Vol. 5 & Issue 2 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Feb. 2015 to April 2015


Determination of Pollution Index between Active and Closed Dumpsites in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Iwekumo Ebibofe Agbozu and Michael Nwosisi

  • Abstract

    Solid waste management is a serious problem in Nigeria, as most cities lack standard engineered landfills. This has given rise to the proliferation of open dump site as a source of municipal solid waste disposal. The environment can be polluted by leachates from these dumpsites which occur at the end of the decay of solid waste, mixed with precipitates of surface water. As a result, surface water, ground water, air and soils become vulnerable to pollution from the dumpsite. Pollution index between active and closed dumpsites were evaluated using leachate pollution index (LPI) technique which is a tool for quantifying pollution potential of leachate generated from dumpsites. These dumpsites are located at Nkpolu Junction along East-West Road (LS1), Chindah Borrow-Pit off Chindah Road, Mile 4 (LS2) and Rumuepirikom Community (off Iwofe Road) (LS3) in Port Harcourt metropolis. The LPI values for LS1, LS2 and LS3 are 3.91, 7.12 and 4.71 respectively. These LPI values were compared with the standard and it was revealed that all the dumpsites evaluated fell within the acceptable limits but LS2 was barely 0.3 below the standard and therefore the leachate generated is highly contaminated with a higher pollution effect than LS3 and LS1 respectively, thus the Chinda Borrow-Pit (LS2) dumpsite site requires immediate attention in order to avoid large scale pollution incident to the environment and threat to human health.

Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of the Water from Shivan Dam, Nandurbar Dist, Maharashtra

More R.R.  and P.V. Ramaiah

  • Abstract

    This study was aimed to estimate current status of physico-chemical parameters in Shivan Dam at Nandurbar District, (M.S.). Monthly changes of water quality was determined.Various parameters such as atmospheric temperature, water temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, free co2, total alkanity, sulphate, nitrate phosphate, hardness and calcium, were analyzed for a period of one year i.e.,from November 2011 to Octomber 2012.

Current Status, Population Trend And Assemblage Of Water Birds In Durgapur Barrage, West Bengal, India With A Note On Conservation

Santanu Gupta and Aparajita Mukherjee

  • Abstract

    Species composition of water birds in Durgapur Barrage riverine landscape with respect to threat status, population trend and occurrence restricted assemblage was assessed from January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 42 bird species, belonging to 10 orders and 14 families were recorded from the core barrage area. Riparia riparia possibly recorded for the first time from this region. The discriminant analysis (DCA) grouped all the observed water bird species in to five distinct groups symbolizing the intergroup variations in water bird assemblage. Our study is an attempt towards generating baseline information on the water birds of riverine landscape in Durgapur Barrage and we recommend more detail surveys and regular monitoring of this river stretch through indicator species approach. Overall, our research illustrated useful information on bird community in this ecoregion which serves as a baseline for future monitoring programs.

Studies on Intercropping Patterns among Sugarcane Cultivators of Nandurbar District

M. H. Mali and P. V. Ramaiah

  • Abstract

    In the present study 110 farmers growing Sugarcane have been visited to collect and analyze the Quantum of information available to them about the intercropping patterns among sugarcane cultivators of Nandurbar district. Twenty varieties of sugarcane are cultivated commonly in the district. The intercrops commonly are Gram, Onion, Garlic, Spinach, Tomato, Potato, Sweet potato, Coriandrum, Soyabean, Groundnut, Moung, Udit, etc. The farmers were interviewed and data collected was analyzed to ascertain the awareness patterns. About 34.54% of the farmers use intercropping method and nearly 50% gain from the intercropping. The main aims of the studies were to determine the beneficial and useful aspect of cane and intercrops, and their economics under sugarcane based cropping system.

Roots biomass and carbon in representative Forest ecosystems in Bulgaria

Violeta Dimitrova, Mariyana Lyubenovа, Miglena Zhiyanski, Elena Vanguelova

  • Abstract

    Roots biomass is an important part of the forest ecosystems in their accumulation and turnover of organic carbon. The accumulation of tree biomass above or belowground largely depends on tree capacity to buffer stress and to react to different changes in the environment factors. Number of countries, including Bulgaria, signed the Kyoto Protocol and expressed their commitment to limit emissions of greenhouses gases. The forest vegetation plays a vital role in carbon stocks and cycling, both at national and global level, and has high potential to sequester carbon by increasing soil organic matter and root biomass. The roots are exclusively important component in carbon cycle representing near 30% of the total tree biomass. Meanwhile specific data, related to studies on root systems are insufficient. The aim of this paper is to present a quantitative data on fine and coarse root biomass of the main tree species in Bulgaria and compare the belowground stocks of plant mass and carbon accumulation in coniferous and broadleaved forests, clarifying the role of root biomass in total forest carbon stocks. The studies on coarse roots biomass and carbon stocks were performed following methods by Rodin et al., 1968, adapted by Lyubenova, 2009. The study on fine roots was performed using method of sequential coring technique (Ostonen et al., 2005).The determination of carbon content of living roots (coarse and fine tree roots and herbaceous roots) was performed following Turin’s method (Kononova, 1966), modified in the laboratory (dichromate digestion at 125°C, 45 min in presence of Ag2SO4 and FeSO4). The carbon stock was estimated according to the methodology described in the Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF of IPCC (http://www.ipccnggip.  ges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_contents.html). The data on coarse and fine roots was analysed by multiply regression analyses (RDA) using the statistic

Determination of the level of some trace and heavy Metals in some soft drinks of Ethiopia

Girma W. Woyessa, Solomon B. Kassa, Ephrem G. Demissie

  • Abstract

    Levels of nickel, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese and copper were measured in six brands of soft drinks commonly consumed in Harar, Ethiopia using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Mineral contents obtained using FAAS has a considerable concentration difference among the six soft drinks (p = 0.05). In Pepsi- Cola, Mirinda and Ambo flavor soft drinks; Pb, Cr and Cu levels were significantly higher than those concentrations determined for Mn, Ni and Cd. Contrarily, the level of Ni and Cd concentrations were lower while their concentration occurs in the range of permissible value of international and national standards. In general, our experimental result indicates that Ni, Cd, Pb, Mn, and Cu levels found in all soft drink samples were within the acceptable values. From all studied elements, the measured concentration of Cr were statistically different for each of the 6 groups of soft drinks under this studies (p = 0.05). Therefore, we suggested that health authorities and soft drink producing companies should pay more attention to the sources of these metals in soft drinks. 

Possibilities of Improving Indoor Air Quality in Classrooms through Plants

Hakan Şevik, Nur Belkayalı, Çiğdem Sakıcı, Elif Ayan, Esra Şenöz, Hilal Karakaş

  • Abstract

    Today, people spend almost 90% of their lives in indoor spaces. Air quality in these spaces affects people’s health and performance directly. Oxygen amount decreases and carbon dioxide amount increases as a result of human respiration especially in common areas. As these spaces are not ventilated enough in winter months so as not to cause loss of heat, oxygen gradually decreases there. As a result, fatigue, absence of perception, and sleepiness occur. When they continue, various health problems emerge.Plants which share the same environments as people photosynthesize or respire depending on ambient conditions, especially light and temperature. In this way, they affect indoor air quality directly. However, since the degree to what plants used in indoor spaces affect indoor air quality is not known, they cannot be used for increasing indoor air quality adequately. This study aims to investigate the effects of plants such as Spathiphyllum sp., Yucca sp., Dieffenbachia sp., and Dracaena tricolor, which are grown in indoor spaces, on indoor air quality depending on ambient conditions. To this end, the effects of these four different ornamental plants on indoor air quality in classrooms were examined. In this way, an attempt was made to determine the possibilities of increasing indoor air quality in a cheap, easy, and continuous way. However, the results of this study showed that the plants placed in classrooms failed to reduce CO2 amounts that rapidly increased there. 

Conservative pollutants in Ganges shark: A case study from the lower Gangetic delta region of Indian sub-continent

Subhashis Das, Sufia Zaman, Tanmoy Rudra, Prosenjit Pramanick and Abhijit Mitra

  • Abstract

    Heavy metals are regarded as conservative pollutants due to their non-biodegradable nature. This group of pollutant is released directly into the coastal water through various industrial effluents, antifouling paints, agricultural wastes etc. The heavy metals thus discharged accumulate gradually within the body tissues of organisms. The present paper is a snapshot of the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in the shark species Glyphis gangeticus collected from four different sampling stations of lower Gangetic delta.

Cadmium pollution and irrigation water quality assessment of an urban river: A case study of the Mayur river, Khulna, Bangladesh

H. M. Zakir, M. A. Sattar and Q. F. Quadir

  • Abstract

    A study was conducted to evaluate cadmium pollution and suitability parameters for irrigation usage of waters collected from 51 locations of the Mayur river, Khulna, Bangladesh. The pH, EC, TDS and DO of the Mayur river water were ranged from 7.02 to 7.74, 246 to 2010 μS cm-1, 251 to 1978 mg L-1 and 0.05 to 0.10 mg L-1, respectively. Among the studied trace metals, the most dominant metal was Cd and 92% water samples were exceeded the maximum acceptable level (0.01μg mL-1) indicating Cd toxicity in waters. On the basis of EC and SAR, 22 samples were graded as C3S1 (high salinity and low alkalinity hazard) and 20 samples were rated as C3S2 (high salinity and medium alkalinity hazard) class. Total 42 water samples were classified as doubtful in quality based on SSP. As regards to hardness (HT), only 5 samples were graded as hard and the rest 46 samples were graded as very hard in quality. The study results revealed that high salinity and hardness of some sampling locations of the river restricted the suitability of water in the study area for irrigation and demands suitable water management as well as proper treatment.

Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr Pseudobulb Using UV-VIS, FTIR and GC-MS Techniques.

Theng P. A. and Korpenwar A. N.

  • Abstract

    To characterize the bioactive constituents present in endangered terrestrial orchid Geodorum densiflorum pseudobulb extract in ethanol by using UV-VIS. FT-IR and GC-MS methods. Geodorum densiflorum is an endangered orchid belongs into family Orchidaceae. Pseudobulb powder extract was prepared in ethanol as a solvent by Soxhlet apparatus. Ethanol extract was subjected to UV-VIS., FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The qualitative UV-VIS analysis of ethanol extract showed peaks at 196nm, 246 nm, 376 nm and 816nm. The λmax was obtained at 376 nm. FTIR analysis proved the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, aldehydes, alkenes, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, aliphatic amines, amides, sulfides and alkyl halides compounds. The GC-MS analysis of Geodorum densiflorum revealed that presence of four compounds, these are pentane, 1, 1-diethoxy- (30.30 %), propane, 1, 1, 3-triethoxy (60.91 %), neotigogenin (4.38 %) and sarsasapogenin (4.38 %).

Socio economic study of people living surrounds the Multimetal mining area near the Ambaji, Gujarat

Alka Sharma, Alka Pradhan and Jitendra P. deshmukh

  • Abstract

    India is very rich in the mineral resources and endowed different type of mineral in different part of the country. Mineral resources and based industry on it, generates employment opportunities to the people living in the area in which mineral to be excavated. Mineral excavation contributes to income to state exchequer and foreign exchange to the mineral producing country. They also influence strongly the economic prosperity of the given area and act on its social life. However, living conditions of the people surrounds the mine area is a cause of concern in terms of pollution, employment, education, health and dependency of them on natural resources in which they resides. Both the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of mining are well documented. This present study provides the socio economic status of tribal community (Garasia and Rebari) in terms of literacy, education, health, employment and their living standards around the mining area in Ambaji.

Using Physico– Chemical Analysis of Water Quality of Gauthami- Godavari Esturies Chinnavalasala Village, Tallarevu Mandal, East Godavari District and Andhra Pradesh, India.

Yandamuri Ayyanna and Kavuri Rajendra Kumar and Ravulsi Srinivasa Rao

  • Abstract

    This study was aimed to estimate current status of Physico-chemical characteristics of Gauthami-Godavari Esturies Chinnavalasala Village, Tallarevu Mandal, East Godavari District, and Andhra Pradesh. Monthly changes in physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, PH, Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, Alkalinity, Salinity, and Carbon Dioxide were analyze for a period of one year from 1st July 2013 – 30th June 2013. The variation of the physico-chemical properties of water samples directly influences the biotic communities and primary productivity of the water bodies at Chinnavallasala Village.

Distribution of total Hydrocarbon Evaluation in Coastal Waters and Sediments Obtained from Cross River, South- South Niger Delta of Nigeria

S.P.Malu O. R. Ogri and O.A.Ushie

  • Abstract

    The mean concentrations and distributions of total hydrocarbon (THC) levels found in the coastal water and sediments of the Cross River, South-South Niger Delta of Nigeria were carried out. The result shows a background levels to high contamination found in industrial areas. THC concentrations ranged from undetectable to 331.8mg/l in water and 190 to 758.4m/k in sediment. An ANOVA test gave a positive significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between the THC in water and sediment. The enhance levels of THC in most locations monitored pointed to contamination of the coastal waters by industrial/municipal inputs and hydrocarbon discharge from oil production and petroleum related activities.

Project Evaluation Techniques of Small and Medium Enterprises: case study of selected firms in Bayelsa State

Mee-Edoiye M. Andawei

  • Abstract

    Small and medium scale enterprises have been recognized as the drivers of economic growth and industrialization globally. The establishment of small and medium enterprises is known to be one strategy adopted mostly by developing countries. Small and medium enterprises are mainly established to undertake small and medium scale projects in the formal and informal sectors. Often times, these small and medium scale projects are selected without a defined method of evaluation.Project evaluation techniques are key components of project success particularly for investment projects. Therefore their application at the conceptual stage of the project is not only essential but required if outcomes of such appraisal processes must yield viable and profitable investment options particularly for the small and medium enterprises. This paper is therefore aimed at determining the extent of usage of three key project evaluation techniques - payback period, net present value and internal rate of return methods by the managers of small and medium scale businesses in the study area. The result showed that despite the fact that the knowledge of the respondents is high in the use of payback period method its rate of success is relatively far lower than that of net present value and internal rate of return methods. It is therefore recommended that small and medium scale enterprise operators should be trained in the use of more advanced project evaluation techniques which will ultimately increase the chances of project success and profitability. 

Heavy metal contamination in surface soils of some industrial areas of Gazipur, Bangladesh

H. M. Zakir, S. A. Sumi, S. Sharmin, K. M. Mohiuddin and S. Kaysar

  • Abstract

    Gazipur district is highly susceptible to environmental pollution due to over population, rapid industrialization and urbanization in last decades. Total 23 soil samples were collected from 3 different industrial areas namely Gazipur Sadar, Kaliakair and Sreepur to determine heavy metals concentration as well as to assess their pollution level. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr in soil samples were 36.19, 176.67, 27.95, 0.41 and 29.21 μg g-1, respectively. The study results revealed that 7, 16, 10 and 9 samples had the values greater than the average shale value of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, respectively, which indicates the anthropogenic pollution load in the respective site. Among the correlations between metals of soils, Cu had highly significant positive correlation with Pb and Cr, and Pb with Cr, which indicates that these metals may have originated from common sources, preferably from different industrial activities. The mineralogical study detected the presence of several clay minerals; those are likely to be major host of heavy metals in soils. Considering PLI, total 11 sites had values >1.0 indicate pollution load in the respective sites, and Zn, Pb and Cd were the major contaminants giving rise to PLI values in soils of the study area. The Igeo calculations also revealed moderate pollution level in several sites by Pb, Zn and Cd. High amount of these metals in surface soils may give rise to various health hazards to the surrounding environment.

Phytochemical Studies on the Bark of Butea monosperma Plant from Thrissur District,Kerala

MityThambi, Tom Cherian

  • Abstract

    Butea monosperma is a medium sized deciduous tree. In Sanskrit it is known as Chamata widely used for their fire ritual. It has many biological properties from the earlier reports.The bark of Butea monosperma plant collected from Thrissur districtwere dried, powdered and extracted using ethylacetate. The ethylacetate extract were analyzed using FT-IR and GC-MS. The anti-microbialactivity was studied using disc diffusion method.

Growing Menace of E-Waste in India: Need of Systematic Management

Ratan Kumar Das and Suman Das

  • Abstract

    Electronic waste or E-waste consists of broken or unwanted electrical or electronic parts or equipment as a whole. The rapid obsolescence of electronics goods, compounded by dumping of electronic goods by the developed countries, has brought the e-waste problem in India into an acute crisis. The know-how and compatible infrastructure for e-waste treatment is very limited in India and informal recycling has survived under the ambit of flexible legislative framework. The presence of toxic and hazardous substances in e-waste attracted the attention of the waste managing agencies in the country because these substances endanger the human health, environment, wherever present in uncontrolled conditions. The existence and implementation of environmentally sound management and legal support are only partial. Concerted efforts by various players in electronic product value chain, academic community and the government are required to evolve and implement a broad systematic electronic waste management system in India.

Physico-Chemical Study of Ground Water in Rural Areas of Sabarkantha District of North Gujarat (India)

Suresh G. Patel, H .K. Patel

  • Abstract

    Sabarkantha district is situated in north of the Gujarat state. The quality of drinking water in Sabarkantha is not potable because this district is mostly depends on the ground water since many years and various parameter pH, conductivity; TDS, fluorideetc. are much higher than the maximum permissible limit. Drinking water quality of the district has been studied at five different sites. Several parameters including fluoride hardnesswere studied.

Physicochemical Analysis of Drinking Water of Faridabad City, Haryana

Mamta Sharma and Minakshi Sharma

  • Abstract

    In the present study physicochemical characteristics of the water of different sites were determined during June 2014 at Faridabad city, Haryana. Faridabad lies between 28.4211 N latitude and 77.3078 E longitudes. The dissolved solids, Total hardness, pH, chloride are within permissible limits. The value of Fluoride, Sulfate was out of desirable limit. These parameters were used to evaluate the quality of ground water. These studies indicate that groundwater of this region is highly contaminated and thus it is necessary to test the water quality at a regular and definite time interval. 

Rapid and Effective Mineralization of TNT Contaminated Water by Electrolysis Method

P. B. Wagh, S. V. Ingale, Ratanesh Kumar, I. K. Singh, S. S. Gamre and Satish C. Gupta

  • Abstract

    Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is one of the major contaminant in the effluents generated from the explosive process plant. Due to its non- biodegradable and toxic nature, it needs to be treated effectively so as to avoid its adverse impact on environment. In the present work a process has been demonstrated using electrolysis method for complete degradation of TNT. In treating the explosive contaminated effluent by electrolysis method, decomposition of electrodes, power consumption due to low electrical conductivity of water and optimization of processing parameters viz. concentration of oxidizer, magnitude of current through electrodes, salt concentration, selection of electrodes etc. are the critical issues. These issues have been systematically studied and a process has  been successfully established to treat TNT contaminated solution of relatively higher concentration  of 100 ppm to a safe discharge limit of 1 ppm. The treated solution has been characterized by using UVVisible Spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The observed results have been reported and discussed in the present paper.