Vol. 5 & Issue 3 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : May to July 2015


Applications of Solid State Fermentation for Value Addition of Cottonseed Deoiled Cake

T. Karishma,  Srinivasa Reddy Ronda, M.Anupama

  • Abstract

    The objective of this study was to improve the nutritional quality of cottonseed deoiled cake (CSDOC) necessary for animal feeding in a cost effective approach as a competitor to soyabean doc. CSDOC was undergone fermentation with different microbial strains like Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae,Pseudomonas, Rhodosporium, Lactobacillus out of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae had shown good results when grown on molasses medium for detoxification of CSDOC and to enhance its nutritive qualities like protein 48.14%, moisture 13.2%, lignin 42.3%, lysine 0.084% (g lysine/100g protein) fiber 25%, total gossypol levels range between 2000-3000 (mg/kg) and free gossypol 800-1000 (mg/kg). After solid state fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae under maintenance of optimal condition at temperature of 30°C, time 48hrs, complete anaerobic type of fermentation, moisture 47% maintenance, 800μl yeast two days incubated inoculums in its YPD medium shows nutritive parameters change with increase in protein content 65.2%, moisture 46.6%, lysine 2.34% (glysine/100g protein) and decrease in fiber content 17%, lignin 23%, total gossypol 597.8 (mg/kg), free gossypol 149.3 (mg/kg). HPLC gossypol analysis was performed for 17 different Bt and non-Bt cotton seed varities, revealing a result that Bt plant variety RCH 779 BG-II shows less amount of gossypol levels which is highly recommended to farmers. CSDOC fermented by S. cerevisiae could substantially improve its nutritional value to an extent.

Determination of Toxic Minerals in Poultry Feeds Obtained from Some Farms in Makurdi Metropolis North-Central Nigeria

S.PMalu, C. Andrew, S.O.Ama and C.O.Anidobu

  • Abstract

    Due to the high rate of poultry birds consumption among our teeming population within and around Makurdi Metropolis, this research study was carried out to determine the level of toxic minerals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr) in some brand of poultry feeds (Starter, Broiler, Layer and Finisher) in order to ascertained their health consumption risk, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result of the study shows that the starter poultry feed brand sample has the following concentrations in mg/kg: 6.005±0.0005, 2.388±0.0001, 1.797±0.0005, 0.221±0.00002, 0.097±0.0008, 0.052±0.0001, 0.009±0.0003, 0.002±0.0005, for Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb. While the concentration in mg/kg obtained in broiler feed brand was 4.378±0.0001, 1.952±0.0006,1.803±0.0004, 0.260±0.0002, 0.095 ±0.0002,0.043±0.0004,0.009 ±0.0002, 0.043±0.0005 for Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb. Further, the concentration of toxic minerals in the layer brand were 4.146 ± 0.0003, 2.051 ± 0.0003, 1.147 ± 0.0003, 0.499 ± 0.0002, 0.102 ± 0.0002, 0.081 ± 0.002, 0.074 ± 0.0002 and 0.008 ± 0.0002 for Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd respectively, similarly the concentration of toxic minerals in mg/kg from the finisher feed brand sample were 3.458±0.0003 ,1.794±0.0002, 1.491±0.0003, 0.280±0.00003, 0.120±0.0008, 0.083±0.0008 ,0.063±0.0004, 0.017±0.0002 for Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd. This implies that the concentration of Mn, Zn and Fe were the highest in all the feed samples with Cd and Pd being the lowest however comparison of these results with other researchers and those acceptable standard values for food nutrition as stipulated by European Union (EU) and World Health Organization (WHO),shows that the concentrations of toxic minerals falls wit

Sorption of Cu (II) and Zn (II) on a Soil in the Absence and Presence of the Herbicide 2, 4-D.

L-N. Mounir, S. Elbariji, K. Barouni, A. Kassale, M. Elamine et A. Albourine

  • Abstract

    An experimental study on the adsorption of metals Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the soil of Chtouka Ait Baha (CAB) was undertaken in particular to highlight the importance of some experimental parameters notament, contact time, pH, reeport solid (S) / liquid (L).The study of adsorption kinetics showed that the fixation of metal cations follows the isotherm Freindlich. Retention of the latter is very fast (<10 min) and their adsorption is favored by increasing pH. The study of the influence of report S/L gives suitable percentage of adsorption for a report S/L of 200g/l. It also showed that the simultaneous presence in the soil metal cations studied did not interfere on the adsorption rate of each of the cations. On the other hand the presence of pesticide can significantly influence the adsorption of metal cations in the soil. 

Evaluation of Water and Sanitation Situation of Rural Area near Landfill, Abidjan

A. Lydie C. Mangoua-Allali, Alice Koua-Koffi , K. Sylvain Akpo , and Lacina Coulibaly 

  • Abstract

    Households Surveys in Akouédo and M’Badon villages have identified household methods of waste management by the people. It appears that in both villages there is no adequate method for managing household waste. Garbage is thrown into the wild uncontrolled dumps. In Akouédo, 93% of respondents and in M’Badon, 98% of respondents are provided with modern latrines, and the others discharged their excreta directly into the natural environment. In both villages, 42% of households dump their wastewater in pits, 29% in pipes and sometimes in the streets and yards. The population of both villages have access to safe drinking water (98-100%). In M'Badon well water is only used for bathing, laundry, dishes and 11% of households use it for drinking. Precarious sanitation and the presence of the dump pollute living environment and increases the risk of contamination of well water. The most recurrent diseases are malaria (33%), cold (27%) and diarrhoea (18%). However, the infant class is most affected.

Effect of PEG-Induced Drought Stress on Germination of Finger Millet Varieties

Naveena Sharon R and Preeti Mehta

  • Abstract

    The response of five finger millet varieties against five levels (0, 10, 15, 18 and 21%) of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) was studied at germination and early seedling growth stage. Data were analyzed statistically for final germination percentage (FGP), germination energy percentage (GE %), plumule and radicle length and plumule and radicle dry weight. PEG-induced drought stress decreased FGP, GE % and led to reduction in shoot and root length and dry weight in all varieties and the magnitude of reduction increased with increasing drought stress concentrations. Germination was highly inhibited in all five varieties at 21% PEG concentration. Finger millet varieties Sattai kelvaragu and GPV 48 showed greater drought tolerance during germination (germinated at 15% PEG). The result suggested that Sattai kelvaragu and GPV 48 might be used for further study of drought stress on growth processes and its physiological consequences at an advanced stage of growth. 

Study on the Ecological Specifications Effects (Climate and height) on Chemical Compounds of Ziziphora Medicinal Plant Essential Oil (Ziziphora Clinopodioides Lam.) In Fars Province, Iran

Damoun Razmjoue  and Zahra Zarei 

  • Abstract

    The genus Ziziphora belong to the family of Lamiaceae. Also known as mountain Ziziphora includes 4 annuals herbaceous and perennials species. According to the significant importance of this species in production of herbal medicines, the necessity of introducing the optimal ecologic conditions for its culture and development is evident. Hence, in this study the effect of climatic and height on Ziziphora Clinopodioides essential oil in Fars province is reviewed. For sampling, the aerial parts of mentioned plant was collected in complete flowering stage from 3 sites of Arzhan, Abadeh county and Bowl mountain.The most important flora conditions (annual rainfall mean, relative humidity and elevation above sea level were recorded. From gathered samples from each site the extraction of essential oil was done 3 times. The essential oils were decomposed by GC and GC/MS machine; and finally the average of essential oils yields were compared by Duncan comparison test. According to obtained results, the maximum percent of essential oil was allocated to Bowl site and the minimum was allocated to Dasht Arzhan. Our results revealed that Pulegone ، p-Menth-3-en-8-ol andMenthone are considered as the main and major compounds of this plant. In the studied sites Pierson correlation coefficient revealed that essential oil yield significant correlation with temperature, relative moisture and the elevation above sea level in the other hand there was no significant correlation between essential oil and annual precipitation. 

Rhizoremediation Approaches: A Sustainable Perspectives for Remediation of PAHs Compounds Assisted with PGPR

Ratan Singh,  Shatrohan Lal,  Vijay Kant Dixit

  • Abstract

    Bioremediation of organic pollutants generally a slow process and a potential to lead the accumulation of toxic metabolites that may be introduced into the food chain henceforth. Plant associated bacteria, such as entophytic bacteria (non-pathogenic occur naturally in plants) and rhizospheric bacteria (live on surface area of the roots of plants), have been contribute in biodegradation of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil and could have potential for improving phytoremediation by promoting the plant growth. The combination Biosurfactant and PGPRs resulting in bioremediation could solve some of the problems encountered during the application of individual techniques. Genetic engineering of endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria for use in plant associated degradation of toxic compounds in soil is considered one of the most promising new technologies for remediation of contaminated environmental sites. Biodegradation capabilities of microorganisms bring the promise of an efficient and environmental-friendly technology for cleaning up polluted soils.

Study of Macrobenthic Fauna in Chilika Lake

Suman Mishra, B. C. Jha , Md. Razauddin, A. K. Das , D.Panda 

  • Abstract

    An attempt was made to study the macrobenthic abundance in Chilika Lake. Monthly sampling was done in nineteen sampling stations, for a period of two year from April 2010 to March 2012. Water quality parameters temperature, depth, transparency, specific conductivity, salinity, pH, DO, total alkalinity, hardness, silicate, calcium, magnesium, chloride and sediment quality viz. available phosphorus, available nitrogen and organic carbon were estimated.. As regards biological entity, there were seven benthic faunal groups of this; gastropods topped the list in terms of abundance in all stations followed by bivalve, amphipoda, oligocheata, polychaeta, mysis and insecta. During the present investigation the abundance of benthic fauna of the Lake fluctuated from 258 nos/m2 to 2263 nos/m2 in 2010-11 and 255 nos/m2 to 2120 nos/m2 in 2011-12. The pattern of monthly fluctuations was relatively higher during April (2263 nos/m2) 2010-11 and March (1560 nos/m2) 2011-12 followed by November and February 2011-12 (1573nos/m2), July and October 2011-12 (1128 and 1575 nos/m2).

Diversity of Invasive Alien Weeds in the Major Roadside Areas of Tripura and Their Effect and Uses

Bimal Debnath, Amal Debnath and Chiranjit Paul

  • Abstract

    Invasive species are one of the serious threats to indigenous species diversity. Alien species interfere with the normal productivity to the natural and agricultural ecosystem. Tripura is also infested with number of alien species; many of these are providing economic benefits to the local people. Our present studies revealed the diversity and role of intruded species on natural biodiversity and peoplesof state. In this study a total of 29 invasive species were recorded under 16 families,where 34.5% of the species are invaded from South America and 31% from Tropical America. Our study also showed that 31% of the species are directly interfering the natural ecosystem of the state and some species are also playing an important role in the rural economy of the state.

Ground Water Quality Status of Villages of Nokha Tehsil in Bikaner, Rajasthan

G.Daiya, Vikas Modasiya, C.K.Bahura

  • Abstract

    Groundwater is the only source of potable water for the majority of people in the study area. Physico-chemical characteristics of water samples from villages of Nokha block of district Bikaner were studied. The water quality parameters like pH, TDS,TH, alkalinity, fluoride, NO3-, Chloride, sulphate,Ca2+ and Mg2+ were studied. It is found that some water samples are not suitable for drinking purpose due to high concentration of one parameter or other.The data revealed that the ground water of these villages of Nokha block of district Bikaner contains high fluoride and nitrate concentration, which leads to diseases. The high value of these parameters may have health implications, so, this ground water is not good for health and therefore, needs attention. 

Studies on water samples for the Physico- chemical characteristics near Chodavaram, Visakhapatnam Dt., A.P.

A.V. L. N. S. H. Hariharan and K. C. Purnima

  • Abstract

    Physico chemical analysis of water samples [tap and bore well samples] belonging to chodavaram mandala, Visakhapatnam district during winter season in 2014 have been carried out. The methods employed for the analysis are as per the ICMR and Indian standards recommended. WQI values are calculated for these samples. The results of the present study indicate that the WQI values are found less than 50.Hence are suitable for drinking as well as agriculture purposes.

Role of different components of urban and peri-urban forests to store carbon – a case-study of the Sandanski region, Bulgaria

Miglena Zhiyanski, Andrew Hursthouse, Svetla Doncheva

  • Abstract

    Urban areas currently make up about 4% of the world’s terrestrial surface and forest parks as elements of Green Infrastructure (GI) is currently of interest in their potential to store carbon. We studied carbon stocks in different components of urban and peri-urban forest parks: urban soils, forest floor and aboveground tree vegetation in Sandanski, Bulgaria. For all urban sites compared to controls, the value of carbon stocks in soils was much greater. In urban soils of Sandanski carbon stocks varied between 44 and 88 tCha-1, compared to peri-urban 32 - 39 tCha-1. The reverse was observed for carbon stocks in the forest floor and tree stands. Forest floor carbon stocks in Sandanski varied within 4.07 - 4.37 tCha-1, while in peri-urban were higher (5.50 - 3.47 tCha-1). Carbon stored in aboveground tree biomass in urban sites was calculated at 36.5 t    Cha-1 for Sandanski and in peri-urban sites 37.0 and 67.8 tCha-1, respectively. We concluded that carbon accumulation in urban forest parks is controlled by detailed management activities and confirmed their high potential to store carbon. It is clearly argued that there is a need to maintain and enhance the ecological functions of forest ecosystems as part of urban GI, which in turn will support the mitigation of sharp climatic changes at the local and regional levels.

Physico-Chemical Parameters of Water in River Channels of Mangroves in Peninsular Malaysia

Anisul Islam Mahmud Kassu Tesfaye Emiru and Eléonore R. A. Viez

  • Abstract

    A comparative study was done between river channels of mangrove ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia to appraise the physico-chemical parameters of water. In Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR), Sangga Besar River hadsemi-diurnal tide; since in Setiu Wetland, Setiu River had diurnal tide. Water quality parameters are varied from one station to another, but not so much significant (p= 0.05) variance found between surface and bottom water stations. In Setiu River, some parameters in midstream were significantly different from others; because this station was influenced by two-river mouth i.e. one was natural and another was manmade. Salinity in MMFR followed a gradient between the mouth and the back mangrove, that wasn’t similar with Setiu wetland. Current meter data in Sangga Besar River were more correlated than Setiu river, especially other parameters of Sangga Besar River e.g. flow, density, salinity, conductivity, pressure were appeared strongly correlated.

Impeller and biopolymer types and agitation speeds influence over the coagulation-flocculation efficiency in the treatment of an University campus wastewater

Torres Luis G. , Carrillo Alma J. , Salgado Edgar and Baquerizo Guillermo

  • Abstract

    inorganic salts (mainly Fe and Al) and synthetic polymers are extensively used in coagulation-flocculation. However, the utilization of these compounds may affect the human health and generates sludges which are barely biodegradable. Natural polymers such as galactomannans simultaneously promote the coagulation and flocculation processes. HPTAC-guar is a cationic substituted galactomannan, showing a non-Newtonian behavior under certain concentrations. In the jar test achieved removals higher than 70% of COD and turbidity. The objectives of this work were to demonstrate the applicability of HPTAC-guar as coagulant-flocculant aid for wastewaters produced at a University campus. Secondly, to study the effect of the type of impeller (among a R100 Rushton, a A310 Lightning and a A100 marine propeller) and the coagulation and flocculation speeds over the COD, turbidity, pH, salt content (measured as electricalconductivity) and produced sludge volume removals. As expected, the type of impeller employed (radial, axial and mixed flow) had an important effect over the COD, turbidity, salt content and produced sludge volumes. Results were analyzed using dimensionless parameters such as Reynolds and Power numbers and the effect of the impeller pumping capacities for each impeller was also discussed. Changes in the stirring grate for both coagulation and flocculation processes, as well as the use of different impellers have an effect on COD removal. Taking into consideration the power consumption and COD removals, the best impeller performance was shown using the A100 impeller at a coagulation speed of 100 RPM and at flocculation speed of 60 RPM.

Ecological approaches to species recognition bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Ater, Bhind,Madhya Pradesh

Shweta Saxena and M.K.S. Kushwah

  • Abstract

    There is insufficient information about the effects of management practiceson roosting habitat or roost site selection by wild bobwhites, and roost site selection by pen-reared bobwhites have never been examined. We began our research by describing the egetative characteristics of selected roost sites in other in district Bhind in North,Madhya Pradesh. The majority of the habitat selected is closely associated with theChambal River (knows as major ravines in India) and identifying vegetative attributesthat might distinguish these areas from randomly available sites. We wanted to know,that the quil refers it’s sandly habitat or vegetative habitat means quail did a good job of selecting a protective roost site, or if it simply stopped in its tracks. The daily survival rate of Bobwhites explained by several factors: daily mobility, season of burn, and timber type. Extent of daily mobility had the greatest influence on survival of Bobwhites and daily survival decreased as daily mobility increased. Increased conversion of open habitats to densely stocked plantations has contributed to this habitat loss. We believe this behavior helps them detect and avoid predators and regulate body temperature, and may help in other behaviors such as forage selection,loafing and roosting at the end of the day, not knowing if the roost site afforded

Density and Distribution of Fejervarya limnocharis(Anura: Ranidae) in Spentwash sprayed agroecosystems in Karnataka

Mahesh Mandya

  • Abstract

    The density of Fejervarya limnocharis was studied in12 locations (including 2 control sites) of agro-ecosystems where the spent wash was sprayed and the influence of spent wash was assessed. Soil samples of each study site were collected and analysed for twenty variables. Total five species of anurans were identified in the study sites: F. limnocharis, Z. rufescence, F.caperata, H. tigerinus and E. cyanophlyctis. We observed considerable difference in the pattern of amphibian population structure at different locations in spent wash sprayed areas. Meanwhile, as a model species we concentrated on the density and abundance of F. limnocharis in both contaminated and uncontaminated sites, and the result showed the significant decrease in the population of F. limnocharis in contaminated sites compared to uncontaminated sites. The study is the first to find evidence for an association between effluent contamination and anuran distribution in southern Karnataka, adding to a small but growing body of evidence that distillery effluent pollution has contributed to amphibian population decline.

Central Tendency of Annual Extremum of Ambient Air Temperature at Guwahati Based on Midrange and Median

Dhritikesh Chakrabarty

  • Abstract

    An analytical method, based on the stability property of the midrange and symmetry property of normal distribution has been developed for determining the true value of the central tendency of annual extremum of ambient air temperature at a location. The method has been applied to determine the value of the central tendency of each of annual maximum and annual minimum of ambient air temperature at Guwahati based on the data since the year 1969 onwards. Determination of these two values is based on the assumption that change in temperature over years during the period for which data are available occurs due to chance cause only but not due to any assignable cause. The values of these two have been found to be 37.2 Degree Celsius and 7.4 Degree Celsius respectively.

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