectors (pcal = 1.59 < pcrit = 18.51) and seasons (pcal = 2.03 < pcrit = 4.14), which implies tolerance of the species to variable salinity and also potential of the species in the vertical of carbon sequestration. Culture of this species in mass scale can not onlyopen up a livelihood for the people of Indian Sundarbans, but can also help in low cost carbon mitigation programme.

A New Record of Noctuid Moth from Khajjiar Valley of Himachal Pradesh

Charan Kamal Sekhon

  • Abstract

    Male and female genitalic attributes of Maurilia iconica (Walker) has been studied and illustrated in detail.

Urban Communities’ Impacts upon Storm Water Open Channels in a Developing Country: Litter Build-Up and Wastewater Self-Purification

OUATTARA Pétémanagnan Jean-Marie, KONE Tiangoua, MESSOU Aman, AMA Assamoi Béatrice, COULIBALY Lacina

  • Abstract

    Urban runoff is one of the leading sources of water quality and human life deterioration. The urbanization of Abidjan and the densification of its population, each year, contribute to the flooding of some parts of this megalopolis in rainy seasons. To understand this situation, the working state of twenty stormwater open channels (SWOCs) was assessed. Litter volume and the numbers of illicit wastewater discharge sites on these SWOCs were recorded. Additionally, wastewater self-purification in a SWOC with a sedimentation basin was investigated. The results highlighted the negative impacts of dense habitation upon the SWOCs working state. These populations transformed the SWOCs into landfill and sewage systems. This improper use of SWOCs became very important (394 m3 of litter and 32 illicit house connections) when these channels crossed popular districts containing high-density urban areas. Conversely, the SWOCs were not disturbed (litter = 52.5 m3, 0 illicit house connection) when they were far away from habitations and public sewers. The wastewater flowing into the SWOC Abo1 was self-purified. Its chemical oxygen demand and protein were reduced by 77% and 70%, respectively. The sedimentation basin contributed greatly (40%) in wastewater purification. The SWOC must be cleaned regularly to ensure their sustained working condition.

An intermittent sand filter for domestic wastewater treatment: Effect of hydraulic loading rate on the kinetic and amylase activity.

Béatrice Assamoi AMA, Tiangoua KONE, Jean-Marie Pétémanagnan OUATTARA,Lacina COULIBALY, Issiaka SAVANE

  • Abstract

    A series of sand filters was carried out for domestic wastewater treatment.This filter system was made of polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) and contained three compartments. Each compartment was in the shape of a “U” so that the compartment contained two columns, a filter column and a settling one. Each filter column was filled with granite, with the coarsest media in the first column and the finest media in the last compartment. The influence of the hydraulic loading rate, media grain size upon treatment kinetic and amylase activity of the system was investigated. The sampling was carried out before and after two months of wastewater treatment by the filters in the three settling column. The treatment efficiency increased with the decrease in medium grain size. On contrary, an increase in hydraulic load negatively influenced the treatment efficiency.  ndeed, increasing the hydraulic load from 1.5L to 15L induced a decrease in the removal of suspended solids (SS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 83% down to 77% and from 89.5% down to 49 %, respectively.The same trend was observed for the removal of NO2- ,NO3-  and PO43- .The decrease in grain size and the increase in hydraulic load also decreased theamylase activity of filter system. A series sand filter in the shape of a “U” could be a solution for treating wastewater in urban areas but with the optimum hydraulic loading rate. This filter has much lower space requirement and capital cost.

Aquatic insect community structure in four coastal streams (Cote d’Ivoire, West Africa)

Edia Oi Edia , Diétoa Yéhé Mathieu, Konan Koffi Félix, Bony Kotchi Yves and Diomandé Dramane .

  • Abstract

    The structure of aquatic insect assemblages in four coastal streams in the southeast Ivory Coast was investigated. The samples were collected between July 2003 and March 2005 at eight sampling sites (2 per stream: 1 upstream and 1 downstream). To analyse patterns of aquatic insect assemblages, the self-organizing map, a non-linear clustering technique, was used. The variables most able to discriminate between the clusters defined by the self-organizing map were identified by a discriminant function analysis. Samples were classified into four clusters, mainly related to the local environmental status of sampling sites. Sites with lower human pressure had higher aquatic insect richness compared to those from the most populated ones. Moreover, conductivity, total dissolved solids and wetted width were the most dominant variables governing aquatic insect richness pattern in the four studied streams. As conductivity and total dissolved solids depend mostly on the use of the surrounding landscape, aquatic insect conservation policy must therefore integrate riparian landscape management

Investigation of Fungal Diversity in the Air of a Private College

Kavita Naruka and Ritika Charaya

  • Abstract

    Microbial monitoring of environment is now a days important for the quality of human life. The aim of this work was to assess the density and distribution of fungal genera occurring in indoor environment. In the present study, indoor airborne fungal microflora at different locations, viz; Staff Room (SR), Water Cooler Area (WCA) and Computer Lab (CL) of a private college in Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India) were investigated during winter season 2013-14. Fungal airborne concentrations averaged between 9-41 CFU/m3 and observed the following trend among the locations:WCA>SR>CL. Also, a comparison between indoor and outdoor fungal population densities showed that the fungal concentration was higher outdoor than indoors. A total of eight fungal genera were isolated from the study areas, which comprises Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Helminthosporium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Yeastetc.

Theoretical determination of the histamine molecule pka's

N.Azrour, M.Hilali, L.Bazzi, H.Bourzi, S. El Issami, A.Chaouay

  • Abstract

    This work is devoted, in its first phase, to present a theoretical study of the isolated molecule of histamine (C5N3H9) and its protonated forms. The application of the quantum chemistry methods in the gaseous phase ab-initio, in RHF, MP and DFT methods with the different basis set levels: 6-31G ,6-311G, 6-31G (d,p), 6-31 + G (d,p ), 6-31 + + G (d,p) and 6-311 + + G (d,p). In the second phase of this work, we adopted the quantum model of solvation ‘CPCM’ to determine the pKa of solvated histamine in aqueous and deprotonated medium by sodium acetate anion CH3COO-, Na+. The possible pKa of histamine were assessed and compared with available experimental data.

Growth Response of Maize to Weed Vermicomposts

D. R. Chamle and D. A. Dhale

  • Abstract

    The aim of the present investigation was to assess the influence of different weed vermicomposts on growth and yield of maize. Afield experiment was conducted at Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad. The experimental design was a randomized block design (RBD) with six treatments and four replications. The treatments were Achyranthes vermicompost (AV), Cassia vermicompost (CV), Tephrosia vermicompost (TV), mixed vermicompost (MV), fertilizer (FE) and control (CO). The fodder maize (cv. African Tall) was sown at the rate of 100 kg ha-1. The fertilizers were supplied in the form of N, P and K at the rate of 120:80:40 kg ha-1. The observations were recorded on morphphysiological traits at 106 days after sowing (DAS). On the basis of results, it is concluded that the application of Cassia vermicompost (CV) is more efficient in enhancing the growth and productivity of maize.