Vol. 5 & Issue 4 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2015

 

Solid Waste Management: System and Approach in Agartala City

Abhijit Paul, Diptanu Bhowmik, Jibesh Datta

  • Abstract

    Solid waste is an important component of pollution load imparted by the development activities. Municipal solid waste is mainly results from the urbanization & modernization of towns & cities. A proper scientific management of municipal solid waste is essential for the health of the common people as well as for the proper maintenance of the ecological balance. In the present paper a brief study of solid waste management of the Agartala city of Tripura, India is presented. Some critical analysis of the problems associated with the present system is also incorporated in the paper. 

Effect of Artificial Ageing Pretreatment on three species of Desert

Dhupper.R

  • Abstract

    To evaluate the effects of artificial ageing pretreatment on enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth behavior a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was employed. Treatment was done by subjecting the seed to 80 % relative humidity and preheating in oven at 1000 C for 12 hrs. and control. Results indicated that after the pretreatment all the parameters of seedlings declined as compared to untreated control. A. nilotica was most sensitive to this pretreatment and maximum reduction in survival percentage and total biomass of seedlings was recorded. P. cineraria was least affected by this pretreatment. Higher concentration is more effected as compared to lower concentration. It seems that artificial ageing shows poor response of seedlings to various levels of this pretreatment

Stored carbon in Above Ground Biomass of dominant mangrove floral species in Sagar Island of Indian Sundarbans

Sumana Bhattacharyya, Abhijit Mitra and Atanu Kumar Raha

  • Abstract

    We assessed the Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and stored carbon in five dominant mangrove floral species in Sagar Island, the largest Island in Indian Sundarbans during July 2015. The above ground biomass was of the order Avicennia alba (35.59 tonnes/ha) > Avicennia marina (34.88 tonnes/ha) > Sonneratia apetala (31.67 tonnes/ha) > Avicennia officinalis (11.26 tonnes/ha) > Excoecaria agallocha (9.73 tonnes/ha). The above ground carbon was of the order Avicennia alba (15.75 tonnes/ha) > Avicennia marina (15.13 tonnes/ha) > Sonneratia apetala (13.72 tonnes/ha) > Avicennia officinalis (4.80 tonnes/ha) > Excoecaria agallocha (4.00 tonnes/ha). The study confirms the role of mangroves as potential sink of carbon dioxide.

The Role of Hyperaccumulator (Brassica juncea CV RL- 1359) in Sequestration of Cadmium at an Organ Level

Surbhi Sharma, Shanti Sharma, Samandeep Kaur

  • Abstract

    The exposure to elevated heavy metal concentrations leads to deleterious effects in virtually all groups of living organisms. They are not degraded in the biological systems. It is desirable to develop effective technologies and strategies aimed at removal of toxic metals from the environment in addition to checking/minimizing thei  further addition. With the growing knowledge about hyper accumulator plants, the success of phytoremediation of the metal pollutants in the metal laden soil seems realistic. This paper focuses on the use of Brassica juncea as hyper accumulator. Attempts were made to understand various physiological and biochemical aspects of Cd accumulation of this planet using hydroponic cultures. Root to shoot translocation, higher allocation of root Cd to extraplasmic compartment and stronger development of trichomes seem to explain the greater tolerance of CV RL-1359. One of the most striking findings of the present study was increased trachoma density in Cd-stressed plants. It shows a roll of trichomes in sequestration of surplus Cd content at an organ level. 

Assessment of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Water and Sediments from Ero River in South Western Nigeria

Olayinka A. Ibigbami, Ademola F. Aiyesanmi , Emmanuel I. Adeyeye , Albert O. Adebayo , Rex D. Aladesanwa 

  • Abstract

    The levels of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides residues in water and sediment samples from Ero River were determined to generate information to help in scientific assessment of the impact of pesticides from nearby farms on Ero River which serve as drinking water and irrigation to the people of the area. Method 3510 and 3550C of USEPA were used to extract the pesticides from the water and sediment samples. Gas-chromatography coupled with electron-capture detector (ECD) and flame photometric detectors (FPD) were used to determine the OC and OP pesticides. The reliability of the analytical method was examined by fortifying the tested pesticides with known quantities of testing pesticides following similar procedures of extraction, clean up and analysis. The percentage recovery studies for OCPs ranged from 82% - 93.2%, while the OPPs ranged from 73- 94%. The concentration of OCPs in the water and sediment samples ranged from BDL - 9.10μg/L and BDL - 43.1μg/kg,respectively, whilst the OPPs ranged from BDL - 0.240 μg/L and BDL - 3.96 μg/kg, respectively. α-BHC, lindane, Aldrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan I was more prevalent and persistent in the sediments. Diclofenthion, phosphamidon, parathion, fenthion, isofenfos, bromophos and ethion were all below detection limits in the samples. Statistical analysis using chi- square reveals that there were no significant differences in the levels of OPPs in both water and sediments samples whilst, β-BHC, chlorothalonil in the water and β-BHC, ϒ-BHC, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan II and endosulfan sulphate in the sediments showed some levels of significant differences. Thus, it would appear that the sediments served as the reservoir source of these mentioned significant pesticides.

Determination of Physico – chemical properties and in particular fluoride content in Groundwater of some areas in Pavagada Taluk, Tumkur District, Karnataka.

Sripathy.L

  • Abstract

    Fluoride is one of the most important Geo- Environmental issues in developing nations. Excessive ingestion of fluoride results into a disease called fluorosis. Fluoride content in water, concern for drinking water quality centred on its aesthetic qualities. High fluoride groundwater leads a health threat to millions of people around the world. The water samples of 8 village Panchayats were tested; 66.66% had injurious fluoride levels above than 1.5 mg/L. The fluoride concentration in drinking waters varied from 0.8 to 17.2 mg/L in the study area. Due to the high concentration of fluoride, dental fluorosis was also identified. The majority of the samples does not comply with Indian as well as WHO standards for most of the water quality parameters. The object of the present study is to carry out the physic-chemical analysis like colour, odour, Taste, pH, Turbidity, TH, TDS, Chloride, Fluoride, sulphates, Nitrates, of groundwater samples of Pavagada Taluk), Tumkur district, Karnataka has been taken up to evaluate its suitability for portable purposes. The presence of fluoride in exceeding the limits and its related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of Pavagda Taluk, Tumkur district, Karnataka, India is well documented; In addition, Fluoride concentration was not correlated with other physicochemical parameters significantly in ground water. Overall water quality was found as unsatisfactory for drinking purposes without any prior treatment except at two locations out of eight.

Ultracytochemical Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase in the Ray Parenchyma With
Reference To Heartwood Formation in Azadirachta Indica A. Juss.

Prabha Venkata Ramaiah

  • Abstract

    Ultracytochemical localization of adenosine triphosphatase with respect to Heartwood formation in the ray parenchyma cells of Azadirachta indica is studied. The reaction product of adenosine triphosphatase enzyme localized in the plasma membrane in sapwood region indicates its involvement with the active transport of sugars/ions/amino acids. The loss of enzyme activity by the organelles viz. Leucoplast, mitochondria, vesicles and plasma membrane, and in the pit cavities indicates that the cells undergo senescence during transformation of sapwood in to Heartwood. 

Bioconversion of Sugarcane Industry By-Product Using Bacterial Strains

Tushar Chandra Sarker, Mohammad Abdul Mannan, Md. Abu Sayeed,Mohammad Firoz Alam

  • Abstract

    The present study was aimed at finding out the effective bacterial strain for bioconversion of sugar cane press mud. Fresh press mud (PM) was collected from Harian Sugar Industry Ltd., Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Eight bacterial strains viz. Bacillus sp. (HSMPM-1), Cellulomonas sp. (HSMPM-2), Micrococcus sp.(HSMDP-1), Escherichia coli (HSMDS-2), Salmonella sp. (HSMDS-3), Enterobacter sp. (HSMPM-3), Proteus sp. (HSMDP-2) and Klebsiella sp. (HSMPM-4) were tested their ability on bioconversion of PM to select the most effective one under in vitro condition. For this purpose, autoclaved PM was used and inoculated separately with a bacterial suspension of each bacterial strain in vitro condition. Changes of pH, temperature, volume loss, weight loss, cfu’s, EC, DO, BOD, COD, and free CO2 of decomposed PM were noted after 10, 20 and 30 days of inoculation. Among all parameters pH, temperature, cfu’s, EC, BOD, COD, and free CO2 of inoculated press mud, was low at initial stage and increased with day progress then decreased again at the end of bioconversion process. The highest decomposition activity in term of weight loss % and volume loss % was shown by Cellulomonas sp. (HSMPM-2). Our results revealed that Cellulomonas sp. (HSMPM-2) was the most potential strain for bioconversion of sugar cane press mud which can be used effectively to prepare biocompost within a short period.

Toxicity of Cadmium on Seed germination, plant growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Pea (Pisum sativum sp.)

Shahida Hamid, Munna Singh

  • Abstract

    In the present study, a novel approach has been made to evaluate the effect of cadmium in pea in terms of germination, plant growth, and relevant enzymes activity. Pea (Pisum sativum sp.), an important pulse crop consumed by humans, was selected as a test plant. During the present investigation pea seeds were grown in pot culture in triplicate containing different concentrations of cadmium viz., 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 ppm respectively. Changes in the physiological and biochemical activities were observed. At the high cadmium concentration, germination percentage was decreased as compared to control. There was also observed considerable reduction in shoot length, root length along with the number of leaves. There was a marked increase in peroxidase, catalase and lipid peroxidase activity by the application of the test chemical was observed in different concentration of cadmium. The results suggest that the activities of peroxidase, catalase and lipid peroxidase of pea (Pisum sativum sp.), plant are inhibited under cd stress affecting their growth.

Status of Ground Water Quality of Commercial and Agricultural Areas of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Aisha Siddiqui, Zulfiquar Ali, Mohd Sikander

  • Abstract

    With the passage of time pollution level in the environment is increasing day by day. Same happens with water, with environmental pollution, water pollution is also increasing. Polluted water causes many diseases such as jaundice, cholera, typhoid, etc. Hence, it becomes important to check the quality of water from time to time.In this study attempt was made to compare the ground water quality of commercial and agricultural areas of Lucknow. For this study, ground water samples were collected from different sites of Lucknow and comprehensive physico-chemical analysis was conducted. The water samples were analysed for parameter such as TDS, chloride content, alkalinity etc. to check the status of ground water.

Biodegradation of Ammoniacal Nitrogen to Nitrite in an Industrial Effluent using Nitrosomonas species: First stage in Nitrification

V. S. R. K. Prasad, V. G. S. G. Siva Prasad, V. Sridevi1, K. G. Sudarsan

  • Abstract

    The present study involves the degradation of ammoniacal nitrogen using Nitrosomonas species as nitrifying bacteria in the first stage of nitrification process. The effects of various parameters such as an effluent medium ratio, pH, temperature and ammonium concentration on the nitrification process were studied with synthetic ammoniacal water as well as industrial effluent from a local steel plant. The maximum biodegradation rate was observed when the effluent is diluted to 50% with the medium, in the pH range of 8.3-8.8 and at the temperature of 30°C. Moreover, the study also reveals that the rate of biodegradation is same irrespective of the initial concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen in both synthetic and effluent samples. This study serves as a basis for the development of a cost effective biotreatment system for the removal of ammonium from industrial effluents 

Distribution, Bioconcentration and Potential Health Risks Associated with Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Oreochromis niloticus from Ero River in Nigeria

Olayinka Abidemi Ibigbami, AdemolaFestus Aiyesanmi, Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye, Albert Ojo Adebayo, Rex Dada Aladesanwa

  • Abstract

    The concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticide residues in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Oreochromis niloticus fish samples from Ero river were studied to determine the extent of bioaccumulation in the fish and potential health risk associated with the organochlorine pesticides. Fish samples were collected from the studied river and 15 rganochlorine pesticides were analysed. The concentration of OCPs in the fish ranged from BDL to 76.3μg/kg (β-BHC). The mean OCPs levels in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus ranged from BDL – 31.5 μg/kg whilst Oreochromis niloticus ranged from BDL – 28.4 μg/kg.The concentration level of all the 15 OCPs residues in the fish was belowthe residue limit of 200 μg/kg fresh weight in fish and seafood set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission by FAO/WHO. As evidence of bioaccumulation in the fish samples, the concentrations of OCPs in the fish samples were significantly higher than the water. The BCF value ranged from 0.22 (endosulfan II) to 12.8 (lindane). The estimated available daily intakes of OCPs and hazard index were used to assess thepotential risk of pesticides to children (1-11years) and adults. Endosulfan sulphate in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatuscould pose a potential hazard to children between ages 1-11years whilst the estimated dose of the remaining determined pesticides in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Oreochromis niloticus pose no direct health hazard on the peoples health.

Assessment of the Soil Pollution by Hydrocarbons of an Industrial Area in Madagascar

R.R. Andrianaivoravelona and P.H. Ravelonandro

  • Abstract

    A soil is a resource that constitutes a heritage to preserve. Its deterioration can be from the chemical origin like metals, persistent organic pollutants, etc., physical origin: erosion, desertification, etc. or biologic origin: decomposition of humus, organic matter loss, etc. The Malagasy legislation on the quality of soil requires, in a very strict manner, value thresholds of the contamination, particularly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs, in the natural and/or operational setting. The presence of PAHs in the soil is a danger: these compounds are toxic, very mobile, and persistent. Human health can be affected by the soil quality. The exposure of the organism can be direct, by ingestion or inhalation of soil dusts, or indirect, by ingestion of contaminated food. In this work, we studied and evaluated the soil pollution by the 16 PAHs of the US Environmental Protection Agency‟s (USEPA) of a particular industrial area in Madagascar during dry and rainy season. The average concentration values of individual PAH increased from 0.03 ± 0.005μg.kg-1, for acenaphtene, in rainy season to 59.786 ± 22.147 μg.kg-1 , for the  fluoranthene, in dry season. The diagnosis of the study zone shows the contamination of the soil by PAHs.